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JOURNAL 



or THE 



AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY. 



SIXTEENTH VOLUME. 



t 



NKW HAVEN: 
FOR THE AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY, 

Printed by Tuttlc, MoreliuiiKc & Tiiylor, Prlntert to Yale University. 

MPCM'CXCVl. 



280892 



• • •• 

• • : 

• • • ' 

• • < 



•• 



• • • • 



•. • 



■ • • 






• • • 






r 



CONTENTS 

OF 

SIXTEENTH VOLUME 



Page 

Abt. L — Contributions to thb Interpektation op the Veda, Series 6. 
Bj Maurice Bloohfield, Professor in Johns Hopkins University, 
BalUmoro, Md 1 

Art. II. — The Story of El-'Abbas Ibn Kl-Ahnaf and his fortunate 
Verses. By Charles C. Torret, Ph.D., Instructor in Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary 43 

Art. III. — A Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar. By Dr. Alfred B. Mol- 

denke, New York City 71 

Art. IV. — The Jaiminita or Talavakara Upani^ad Brahmana: Text, 
Translation, and Notea By Hanns Oertel, Ph.D., Instnictor in 
Yale University 79 

Art. V. — Ibrahim of Mosul: A Study in Arabic Literary Tradition. 
By Frank D. Chester, Ph.D., Assistant in Semitic Languages in 
Harvard University 261 

Art. VI. — Numerical Formula in the Veda and their bearing on 
Vedic Criticism. By Edward W. Hopkins, Professor in Bryn 
Mawr College, BrynMawr, Pa 276 

Art. VII. — EitIb al-Matar of al-An$ar!: edited with Notes. By R. J. 

H. Gotthbil, Ph.D., Professor in Columbia College, New York, N. Y. 282 



Appendix : p,^ 

Proceedings at Boston and Cambridge, Apr. 6-8, '93 • i 

Proceedings at New York, March 29-31, 1894 xHx 

Proceedings at Philadelphia, December 27-29, 1894 oxli 

Program of the Congress of Philologists of the last Darned date exov 

Proceedings at New Haven, April 18-19, 1895 ociii 

Additions to Library, March, 1 893-March, 1896 oclv 

List pf Members, 1805 cclxxv 




IV 



Oommanicatioiui (in alphabetical order of authon). 

[This table includes not only the papers in the Proceedings, but also 
the articles in the Journal proper. The latter are distinguished from the 
former by having their titles in small capitals and their reference- 
pages in Arabic numerals.] 

P«ge 
Adleb, C, Plaster casts at Washington of sculptures and inscriptions at 

Persepolis cxvi 

Barton, G. A., Sacrifices ^^3 and ^^3 D^C *° ^^ Marseilles 

inscription Ixvii 

Semitic notes cxciii 

Bloomfield, M., Contributions to the Interpretation' op the Veda, 

Series 6 1 

On rt^'dndh^ R V. i. 32. 6, with a note on haplology xxxii 

Etymolojfy of ulokd xxxv 

Trita, the scape-goat of the gods cxix 

Vedic words in -gva and -^tn cxxiii 

Two problems in Sanskrit grammar ( 1 . instrumentals in -na ; 2. 

vowel-groups flr, wr, and Ir^ ir) clvi 

Brinton, D. 6., Physiological correlations of certain linguistic radicals cxxxiii 

Gasanowicz, I. M., Non- Jewish religious ceremonies in the Talmud .. Ixxvi 

The emphatic particle ^ in the Old Testament dxvi 

Chester, F. D., Ibrahim op Mosul: a Study in Arabic Literary 

Tradition 261 

Kariy Moslem promissory notes xliii 

Davis, J. D., The gods of Shirpurla ccxiii 

Fay, B. W., Pari9iBta8 of the Atharva- Veda xxx 

Some epithets of Agni (N^ra-9di!Lsa, Matari^van, TinQ-ndpat) clxxii 

A vestan hizva in Sanskrit ccxxviii 

Rig- Veda x. 73, with translation and comments ccxxix 

GOTTHEiL, R , KiTAB al-Matar OP al-An^Ir! : edited with Notes . . . 282 

The language of the Sinjirli inscriptions cxcii 

Gracey, J. T., Chinese anti-foreign riots of 1892-93 cxxxiy 

kALL, I. H., Greek inscription from the Lebanon cxv 

.^- A dated Greek inscription from Tripoli, Syria ccxzvi 

HAtZFT, P., New critical edition of the Hebrew text of the Old Testa- 

"i ment vii 

^— llodern reproduction of the eleventh tablet of the Babylonian Nim- 

jod epic, and a new fragment of the Chaldean account of tte 

Deluge ix 

— > Transitive and intransitive verbs in Semitic ,.. ci 

Origin of the Pentateuch -.... cii 

Rivers of Paradise ciii 

The Chaldean Flood-tablet c? and cxxxix 



Pa^e 

Hopkins, E. W., Numerical Formuljs in the Veda and their bear- 
ing ox Veiao Criticism '. 275 

Hindu Calyinism czviii 

Notes on Dyaus, Vis^iu, Varuijta, and Rudra cxlv 

The real Indra of the Rig-Veda ccxxxvi 

Theories of sacrifice as applied to the Rig- Veda ccxxxix 

Hyvernat, \l.. Description of a collection of Arabic, Coptic, and Car- 

shooni MSS. belonging to Dr. Adler clxiii 

Jackson, A. V. W., Doctrine of the resurrection among the Ancient 

Persians xxxviii 

Sanskrit-Ayestan notes xxxix 

Notes on Zoroaster and the Avesta cxxv* 

The Sanskrit root manih, math in Avestan civ 

The question of the date of Zoroaster ccxxvii 

The Sanskrit root fncUh in Avestan ccxxviii 

Jasi'BOW, M., Jr., A new fragment of the Babylonian Etana-Iegend cxcii 

Note on the term Mu§annltum cxcii 

Lanman, C. R., Emendation of Katha-sarit-silgara iii. 37 xxxi 

Incident in the life of F4-hien cxxxv 

The King of Siam's edition of the Buddhist Scriptures ccxliv 

The Harvard copy of the first Sanskrit book ever printed ccliii 

Lyon, D. G., Phoenician glass-ware at Cambridge xlviii 

Macdonald, D. B., Semitic manuscripts at Hartford Ixix 

The BQlaq edition of the Jamhara AshTir al-*Arab, with an exami- 
nation into the origin and sources of the collection clxxv 

Mabtin, W. a. p., Chinese anticipations of certain ideas of modem 

science ocx 

IfOLDENKi-:. A. B., A Cylinder op Nebuchadnezzar 71 

More, P. K., Influences of Hindu thought on Manichaeism xx 

Oertel, H., The Jaiminiya or Talayakara Upani^ad Brahmana: 

Text, Translation, and Notes. 79 

Announcement of an edition of the Jaiminiya-UpanisadBnlhma^a xix 

On a catalogue of the Sanskrit part of the Society's lil)rary cxvii 

The legend of Indra's visit to MedhAtithi ccxl 

Klemm's edition of the SadviAga-brahma^a ccxli 

— Emendations to the Jaiminlya-Upanisad-Brahmai^a (sent in part by 

Bohtlingk and in part by Roth) ccxlii 

PUNCE, J. D., The syntax of the Assyrian preposition ina ccx;riii 

Rambay, F. p., The twenty-third psalm, an essay on Hebrew verse ... czoiii 

The phrase-theory of Hebrew poetry otizzvi 

Reisnbb,. G. a., Plural with pronominal suffixes in Assyrian and 

Hebrew xxvi 

TolmaNi B. C, Independent particle su in the Rig- Veda xli 

ToBRET, 0. C, The Story of El-' Abbas Ibn El-Ahnaf and his 

FonnniATE Verses 43 

Ward, W. H., Some Hittite seal cylinders ozzlz 

Royal (^Knder of Bumaburtash czzzi 

ClaHsification of oriental cylinders i. czzziii 



VI 

Pace 

Warren, H. C, The so-called Chain of Causation of tho Buddhists xxvii 

Report of progress of work upon Buddhaghosa's V isuddhimagga . . Ixvi 

Webb, B., Hindu musical modes and tunes cxii 

Whitney, W. D., On recent studies in Hindu Grammar xii 

Jacobi and Tilak on the age of the Veda Ixxxii 

The third volume of Eggeling's translation of the ^tapatha-Brilh- 

ma^a xcv 

On the identity of soma with the moon - xcix 

WiNSLOW, W. C, A palm-leaf column from A hnas xlvii 



^ 



« 9 I 



ARTICLE 1. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE VEDA -: 

By MAURICE BLOOMFIELD. 

PHOKI-XSOil IN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVRK8ITV, BALTIMOKB, MD. 



Prosentetl to the S<xiioty April, 1892. 



I. The Legend of Soma and the Eagle. 

The legend of the rape of the heavenly drink, the Soma, is 
one of tlie most valued themes of the Vedic poets and the story- 
tellers of the Brfihmanas. The event is constantly alluded to, 
and not infrequently narrated in full. The earliest version of the 
legend in manira-ioxva is given at RV. iv. 26 and 27, and the inter- 
pretation of these two hymns has engaged the interest of Vedic 
scholars from very early times. Especially iv. 27 contains evi- 
dently the most complete and rounded statement of the event in 
cjuestion, and many are the attempts which have been made to 
elucidate this difficult hymn. The correct interpretation of the 
hymn seems to have been lost among the Hindus themselves 
at a very ejirly time, since the A A. ii. 5. 13 ff. places the first 
Ht-anza in the mouth of its reputed author, Vfimadeva, who thus 
liecomes himself the efigle, and is supposed to have discovered 
all the races of the gods. This view of the hymn is adopted 
from the AA. by Sayana, and he therefore has nothing to offer 
which we may employ in establishing the general character 
of the myth. Adalbert Kuhn, in his famous book, Die Ilernlh 
kanft (let* Feuers uud (Jes Gottertrauhea^ ]». 146, supposes that 
Indra, having Iwen confined in the bosom of the clouds, assumes 
the form of an eagle, and brings the Soma to mortals, after hav- 
ing overcome Tvastar, or some other hostile divinity. Ludwig, 
in his translation, ii. 592 ff., and in his commentary, v. 467 ff., 
does not present a systematic interpretation of the hymn from 



* This is the fifth of tlie series lx?aring this title : as to the first three, 
see this JoumaU vol. xv., pp. 143 ff.: the fourth appi^arod in the Amer, 
Jojtrn. Phifol. xii. 414-443. 

VOL. XVI. 1 



.-. %. 



« « 



• • • 
•• • 

• '. • 

• ••- • 



2 •• :•. •: M, Bloomjidd, 






Jili&'^6int of view of its mythological character. On p. 468 of 
• t'K^''coramentary, he considers Soma as the speaker in the first 
dfanza of iv. 2 7, and this characterizes his conception of the 
situation. Grassraann, in his translation, i. 134 ff., coiTectly puts 
the first stanza into the mouth of the eagle, the succeeding 
stanzas being spoken by Soma. While this is correct, Grassmann 
does not make any attempt to state who the eagle really was, and 
how the eagle and the Soma came into such close relation as to 
justify a dialogue between them. By dint of emending nW 
adlyam in st. 1 to mr adlyat^ as well as by certain other changes 
in the text. Roth has reconstructed and translated the hymn in 
Z.D.M.G. xxxvi. 353 ff.* In his opinion, Soma in a monologue 
describes how the eagle came to carry him away, and how he 
succeeded in performing this undertaking. Roth also does not 
attempt to explain the myth. His method of dealing with the 
hymn was criticised by Bergaigne, JReligion Vedlqia,, iii. 322 ff. 
Ihe latter regards Soma as the speaker in stanza 1, and thinks 
that Soma himself, taking the form of an eagle, flies forth (cf. 
especially p. 325). Another explanation, too complicated for dis- 
cussion in this connection, is that of Koulikovski in the Revue 
de Linguistique^ xviii. 1 ff. Both Bergaigne's and Koulikovski's 
views are criticized bj- Eggeling in the introduction to the second 
volume of his translation of the ^atapatha-Brnhmana, Sacred 
Books of the East^ xxvi., j). xx ff. Pischel, in Pischel and Geldner's 

Vedlsche Studien, i. 206 ff., has advanced an explanation of the 
hymn which introduces Indra, the eagle, and Soma as the 
dramatis perso?i(e, without attempting any naturalistic explana- 
tion of the eagle. According to Pischel, the first half of st. 
1 is spoken by Indra ; the second half by the eagle ; the first 
half of St. 2 by Soma ; the remainder of the hymn is nar- 
rated by the poet. Certain points in Pischel's exposition of the 
hymn have been criticized by Ludwig in his essay Cber Methode 
hei Interpretation des Riff- Veda^ pj). 30, 66 ; he does not, how- 
ever, substitute any distinct view of the hymn in the place of 
his own former translation, or of the interpretation advanced by 
his predecessors. Further, Hillebrandt in his recent book, 

Vedisc/ie Mythologie (Erster Band), Soma tuid verwandte Got- 
ter, pj). 277 ff., has defended anew Roth's emendation, and has 
^dded points of view in supi)ort of his interpretation. He, how- 
eVer, also fails to show who the eagle is, and wherein is to be 
found the naturalistic basis for the entire myth. Finally, Reg- 
naud in a still more recent volume, entitled Xe Rif/- Veda et les 
origines de la mythologie indo-europeenne^ pp. 298 ff., has sub- 
jected many of his predecessors to a most radical criticism, 
dominated by his own peculiar views, and he has not failed to 
add his own translation of RV. iv. 26 and 27. 



* Hillebrandt, in his Veda chrestomathy, p. 25, adopts ttiost of Roth's 
suggestions, and accordingly he has taken nir adiyat into the text, 
instead of nir adtyam of the M8S. 



Th^ Legend of Soi/ia and the Koijh. 3 

My own treatment of the legend, undertaken somewhat shame- 
facedly after so many painstaking efforts on the part of my prede- 
cessors, is justified by a greater sympathy for the versions of the 
story, and the allusions made to it, in the entire literature, as far 
as it was accessible to me. Certainly all former attempts are 
deficient on the very face of them, because they do not pay due 
regard to the later forms of the legend. They do not endeavor 
to show how the versions of the Brahmanas, which in the most 
familiar manner substitute the gdifatri-vcL^Xx^ in the place of the 
eagle, could have arisen upon the basis of the form of the legend 
in the mantras. I shall endeavor to show that the (jayatrl is the 
mystic sacerdotal name of Agni, the heavenly Agni (the light- 
ning), who is the eagle. The legend contains the description of 
the flight forth of the lightning from the womb of the cloud ; 
as the lightning shoots from the cloud, the heavenly fluid, the 
Soma, streams down upon the earth. The individual points of 
the myth will appear in greater detail in the course of this expo- 
sition. 

He who undertakes to interpret the three stanzas which make 
up AV. vi. 48 must certainly grope in the dark without a knowl- 
edije of the ritualistic literature. The case is somewhat similar 
to that of AV. vi. 80 :* practices and legends are at the back of 
the stanzas ; they are in fact not proper Atharv an -verses, but 
evidently belong to the same class as a host of formulas in the 
Y2^\\\^'Samhitd8y and their employment as such in the Atharvan 
ritual will appear very clearly. The stanzas are : 1. ^yend ^si 
ffdi/atrdchandCi miu tn4 rabhe: snastt nid sdm vahii \si/d yajftdayo 
''dr'ct sodhd, 2. rbhur asl jdgacchandd d?iu tvi1 rabhe: svastt etc, 
3. vr'ftd '^/ tristf'/pchandd dnu tv^i rabhe : svastt etc. 

The passage may be translated : I. * Thou art the eagle, thy 
metre is the gfiyatri, thee I take hold of ; carry me prosperously 
to the completion of this sacrifice. 2. Thou art a Rbhu, thy 
metre is the jagati, thee I take hold of, etc. 3. Thou art a bull, 
thy metre is the tristubh, thee I take hold of, etc' 

The style of the passage and the expression yajfidsya udr'c 
(cf. VS. iv. 9, 10 ; <?B. iii. 1. 1. 12 ; xiv. 1. 1. 4 ; A^S. iv. 2.*8) 
point to the pn/w^a- ceremonial for its explanation. Accordingly 
passages which correspond more or less closely occur extensively 
in the pww/a-literature. Thus, at TS. iii. 2. 1. 1. we have : ^yerlb 
^si gdyatrdchandd dnu tvd '^Wabhe scasi't ma sdni pdraya; suparnd 
^si trifttCipchandd dnu, etc./ sdghd ^si jdgatlcharidd anu, etc. The 
passage is quoted with tlie words ^yeno ^sl gdyatrachanddh in 
Ap. ()y. xii. 17. 15. At ^B. xii. 3. 4. 3-5 ; K^S. xiii. 1. 11, we 
have the same formulas with the variant rbhur asi for saghd ^si 
in the third. At GB. i. 5. 12-14 the same formulas with samrdd 
asi for stijMirno *8iy and svaro ^si gayo ^si (like PB. below) for 



♦Cf. Contributions, Third Series, J.A.O.S. xv. 168 ff. 



4 M. BliHnnfield^ 

saghd W. At ^^S. vi. 8. 10-12, we have: ^yeno 'si patvd gdya- 
trachandd ana tvd ^^rahhe soasti md sarn pdrayd ^sya yajnnsyo 
^ dream ; mparno 'si patvd tristupchanddh ; sakhd '*8l patod 
jagacchanddh. At PB. i. 3. 8 ; 5. 12, 15 we have: ^yeno 'si 
gdyatrachandd anu tvd ^^rabhe, etc. ; vrsako 'si tristupchanddh^ 
etc. ; svaro 'si gayo 'si iagacchanddhy etc. : cf . also L^S. i. 1 2. 
18 ; ii. 1. 6. ; 6. 6.* All these texts, excepting the TS., state dis- 
tinctly that the three formulas were employed respectively at«the 
three daily pressures of the Soma; and accordingly the Atharvan 
hymn in Question (vi. 48) is employed in the Vfiit. Su. 17. 10; 
21. 7 on the same occasions: stanza 1 at the prdtah-savana ; 
St. 3 at the mddhyarhdina ; st. 2 at the trtlya-savana. This 
accords perfectly with ^B. iv. 2. 5. 20 : gdyatrl vdi prdta/tsa- 
vanam va/Mti, tristum mddhyamdina^h savanam, jagatl trtlya- 
savanam. Very much the same statements occur at TS. ii. 2. 9. 
5, 6 ; TB. i. 8. 8. 3 ; ^B. iv. 3. 2. 9 ; AB. iii. 12. 3-5 ; PB. vi. 3. 
11 ; Vuit. 19. 16, 17 ; ^^^S. xiii. 5. 4-6 ; xiv. 33. 7, 10, 13 ; K^S. 
XXV. 14. 16, 17 ; Chfmd. Up. iii. 16. 1, 3, 5 ; Sayana to RV. i. 
104. 23 ; Agnisvfimin to Ly'S. ii. 5. 6, and elsewhere.f Further- 
more, this distribution of the metres among the three soma-pres- 
sures is the fundamental and prevailing one in the hymns of the 
RV., as was shown by Bergaigno in nis posthumous Recherches 
sur Vhistotre de la liturgie F'^rf/^wc, printed in vol. xiii. (1889) 
of the Journal Asiatique: see especially chapter iv., p. 166 ff. 

The second stanza of our hymn, that which is employed at the 
trtlyasavanay is addressed to the Rbhus, who are sharers in it 
with Indra at all periods of early ritualistic practice.^ Thus the 
scholiast at K^S. xxii. 6. 4 : drbhavam iti trtlyasavanapavamd- 
nam ucyate ' the pavamdna stotra at the third pressure is said 
to belong to the Rbhus.' Similarly the scholiast at ^B. x. 1. 2. 7 : 



* The connoction of the eagle and the gAyatrl'Vaetre appears also at 
V8. xii. 4 : s^iparno *si gamtmMs trit^t te j'iro giiyatraih cak$uJj, etc. 

f The onipjlovmont of the entire hj'mn at Kaug. 56. 4 ; 59. 27 is more 
AiHxmdary ; it is reciteil at the initiation of the braJimacdrin and at the 
ciMisei^nition for the Soma-sacrifice {dik^n). See especially 59. 27 : . . . 
diksitasya rvl bnthmacdriiw vd dancjlapradClnam. This employment is 
probably due to the occurrence in the nymn of designations of metres, 
m who8t> pn>tection the i)erson al>out to be consecrated is placed. At 
the n\jiis(iyn, also a ceremony of consecration, the king is commended 
to the care of the metres : see TS. i. 8. 18. 1 ; VS. x. 10-14 ; CB. v. 4. 
1. 3ff. 

X I would not |>as8 without notice the frequent connection in the 
ritual of the Aditvas and Surya with the evening pressure : see e. g. 
(;B. xii. 3. 4. I ; Gk i, 4. 7. 8 : 5. 11 ; Ap. <>. xiii. 11. 1 : (^<^. xiv. 8^. 
14: AB, ii. 32. 1; Nirukta vii. 10: cf. Bergaigne. 1. c. p. 171. The 
jtigtitl metre elsewhere abo is associated with the Adityas and the sun : 
e. g. (^B. X. 8. 3. 6 ; TA. iv. 6. 1. At PB. i. 5. 15, where the formula is 
svaro \*i gayo ^si jagacchanda^^ etc., the ciwimentator also ascribes 
the ceremony to Si^rva: he fii^atxipaniHififi<i6Atrii(inin mftrya iratii 
jiigticvhandd^, Simifarly the Rudnui, Indra*s companions, arc fre- 
quentlv ns8i>ciated witli the noon i>re«(sure and the tri^^t^ibh^ e. g. Ap. 
^. xiii. 2, 8 : xiv. 2lK 7. 



The Legend irf Soract atul the EayU, 5 

trtlyasavane saptadaQostotriydtmakah drbhavah pavarnanah. 
(jf. also A^S. V. 17. 1 if . ; GB. ii. 2. 22. This is represented in 
the RV. by passages like RV. iv. 35. 7, prtUah sutdm ajnbo 
harya^va ni<idhyamdinaih sdvafuim kevalam te*: sdm rhhtihhih 
pibasva ratiiadhehhih sdkhlnr ydji indra cakrse sukrtyd * in the 
morning you drank the pressed drink, O you with the bay steeds; 
the noon-tide pressing is exclusively yours ; drink (in the even- 
ing) with the Rbhus, the bestowers of treasure, whom you have 
made your friends because of their skilful deeds ;'f RV. iv. 34. 4, 
pihata vdjd rhhavQ dade vo mdhi trtiyam sdoanam mdddya ; 
RV. iv. 33. 11, te nundtn asme rbhavo vdsuni trtiye asmm 
sdvane dadhdta. So also RV. iv. 34. 5 ; TS. iii. 1. 9. 2 : cf. Lud- 
wig, Jiiy Veda, iiu 384; Bergaigne 1. c. pp. 11 and 168. We 
have therefore for the second stanza of the hymn the following 
obvious conditions : it is recited at the trtlyasavanay it is 
addressed to the Rbhus, and the Rbhus are connected with the 
jagatl-mctre because the jayatlrxnetre is the prominent metre of 
the evening-pressures (cf. GB. ii. 4. 16, 18). J The third stanza 
of AV. vi. 48 is employed at the noon-tide pressure, the mddh- 
i/amdina. This, as is distinctly stated at RV. iv. 35. 7 (see above), 
belongs to Indra especially : see also iii. 32. 1 ; v. 40. 4 ; vi. 47. 
6 ; viii. 13. 13 ; 37. 1 ; x. 179. 3 ; VS. xix. 26. The Brahmanas and 
Sutras frequently present the same statement : e. g. ^B. ii. 4. 4. 
12 ; AB. ii. 32. 1 ; GB. ii. 2. 21. The appearance of the Rudras 
at the mddhyarhdina, e. g. (^li, xii. 3. 4. 1 ; GB. i. 4. 7, 8 ; 5. 1 1 ; 
^9^. xiv. 33. 11 (cf. VS. xxiii. 8), is founded upon early concep- 
tions which assume their companionship with Indra ; see e. g. m 
RV. iii. 32. 3, mddhyamdine sdvane vajrahasta pibif rudrebKih 
sdganah su^ipra. That the tristubh is the metre of Indra is 
stated distinctljr at RV. x. 130. 5 ; TS. i. 8. 13. I ; vii. 1. 1. 4 ; 
2. 6. 3 ; VS. viii. 47 ; ix. 33 ; xxix. 60 ; MS. iii. 7. 3 ; Kath. 
xxiii. 10 ; ^B. ix. 4. 3. 7 ; 5. 1. 33 ; x. 3. 2. 5 ; TA. iv. 6. 1 ; KB. 
iii. 2. Moreover, at TS. vi. 1. 6. 2 ; 9^- iv. 3. 2. 8 we have the 
explicit statement that the tristubh is the metre of the noon- 
pressure, and at Nir. vii. 10 Indra is mentioned along with these. 
« 

* Cf . QB. iv. 3. 3. 6. 

+ Or along with their good deeds '? 

X It is of no mean interest to find the stanza AV. vi. 48. 2, which 
deals with the tftiyasavana, in the middle between those of the j^ratah- 
savana and the madhyathdina. The Vait. (17. 10) refuses to take them 
in this order, and the parallel versions cited on pp. 3, 4 present the stanza 
which contains the divinity of the jngatt-metTe in the third, not in 
the second place. I make no doubt that the fault is with the diaskeu- 
asts of the ^aunaka-version of the AV. : the critical Atharvan edition 
of the future will follow the manifestly sensible arran^^^ement of the 
stanzas as given in the Vait., TS., etc. Tlie case is especially calculated 
to prove that independent criticism may be brought to Dear on the 
traditional arrangement of stanzas in Vedic hymns ; it shows also 
once more the inseparable relation between the hymns and the ritual. 
and the futility of carrying on the study of either without the aid of 
the other. In this instance, certainly, the ritualistic tradition is better, 
and reaches behind that of the Saiiihita. 



6 3/. Bloomjield^ 

The third stanza of our hymn thus presents the following con- 
ditions : it is recited at the noon-tide pressure, it is addressed to 
Indra under the thin disguise of his epithet vr'san* * bull,' and it 
is connected with the trlstubh^ the prevailing metre of the mid- 
day pressure : cf. Weber, lad. Stud. viii. 52 ff.; Bergaigne, 1. c. 
p. 166 ff., 196. 

We have thus shown that stanzas 2 and 3 are invocations 
respectively to the Rbhus at the evening pressure, and to Indra 
at the mid-day pressure. In order to render clear the divinity 
which is invoked in stanza 1 by the name of ^yeaa * eagle,' we 
must go further afield. In the Bruhmanas the legend of Soma 
and the eagle appears very consistently in a version which sub- 
stitutes the (jayatri for the eagle. The story is told or alluded to 
innumerable times in texts of this sort. Thus, it is treated at 
AB. iii. 25-27 as follows : 

* King Soma, you know, lived in yonder world (in heaven). 
In reference to him the gods and the Rsis deliberated : " How 
might this King Soma come to us ?" They said to the metres : 
"Do ye bring to us this kin^ Soma." "All right" (said they). 
They, transforming themselves into birds, flew up. Because 
they, transforming themselves into birds (saparnijC)^ flew up, the 
knowers of legends designate (this event) as the bird-legend 
{aduparna). The metres then went to king Soma. . . The 
jaf/atl . . . flew up first. In flying up, she became tired after 
having gone half way. . . . Then the tristubh flew up. In flying 
up, after having gone more than half way, she became tired. . . . 
The gods said to the gayatrl: "Do you fetch king Soma." 
"All right " (said she); "do ye pronounce over me the entire 
charm for procuring a safe journey." " All right " (said they). 
She flew up. The gods recited over her the entire formula for 
procuring a safe journey: '^pra, ca, ca ; in perfect safety he 
goes ; in safety he comes back ". . . . She, flying, frightened the 
guardians of the Soma, and with her feet and bill seized king 

Soma Kr9rinu, a guardian of the Soma, discharging (an 

arrow) after her, cut off a talon of her left foot What (the 

gdyatrl) seized with her right foot, that became the morning 

pressure (prdtahsdvana) What she seized with her left foot 

became the noon pressure (inddhymhdinath sava?iam). . . . What 
she seized became the third pressure {trtiyam aavanam). . . .' 

This form of the legend is alluded to familiarly in various 
places, at times with distinct mention of the identity of the 
eagle (^yena) and the gdyatrl. Thus, at 9^- i- 8. 2. 10, tad iml 
kauisthaih chandaJi sad gdyatrl prathanid cha7idasdm yujyate 
tad *t tad vlryendi 'va yac chyeno bhutvd divah somain dbharat 
* Though the smallest metre, the gdyatrl is employed first of the 

*V\Haka at PB. i. 5. 12; LCS. ii. 1. 5. The coramentator at PB. 
glosses the word by indraJi, as aoes also Saya^a at AV. vi. 48. 3. 



The Legend of Soma and the Ea<jU. 7 

metres ; and this on account of her strength, since, having trans- 
formed herself into an eagle, she brought the Soma from heaven;' 
QB. iii. 4. 1. 12, fyendya tvii somahhrte visnave tve ^ti* tad 
fjayatrim anvdhhajati sd yad gdyatr't ^yerio hhfitvd divah sornam 
dharat tena sd ^yenah somahhrt * In uttering the formula : 
"Thee for the Soma-bearing eagle ! thee for Visnu !" thereby 
he assigns to the gdyatri her share. Because the gdyatr\ having 
become an eagle, carried off Soma from heaven, therefore she is 
the Soma-bearing eagle.' Similarly iii. 9. 4. 10, ^yendya tvd 
somabhrta itiy tad gdyatrydi mhmte *'gnaye tvd rayaspomda iiy 
agnir vdi gdyatri tad gdyatrydi fnimlfe sa yad gdyatr't gyeno 
bhvtnd divah somam dharat tena sa ^yenah somahhrt * " Thee for 
the Soma-bearing eagle !" this he measures out for the gdyatr't, 
"Thee for Agni, the bestower of growth of wealth !" Now Agni 
is the gdyatri ; he measures this out for the gdyatr't. And since the 
gdyatri^ having turned eagle, fetched Soma from heaven, therefore 
she is the Soma-bearing eagle.' This i)assage is of especial inter- 
est as it mentions Agni distinctly as equal to the gdyatri and the 
eagle ; it contains in itself, as we shall see, the key to the entire 
legend. At ^B. iv. 3. 2. 7 we have: * In the beginning the metres 
consisted of four syllables. Then the jagat'i flew up for Soma, 
and came back leaving three syllables. Then the tristnhh flew 
up for Soma, and came back leaving behind one syllable. Then 
the gdyatri flew up for Soma, and she came back bringing with 
her those syllables as well as Soma.' Very similar to the last 
is the allusion to the legend at PB. viii. 4. 1-i ; ix. 5. 4. At ^B. 
i. 7. 1. 1 we have : yatra vdi gdyatri so^nam achd '^patat tad asyd 
dharantyd apdd astd ^bhydyatya parvani pracicheda gdyatrydi 
vd soinasya vd rdjflaa tat patitnd parno ^bhavat * When the 
gdyatri flew towards Soma, a footless^archer, aiming at her while 
she was carrying him off, severed one of the feathers (parna) 
either of the gdyatri or of king Soma ; this falling down became 
a />arwa- tree.' Cf. also Mahidhara to VS. i. 1. very similar is 
TS. iii'. 5. 7. 1 (cf. also TB. i. 1. 3. 10 ; 2. 1. 6 ; 4. 7. 5 ; iii. 2. 1. 1); 
trtlyasydm ito divi soma ds'tt^ tamgdyatry d ^harat^ tasya parnam 
achidyaia^ tat parno *bhavat *In the third heaven from here 
dwelt Soma ; him the gdyatri stole. Of him a feather (parna) 
was cut off ; that became a parna-tree.^ And at ^B. xi. 7. 2. 8, 
divi vdi soma dslt tarn gdyatri vayo bhiXtvd ^''harat. Also PB. 
ix 6. 4 tells the story in a condensed form. And in Ap. (^r. i. 
6. R we have the statement tritlyasydi divo gdyatriyd soma 
dbhrtah. 

The same dkhydna within a different frame is told at TS. vi. 
I. 6. 1 ff . : * Kadru and Suparni fought for their own persons. 
Kadru overcame Suparni. She (Kadiii) said : " In the third 
heaven from here is Soma ; steal him and ransom yourself with 
him.'* Kadrti is this (earth), Suparni yonder (heaven) ; the 



X Cf . also TS. i. 2. 10. 1 : MS. i. 2. 6 ; 3. 3. 



8 M, Blomnfiddj 

metres are the children of Suparni. She (Suparni) said (to the 
metres) : " For this parents bring up children. Kadru has told 
me : * In the third heaven from here is Soma ; steal him and 
ransom yourself with him.' " The jagatly consisting of fourteen 
syllables, flew up; she returned without having obtained him; of 
her two syllables were wanting. . . The tristuhhy consisting of 
thirteen syllables, flew up ; she returned without having obtained 
him; of her two syllables were wanting. . . The gayatri^ consist- 
ing of four syllables, flew up; . . . she took the Soma and the 
four syllables (lost by the others). She became octosyllabic' 
At MS. iii. 7. 3 there is another version of the same story : 
* Kadru is this (earth) ; Suparni is Vak (the voice) ; the metres 
gdgatrly tristubh, and jagatt are the children of Suparni. Kadru 
conquered Suparni, her person ; she said : " Bring the Soma ; 
with him ransom yourself." She (Suparni) sent the metres, say- 
ing : " Bring the Soma from yonder (heaven) ; with him ransom 
me." Then the jagat't flew up ; she came with the cattle and the 
dlksd, . . Then the tristubh flew up ; she came with the daksirid 
and tapas, . . Then the gdyatrl flew up ; she brought the Soma.' 
... A version which contains the leading features of the TS. 
and MS. occurs at Kfith. xxiii. 10 (cf. Kap. S. xxxvii. 1) ; it is 
reported by Weber, Ind, JStud. viii. 31 ff. Shorter versions of 
the story in this form occur also at (^B. iii. 6. 2. 2 ff. and iii. 2. 
4. 1 ff. This version is at the base also of the later forms of the 
legend, as presented by the Suparnfikhyana, edited by E. Grube 
in the Ind. Stud. xiv. 1-31; Mahabharata i. 1073 ff.; Ramfiyana 
iii. 162 ff., etc. 

That the identification of the gdyatri with the eagle does not 
belong to the ephemeral clap-trap of the Brahmanas is very evi- 
dent from the cumulative force of this testimony. There can be 
no doubt that we have here a version of the Suparnfikhyana 
which passed current in these texts because it was to all intents 
and purposes the original legend. To our knowledge there is in 
fact in the Brahmanas but one attempt — secondary on the very 
face of it — to substitute another personage for the eagle. It is 
the version of Kath. xxxvii. 14, reported by Weber, Ind, Stud, 
iii. 466 : * The gods and the Asuras were engaged in strife ; the 
amrta was at that time with the Asuras, with the demon ^usna. 
^usna, namely, carried it in his mouth! Those of the gods who 
died, they remained just so ; those of the Asuras (who died) 
^usna breathed upon with the amrta ; they revived. Indra per- 
ceived : ** With the Asuras, with the demon ^^uana, is the amrtaP 
He, having changed himself into a lump of honey, lay upon 
the way ; this ^usna swallowed, and Indra, changing into an 
eagle, snatched the amrta ixova his mouth. Hence this one is 
the strongest of birds, for he is one form of Indra.' But the 
evidence of the mantras themselves does not admit of the iden- 
tification of the eagle with Indra in the original version of our 
legend. For the eagle constantly brings the Soma to Indra ; 
thus RV. iii. 43. 7, hidrn jyiha vfsadhrttasya vfsija <1 yam te 



The Legend of Soma and the Eagle. 9 

gyend u^ate jahhdra. Or RV. i. 80. 2, sd tvd ^madad vr'sCi mddah 
sdmah Qyendbhrtah sutdh : yena vrtrdm nvr adhhyd jaghdiUha. 
At iv. 18. 13, Indra himself acknowledges that the eagle brought 
the Soma to him : ddha me ^yend mddhv d jabhdra : cf . also 
the passages below, p. 14. The last legend can therefore be 
nothing more than one of those secondary tentative starts of the 
storv upon a new line of development which lie in the nature 
of these plastic materials ; this frequently obscures the true view 
of a legend much more seriously than is the case in this instance. 
In this instance the close relation in general which exists between 
Indra and Soma, combined with the constantly vaunted warlike 

Erowess of the former, renders it a priori likely that the honor of 
aving captured the Soma — which he is constantly drinking — 
should also be ascribed to Indra. Thus may have resulted the 
sporadic identification of Indra also with the eagle which is per- 
haps faintly supported even in the RV. by such a passage as x. 99. 
8 : cf. Bergaigne, 1. c. ii. 174. I have dwelt upon this form of 
the legend with some emphasis, because Kuhn, Herahkunft des 
Fhuersy p. 146, bases upon it the entire interpretation of the 
myth, leaving out of sight the fact that in this story the amrta 
and not the Soma is captured by Indra, there being no direct 
mention of Soma at all. 

In stanza 2 of AY. vi. 48 we have the Rbhus, whose metre is 
the jagcUi, addressed at the evening-pressure ; in st. 3, Indra, 
whose metre is the tristuhhy addressed at the noon-pressure. 
Who then is the eagle or the gCiyatrl addressed at the morning 
pressure? The texts themselves permit of no doubt. At 9^- 
iii. 9. 4. 10 we have the distinct statement that Agni is the 
gdyatrl^ and that the gdyatrl changed into the eagle. The iden- 
tification of Agni and the gdyatrl extends through the entire 
mantra and brdhmana literature. Thus the statement agiier 
gdyatry abhavat occurs at RV. x. 130. 4; the expression gdyatrl vd 
agnih occurs at ^B. i. 8. 2. 13 ; gdyatro vd agnih at KB. iii. 2 ; 
gdydtro 'gnih at MS. i. 6. 8 (99.4) ; i. 7. 4 (113.7) *; i. 9. 5 (136.4) ; 
VS. xxix. 60* ; ^B. vi. 1. 3. 19 ; 2. 1. 22 ; ix. 4. 3. 6 ; TS. ii. 2. 5. 
5 ; iii. 5. 4. 4 ; vii. 5. 14. 1 ; TB. i. 1. 5. 3 ;* 6. I. 11 ; LgS. iii. 
12. 3 ; KB. L 1 ; iii. 2 ; agnir vdi gdyatrl at QB. iii. 4. 1. 9 ; the 
statement gdyatram agne^ chandah, or something similar, at MS. 
i. 6. 10 (102. 3) ; ii. 8. II (115. 9)'; ^B. ii. 2. 1. 17 ; AB. i. 1. 
8 ; iv. 29. I ; A^S. iv. 12. I ; vi. 5. 2, 7. The gdyatrl is con- 
nected with fire directly or indirectly at TS. i. 8. 13. 1 ; vii. 1. 1. 
4 ; VS. viii. 47 ; xxix. 60 ; GB. ii. 6. 6 ; PB. vii. 8. 4 ; viii. 8. 3 ; 
^B. i. 3. 4. 6 ; iv. 3. 2. 10 ; x. 3. 2. 1 ; ggS. vi. 4. 11 ; TA. iv. 6. 
1 ; Mait. Up. vii. 1 ; Nir. vii. 8. Still more secondarily at RV. 
i. 164. 25 (cf. Suyana), where its three padas are compared with 
the samiahy the kindling-wood. Similarly the Vasus, whose 



* The commentator on this passage says : agner mvkhajaivena gdya- 
trisamhandhiivam . 



VOL. XVL 



10 M. BloomfiM^ 

leader is Agni, are connected with the gayatrl at VS. xi. 58, 60 ; 
xxiii. 8 ; MS. i. 1. 10 (6. 6) ; i. 2. 8 (17. 9) ; i. 9. 2 (132. 5) ; ii. 
7. 6 (80. 13) ; TS. iii. 3. 3. 1 ; TB. ii. 7. 15. 5 ; iii. 9. 4. 6 ; PB. 
vi. 6. 7 ; GB. ii. 2. 9 ; ^^S. xiv. 33. 8 ; Chand. Up. iii. 16. 1 ; 
Vait. 15. 3 ; L^S. iii. 12. 8 ; AGS. i. 24. 15 ; Ap. Vr. xii. 8. 1 ; 
17.4. 

Further, Agni and the gayatrl^ or either of them, are the 
divinities regularly invoked at the pratahsavana. Thus RV. 
iii. 28. 1, dgne jusasva no havVi puroW^m jdtavedah : jyratah- 
savi dhiydvaso ; AY. vi. 47. 1= TS. iii. 1. 9. 1 = MS. i. 3. 36, 
dgnth prdiahsavani pcitv asmdn ; QB. ii. 4. 4. 12, dgneyarh hi 
prdtahsavanain ; AB. ii. 32. 1, hhur agnir jyotir jyotir agnir it 
prdtahsavanasya caksusl. So also GB. ii. 3. 10, 11. The Vasus, 
who are identified with Agni in TB. ii. 1. 9. 3, or are regarded as 
the companions of Agni (cf. Ind, IStud. v. 240), are substituted at 
gB. xii. 3. 4. 1 ; TB. i. 5. 11. 3 ; GB. i. 4. 7, 8 ; 5. 11 ; Ap. ^r. 
xiv. 20. 7 ; N^s. Tap. Up. i. 2. 1. Both Agni (or the Vasus) and 
the gayatrl are mentioned in connection with the prdtahaiivana 
at 9gS. xiv. 33. 7, 8; Chfmd. Up. iii. 16. 1 ; Nir. vii. *8. The 
gayatrl by itself is correlated with the prdtahsavana in AB. iii. 
27. 1 ; PB. vii. 4. 6 ; viii. 4. 2 ; gB. iv. 3. 2.* 8 ; K^S. xxv. 14, 
16 ; ggS. xiii. 5. 4 : cf. also Weber, Ind, Stud. viii. 24. 32 ff., 
and Bergaigne 1. c. pp. 1 66, 1 96. All this, combined with the fact 
that the stanza AV. vi. 47. 1, agnih prdta/isavatie pdtv asmdn, 
is employed at Vait. 21. 7 along with AV. vi. 48. I in the same 
invocation (to Agni), renders it certain that the pyena^ the eagle, 
of the first stanza of our hymn is identical with Agni in the 
Atharvan and in the YsLJus-sarhhitds; and the question now arises 
whether this result is applicable to the legend of the eagle and 
the Soma in the mantras. 

In RV. vii. 15. 4 = TB. ii. 4. 8. 1 we have the statement : 
ndvam 7iu atdniam agndye divdh ^yetiAya jljanam ' A new song 
of praise I have now produced for Agni, the eagle of heaven.' 
The expression divdh ^yend occurs in addition only twice in the 
Rig- Veda, at vii. 56. 3 and x. 92. 6 ; it is applied both times to 
the Maruts, and needs no comment. But it hts the case of Agni 
also, if we conceive of him as the lightning, agnir vdidyutah 
(TB. iii. 10. 5. 1), which shoots down from the cloud: cf. RV. vi. 
16. 35, gdrhhe mat ah pitus pitd vididyutdnd aksare. The 
gayatrl also, which as we have seen is a personitication of Agni, 
takes the epithet davidyutati in PB. xii. 1. 2,* just as the verb 
ddvidyot is employed with vidy/it in RV. vi. 3. 8 ; x. 96. 10. At 
VS. xxxviii. 18 ; TA. iv. 11. 1, the gdyatri is endowed with 
divyd fuk * heavenly light.' Among the eight kdthakdni which 
occur at the end of the first chapter of the kdnddnukrama of the 
Atreya-branch of the Black Yajur-Veda (see Ind. Stud. iii. 376, 

♦ The commentator glosses : adyatri ca agnind sahotpatter t^'oru- 
pattydt dipyamdnd bhavati, ataJn. oabdasdmdnyena daviayutatigabdeiia 
gdyatri evo ^pasthdpyaie : cf . also PB. vi. 9. 25. 




The Legend of Soma aiid the. Eagle. 11 

452 ; xii. 352) occur certain isti designated as divah^yenestayah. 
They are the sixth of the list of eight, and are preceded by five 
methods of building the fire-altar {citi), Cf. also the seventh 
9loka of the second chapter of the same anukrama. At TB. iii. 
12. 1 and 2, the divahgyena isti is described, and the two opening 
mantras are addressed distinctly to Agni : tuhhyarh td aUgiraa- 
tama (RV. viii. 43. 18; VS. xii. 116; TS. i. 3. 14. 3), and ap- 
ydma tarhkdmain agne (RV. vi. 6. 7 ; VS. xviii. 74 ; TS. i. 3. 14. 
3). There can therefore be little doubt that in the ritual also the 
expression divah gyena is referred to Agni. 

Agni is frequently spoken of as a bird: e. g. RV. i. 164. 52 (cf. 
TS. iii. 1. 11. 3; AV. vii. 39. 1), divydm supartidm vdyasdm hrhdn' 
tarn apdm gdrbham dar^atdm dsadhlndm / x. 114.5, suparndm 
viprd/i kavdyo vdcobhir ikam sdntam bahudhd kalpayanti : cf . 
also i. 58. 5 ; 141. 7 ; ii. 2. 4 ; vi. 3. 7 ; 4. 6 ; x. 8. 3. Thus the 
legend of the eagle and the Soma resolves itself into a poetic 
account of one of the very simplest natural phenomena ; the 
descent of the lightning is viewed as the cause of the descent of 
the ambrosial fiuid, the soma.* Soma is in the highest heaven, as 
is stated distinctly at RV. iii. 32. 10, param^ vydman ; at iv. 26. 
6, divdh . . . iittardt ; at TS. vi. 1. 6. 1, trttyasydm itd divi 
sdtnah: cf. also TB. i. 1. 3. 10 ; iii. 2. 1. 1 ; Kiith. xxiii. 10 (Ind, 
Stud, viii. 32), etc. In the Suparnfikhyana 12. 1 we have the 
statement indrasya somam nihitam guhdydm trtiydt prsthdd 
rajaso vimdndt : nihatya raksas tarasd pranudyd " harisydmi . . . 
indum (cf. also 11. 1, 6; 21. 4; 29. 2). What real natural cause 
other than the lightning is it that could bring Indra's Soma, 
deposited in the hiding place (the cloud), after having crossed 
the space {rajas) ? The heavy clouds immediately prior to the 
storm yield no fluid ; but, when the storm has brewed long 
enough, the lightning rends the clouds, and with them come the 
torrents of water. f At Sup. 9. 5 it is stated that the eagle ^ab- 
dend ^sdu prthivirh divam ca samnddayann eti nabho dipap ca, 
Tlie root fuid is significant. Every summer we may watch this 
imposing natural drama, enacted by the cloud {garbha, guhd)^ 
the lightning {^yena), and the water of the cloud {soma). Hence 
doubtless Parjanya, the god of thunderstorms and rain (Muir, 
OST. V. 142), is said to be the father of Soma : RV. ix. 82. 3 ; 
113. 3. 

At RV. i. 93. 6t (= TS. ii. 3. 14. 2), the two parallel myste- 
ries, the descent of the fire and the descent of the Soma, are 

• 

* Cf. VS. vi. 84, somo raja ^mftaih sutah * king Soma when pressed 
becomes amfta ; QB. ix. 5. 1. 8, tad yat tad amftarh somaJi sah ' that 
which is amrta, that is Soma.* The connection between soma and rain 
appears perhaps at TS. ii. 4. 9. 2» sdumyd khalu vd dhutir vf^tiih cyd- 
vayati. 

f For the association of lightning and rain see RV. i. 39. 9 ; v. 84. 3 ; 
vii. 56. 13 ; x. 91. 5. 

t It is of interest to note that this is the only hymn in the RV. which 
is addressed to Agni and Soma as a dvandva-devatd. 



12 M. Bloamfidd, 

placed together : d ^nydm divd mdtart^vd jabhdrd ^mathndd 
anydm pari ^t/end ddreh * One (the fire) Matari9vaTi did bring 
from heaven, the other (the Soma) the eagle (the lightning) 
Bnatohed from the cloud.* Similarly we have RV. vi. 20. 6, prd 
^end nd madirdm an^m ctsmdi piro ddadsya ndmncer mathd- 
ydn ^ churning for him the head of the demon Namuci, as did 
the eagle the intoxicating plant (from the cloud, or the heavens.)'* 
The cloud is clearly enough implied, as may be seen from the 
closely parallel passage ix. 77. 2, sd pilrvydh pavcUe ydih divas 
pdri Qyend mathdyad isitda tird rdjah ^ He (the Soma) is the first 
to purify himself, whom the eagle, hurled across the ether, 
churned from the heavens.' 

Before entering upon the discussion of RV. iv. 27, the princi- 
pal version of the legend in the mantras^ I would present a point 
which, though less transparent, seems also to support the explan- 
ation of th^ eagle as the lightning-fire. Colebrooke, MisceUane- 
ous EasaySy i. 319, mentions a performance called pyenayaga^ 
without offering anything to explain it. The treatment of the 
word in the lexicons is based solely upon Colebrooke's report. 
At Kau9. 43. 3 occurs according to the MSS. the following unin- 
telligible text : ati dhanvdnl Hy avasdnanioe^ndnucarandni- 
itayanefyd. This has been emended in our edition by assuming 
haplography, so as to read . . . avasdna-nive^na-anucarandni 
ninayanejyd 'while reciting AV. vii. 41. 1, alighting (upon the 
spot where a house is to be built), sitting down upon it, and 
walking along it, one performs the sacrifice of pouring water 
upon the place.' By comparing the extracts given in the edition 
from Darila's commentary, the Atharva-paddhati, and Ke9ava's 
Paddhati, the basis of this translation may be easily recognized. 
Another emendation, avaadna-nive^na-anucarandndm nina- 
yafiejydy may do even better justice to the translation presented 
above. But all the commentaries agree in designating the per- 
formance as ^yena-ydga or ^yenejyd. Thus, e. g., most clearly 
the Atharva-paddhati : atha brhac-chdld-karma ucyaUy ati dhan- 
vdnl Hy udapdtram abhimantrya hhvmdu ninayatiy yatra grham 
karisycUi tatra vighnath gamayaii^ pyenadevatdpdkayajHavidhd' 
nend ^^jyabhdgdntam krtvd . . . carumjuhoti^ bhumisthdne yatra 
grharh karisycUt, athavd nave grhe ^yenaydgah kartavyah. 
According to this, the ceremony is performed on the ground 
upon which a new house is to be built, or within the new house 
after its completion (cf. also Ke9ava on this point). Its purpose 
is to succeed in the erection of the house by removing untoward 
circumstances, or, according to Ke9ava, by purifying the ground. 
The ceremony consists in pouring water upon the ground, and 
offering a pot of rice porridge to the divinity ^yena after the 

* Qrassmann translates very loosely ** als ihm der adler zu^effkhrt 
den rauschtrank, riss ab das haupt er Namutschi des d&mons." The mis- 
rendering of nd is especially apparent. Ludwig's translation (544) is by 
far a nearer approach to the meaning of the passage. 



The Legend of Soma and the Ea^gle. 13 

djyatantra customary in many ceremonies of the Kau9ika has 
been performed. It is striking that the text of the Kau9ika does 
not present the word ^yena at all. If we regard the last syllables 
of the undoubtedly corrupt sutra, namely ^nejyd, the suspicion 
that the syllable pye has fallen out is hardly to be suppressed. 
Possibly then, once more, the sutra was . . . avasdna-nive^ana- 
anticaraiia-ninayandndm Qyen^yd^ or something similar. 

The text of the Atharvan-hymn, yii. 41, employed in this per- 
formance is undoubtedly related to the cycle of conceptions with 
which we are here dealing. Especially the first stanza exhibits 
unmistakable points of contact with RV. iy. 27. It reads : dti 
dhdnvdny dty apda tatarda ^yend nrcdksd avasdnadar^dh : 
tdran v't^vdny dvard rdjdnst '*ndrena s&khyd ^ivd it jagamydt, 
' He cut across the dry land and across the waters, the eagle, 
kind to men, looking for his goal ; crossing all the lower atmos- 
pheric regions, may he with Indra his companion come here as a 
friendly one.' The second stanza does not add anything of 
material interest, except that the eagle is designated as divydh 
suparndh. But the epithet nrcdksdn points distinctly towards 
Agni (cf. Contributions^ third series, J.A.O.S. xv. 170), and 
^ivdh may also show us Agni on the way of development to the 
later ^iya. It would seem quite reasonable then to suppose that 
the entire ^yenaydga is a charm against the dangers besetting a 
house, notably fire, and still more specifically, perhaps, fire due 
to lightning. In the hymn the lightning is implored to seek its 
goal, not as hostile destructive force, but as nrcdksdh and givdhy 
and to bring property in its capacity as precursor of rain. Now 
all this would be purely hypothetical, in spite of its inherent 
probability, but for the fact that the two stanzas in the ritual 
elsewhere go by the name of samproksanydu (sc. rcdu) : see 
Kau9. 40. 9 ; 80. 42 ; 83. 17.* In 80. 42, the place of the funeral- 
fire is sprinkled while reciting the samproksanydv, doubtless to 
render Agni harmless (p/va). In 40. 9, a charm for producing 
the flow of water where previously there was none, the per- 
former recites these stanzas while sprinkling water along the 
desired water-course. All this becomes intelligible upon the 
basis of the explanation of ^yend as lightning, the companion of 
rain, and it seems difficult to imagine any other theory whatso- 
ever. 

If, now, we submit ourselves to the guidance of the facts 
assembled thus far, the hymn RV. iv. 27 resolves itself into a 
narrative of the legend undertaken by its two chief figures, Agni 
the lightning, and Soma. Agni begins the story in the first 
stanza : gdrbhe nu sdnn dnv esdm avedam ahdrh devdndm jdni- 
mdni vt^vd : ^atdm md p{ira dyaalr araksann ddha Qyend javdsd 
nir adiyam. 

*Tbe hymn is rubricated also in the vdstu-ganaj or vdstospatiydni 
(so. fsiUctdni) of the G^a^amala, Ath. Parig. 84. 5 : cf. Kaug. 8. 28, note. 
The second stanza is cited in Vait. 22. 28, and in the Qraddhakalpa, 
Ath. Parig. 46. 8, without contributing any valuable information. 



14 M. Bloomfiehl^ 

Agni (the lightning) says : * While yet in the (cloud-)womb 
I knew all the races of these gods here ; a hundred brazen castles 
guarded raie. Then as an eagle I flew forth swiftly.' 

It is of interest to observe how our investigation, undertaken 
from the widest possible exoteric view of the legend in the entire 
Vedic literature, meets in a certain way the analysis of this stanza 
as made by Bergaigne, Religion Ykdique iii. 332 ff., from alto- 
gether internal criteria. Bergaigne's view of the stanza is, how- 
ever, founded unnecessarily upon his theory of Vedic paradoxes ; 
he recognizes, to be sure, that Agni does in some way enter into 
its make-up, but concludes nevertheless that Soma is speaking. 
After recognizing the presence of Agni in the wording of the 
passage, taken phrase by phrase, with a security of touch truly 
admirable, he says (p. 334) : "II est vrai qu'au vers iv. 27. 1 il 
s'agit, d'apr^s ma propre interpretation, de Soma et non d'Agni. 
Mais quelle est celle des formules mythiques concernant Agni 
qui n'a pas ete, au moins accidentellement, appliquee h, Soma ?" 
I confess that I cannot subscribe to such a view, either in general 
or in any particular instance. No one can deny that epithets, 
expressions, and general phrases are likely to be found applicable 
to more than one divinity and more than one situation, and that 
for the sake of their secondary application a point or two is 
occasionally strained. But it is certainly going too far to sup- 
pose that a continuous series of statements such as are contained 
m this stanza are primarily intended for Agni and then applied 
in cold blood to Soma. This view seems especially out of place 
in a hymn of such indubitable character as an akhyana. Here a 
story is told, and I would fain believe that any mysticism which 
appears in the final hermeneutic result is to be laid at the door of 
the interpreter, and not of the composer of the hymn. 

The paradox would indeed here be overpowering, if it were 
real. Bergaigne's assumption would make the eagle and Soma 
identical ; yet they are certainly two personages. Just as the 
Brahmanas sing the praises of the gdyatrl for bringing the Soma, 
just so do the hymns extol the eagle for the same feat. Thus 
RV. yiii. 82. 9, ydih te ^yenah padkV^ hharat tiro rajdmy dsprtam : 
p'ibe ' J asya tvdm l^ise * Of the unconquerable Soma which the 
eagle brought with his foot across the ether, drink indeed of it ; 
you own it.' Very similar is x. 144. 6, ymh te ^yend^ cArum 
avrkdm padd ^"^hharad arundm mdndrti dndhasah, etc. Or ix. 
68. 6, gyenS ydd dndho d ^bharat pardvdtah : cf. x. 144.4. 
Again, iii. 43. 7, mdra piha vf sadhutcisya vr'ma d ydih te ^yend 
u^ate jahhdra ; iv. 18. 13, ddhd me ^yenS tnddhv d jabhOra. In 
the Y^jxiS'Sairihitds and the Brahmanas the adjective somabhrt 
' he who brings the soma ' is a standing epithet of the eagle. 
See the passages above, p. 7. Roth also (ZDMG. xxxvi. 354), 
though he advocates the serious emendation of 7ur adlyam to 
nW adlycU, does not lose sight of the separate individuality of 
the Soma and the eagle in his translation : ' da plotzlich schwebt 
auf mich (sc. Soma) herein der Adler.' Pischel indeed finds no 



The Legend of Soma and the EagU. 15 

Jess than three persons in the iirst stanza : Soma, Indra, and the 
eagle. 

In our belief, as we have stated above, the speaker in the first 
stanza is Agni, the lightning, who here flies from the cloud- womb, 
just as he is spoken of in the Suparnfikhyfina 3. 2 as vidyun 
nieghdsakhd * the lightning whose companion is the cloud ;' or 
at AV. i. 12. 1 and 3 2L)i jardyu-jd '(cloud-) placenta-born' and 
ahhrajd * cloud-born :' cf. Seven Hymns of the Atharva- Veda^ 
Amer. Journ. Philol. vii. 470 (p. 5 of the reprint). At RV. vi. 
16. 35, the following statement is addressed to Agni : gdrhhe 
mutah pit'As pit A vididyutdfiS aksdre: sidann rtd^ya ydnim. d. 
The expressions gdrbhe mdtxVi, rtdsya ydnim. and vididyutdnd 
show again that the lightning breaking from the cloud is 
meant. Pischel's supposition (1. c. 215) that the first half of the 
stanza is spoken by Indra may be disproved on plain technical 
grounds : the locative gdrbhe is never associated with Indra. On 
the contrary, the expression may be regarded as the peculiar 
property of Agni. The locative occurs nine times in the RV., 
the passages just discussed containing two of the occurrences. 
Of the remaining seven, three are plainly used in connection with 
Agni. Thus, at RV. i. 65. 4, gdrbhe is applied to Agni in the 
expression rtdsya ydnd gdrbhe sujdtdm ; at RV. i. 148. 5, in 
gdrbhe sdntam (sc. agmm) ; at RV. viii. 43. 9, in agne . . . gdrbhe 
sdu jdyase p-unah. The stanza RV. viii. 83. 8 is part of a hymn 
to the vicve devdhy and is addressed to the Maruts : prd bhrdtr- 
tvdm suddnavd *dha dvitd samdnyd: mdtur gdrbhe bhardmahe. 
Ludwig (p. 233) translates : " unsere bruderschaft, o trefliich 
begabte, die vor alters bestandene gemeinsamkeit, in der mutter 
leibe, die tragen wir hier vor." Grassmann translates: "wir 
tragen eure Brttderschaft gemeinsam, o schongebende, an uns 
schon in der Mutter Leib." The sense of both translations seems 
to be that the fraternal relation of the sacrificing mortals with 
the Maruts is (cf. RV. viii. 20. 22) from all time, even anterior to 
birth. This use of the combination mdtur gdrbhe seems to stand 
unsupported, and I do not see how the expression prd bhrdtrtvdtn 
. . . mdtur gdrbhe bhardmahe can be interpreted in this way. 
If we remember that the plants as well as the clouds and waters 
are the womb of Agni, the stanza may be imagined as liturgical, 
depicting the bringing on of fire, represented symbolically by 
firewood, which is then regarded as the mother in whose womb 
Agni lives (cf. RV. vi. 16. 35). We may then translate : * then 
surely together do we carry forth (the means of) fraternal rela- 
tion with you (the sacrificial fire) in the womb of the mothel*, O 
ye (Maruts) who confer good gifts.' Be this as it may — our sug- 
gestion is uncertain, and the stanza very obscure — there is no 
allusion to Indra in the passage. Of the other three RV. passa- 
ges in which the locative gdrbhe occurs, x. 53. 11 is a very obscure 
final stanza of an Agni-hymn ; x. 177. 2 refers to the Gandharva 
in the waters : tdm (sc. vdcam) gandharvd *^ o ad ad gdrbhe ant dh ; 
X. 10. 5 deals with Yama and Yami. Thus the expressions con- 
taining the word gdrbhe occur nowhere in any relation to Indra. 



16 M. Bloomji'eld^ 

A 8trikiDg confirmation of the identity of the lightning with 
ayiur gdrbhe is afforded by (^B. xii. 4. 4. 4, a prdi/a^citta'\^er- 
formance of one who has been burned by lightning : yasya 
vdidyuto dahet kiih tatra karma ka prdya^cittir iti . . . yady u 
asya hrdayam vy eva likhed agnaye ^paumate astakapdlam puro- 
ddgath 7iirvapet (cf. Kfity. ^r. xxv. 4. 33) aihaf^te ydjydnuvdkye : 
apsv ay fie sadhis tava sdusadhlr anurudhya^e : garbhe safLjdyase 
punar iti ' He whom the tire of the lightning burns, what per- 
formance shall he go through and what expiation ? ... If this 
burning annoys him, then let him offer a rice-cake in eight cups 
to Agni of the waters. Then these two formulas of invitation 
are recited : " In the waters, O Agni, is your goal, to the plants 
you are attached;" and "being in the [cloud-] womb you are 
born again." ' The stanza, quoted from VS. xii. 36, is identical 
with RV. viii. 43. 9, above, and its employment in such a cere- 
mony shows clearly that lightning from the cloud-womb is meant 
in the expression agnir gdrbhe. 

The expression dtiv esdm avedam ahdi'u devdndmjdnimdni vi^vd 
is just as unequivocal evidence in favor of Agni's presence in the 
stanza. Pischel, 1. c. p. 207, compares RV. viii. 78. 5, 7idklm mdro 
nikartavend pakrdh pdri^ktave : Vi^vam pmoti pd^yati, in sup- 
port of this theory that Indra is the speaker in the first half of the 
stanza. But the parallelism in the two passages is too general, and 
cannot star.d before the closer and more technical parallelism of the 
following passages, whose subject is Agni. To begin with the epi- 
ihet jdtdvedaSy which is explained — it does not matter whether cor- 
rectly or incorrectly* — at RV. vi. 15. 13 by vipvd veda jdnimd^ 
the very words which occur in iv. 27. 1, our passage : agnir . , . sd 
nljd vi^vd vedd jdnimd jdtdveddh. The very same statement 
occurs at iii. 4. 10, sk ^d (sc. agnth) u hdtd satydtaro yajdti ydthd de- 
vdndm jdnimdni veda * may he indeed sacrifice as the more 
reliable hotar in accordance with his knowledge of the races of 
the gods.' Again, at RV. iv. 2. 18z= AV. xviii. 3. 23, (agnir) 
akhyad devdndm ydj jdnimd (for jdnima according to the 
padapdtha, * Agni has seen the races of the gods ;' at TS. iv. 7. 

* Pischel, I. c, p. d4 contends with great earnestness that jdtdvedas 
means * having inborn knowledge,' in accordance with the common use 
of jdta- as the first member of compounds in the literature subsequent 
to the mantraa. The utmost that may be conceded is that the mantras 
themselves, having lost sight of the true meaning of the word, deal 
with it in this sense by way of popular etymology. The word vedas 
never means * knowledge.* In a compound of doubtful interpretation 
the only way is to hold to the proper sense of its members. Until veda^ 
is found in the sense of ' knowledge,* we must assume that jdtdvedas 
simply happened to lend itself to tlie interpretation given above, be- 
cause there existed by its side the clearly marked conception that Agni 
•knows the births, i. e. the true nature of gods, men, and things. As it 
is, the Veda explains jdtdvedas by * he who knows born things * (RV. vi. 
15. 13), and not by *he who has innate knowledge.* Cf. Whitney, 
A.J. Ph. iii. 409. 



The Legend of Soma and tlw EaAfle, 1 7 

15. 1 ; TB. iii. 9. 16. 4, agner manve pratharaasya practtasah: 
At AV. ii. 28. 2 we have tdd agmr hdtd vayundni vidvdn 
vip-wa devdndrh jdnimd vivakti * then Agni the hotar who knows 
(his) work promulgates all the races of the gods.' The plain 
meaning of these expressions is that Agni, the messenger of man 
to the gods, is thoroughly acquainted with the latter and is capa- 
ble of reaching them. At AV. xiii. 3. 21, by a slight shift of 
position, men who know Agni's birth say of themselves that 
they are acquainted with all the races of the gods, implying, 
no doubt, that they are thus gifted through their knowledge of 
Agni : vidmd te ague tredhd janUram tredhd devdndrh jdnhndni 
vidma; at AV. i. 8. 4, by still another simple modification, Agni 
is said to know the races of evil beings (ydtudhdna^ wizards), and 
to destroy them : ydtrdi ^sdm agiie jdnimdni vettha guhd satdtn 
cUrindm jatavedaJi : td/hs tvam . . . jahi. Thus the full meaning 
of the first half of RV. iv. 27. 1 is this : the heavenly fire, the 
lightning, in telling his part of the story announces himself by 
one of his chief characteristics, his special acquaintance with the 
gods, claiming its possession even while yet in an embryonic state. 
We turn now to the second half of RV. iv. 27. 1. Pischel (I. c. 
207) lays considerable stress on the word javdsd, which he 
regards on account of its accent {javds, not jdoas) as a noun of 
a^ncy rather than a noun of action. This, he thinks, supports 
his theory that Indra is the speaker in the first half -stanza. The 
second half -stanza, which he also puts into the mouth of the eagle, 
is then rendered by him as follows : " (Der Adler spricht :) Da 
flog ich der Adler mit dem schnellen (Indra) zusammen heraus." 
We must, however, in this connection, consider the closely par- 
allel passage RV. viii. 100. 8 z= Sup. 31.9, mdnojavd dyamdfia 
dycmm atarat puram^ dtvaih suparnd gatvdya sdmarh vajrtna 
dbharcU ' going swift as the mind, the bird passed through the 
brazen castle ; going to the sky, he brought the Soma to him of 
the thunderbolt.' Here the word mdnojavd^ evidently takes the 
place of javdsd at iv. 27. 1 (cf. also mduojavds at iv. 26.5); 
moreover, the expression dbharat vajrtne means *he brought to 
Indra ;' and there is therefore no possibility of Indra's having 
flown out together with the eagle. To clinch the point, we have 
at AV. vi. 92. 2 javds te arvan luhito guhd yah ^yene vdta utd 
yd ^carat pdrUtah : tenatvdm , . . f/;<m Jay a * with the swiftness, 
O steed, which has been secretly deposited in you, with (the 
swiftness) which moves in the eagle and in the wind, . . . with 
that win the race.' At VS. ix. 9 the passage occurs in this form: 
jav6 yds te vdjin nihitd guhd ydh ^yene pdrttto dcarac ca vdte 
tena no vdjin hdlavdn hdlena vdjajic ca hhava* . . . ; and Mahi- 
dhara unhesitatingly glosses : he vdjinn a^va yas te tava javo 
vegah gtdid guhdydrh hrdayaprade^ nihito ^vasthdpitah . . . 
gyene ^yefidkhye paksini yo javah parlttah tvaydi 'wa paridat- 



♦ Variants in the K&^va school x. 12 . . . parito . . . vdjajic cai- 

dhi , , , 

VOL. XVI. 8 



18 M. Bloomjield, 

(ah san cicarat carati pravartate ya^ ca te javah paridattah san 
vote cu:arat vdydu carati, etc. There can be no doubt therefore 
thB,tjav(is, masculine, in employed as an abstract, just like jdvas, 
neuter, e. g. in the expression pyendsya jdvasd at RV. L 118. 11 ; 
v. 78. 4. He whose grammatical conscience is afflicted by the 
undoubted fact that of oxytone and barytone couplets the for- 
mer are regularly nouns of agency and the latter nouns of action 
{apds ' active :' dpas * work ;' tpevSii? : tpsvSos) may resort to a 
correction of the accent. But I question whether we are justi- 
fied at present in imposing this grammatical theory, strongly 
supported by facts as it undoubtedly is, upon the tradition of the 
accented texts. These exhibit a considerable number of cases in 
which the accentual distribution does not hold good : see, for 
example, Whitnejr, Sk. Gr.' § 1151 g ; KZ. xxv. 602, and the 
dative infinitives like javdse, aohdse, etc. (Whitney, ib. § 973 a).* 
The expression patdm md pHra dyaslr araksan may also be 
taken as an indication that Agni (the lightning) is the speaker in 
the first stanza. On this basis we can understand why Agni is 
frequently implored to act as a brazen castle for his worshiper, 
or to surround him with a brazen castle. At RV. viii. 15. 4, 
which is obviously an Agni hymn, we have ndvaih wA stdmam 
agndye divdh Qyendya jljanam ; this has been commented upon 
above. In stanza 14 of the same hymn we have the prayer 
addressed to Agni : ddhd niaht na dyasy . . . p^r bhavd patd- 
bhujih ^ then be thou for us a brazen castle with a hundred enclo- 
sures ;' at vii. 16. 10, tdJi diihasah piprhi . . . tvd^h ^atdni 
purbhth ; at vii. 3. 7, dgfie . . . ^cUdni purbhir dyaslbhir m pdhi; 
at i. 58. 8, dgne grndntam dnhasa urmxya . . . purbhir ayasl- 
bhih ; at vi. 48. 8, ^dm purbKtr yavistha pdhy dnhasah, etc. 
It seems quite likely that these expressions convey an allusion to 
this important point in the life-history of Agni himself, namely 
his origin from the brazen castle in the sky, the clouds. 

In the second stanza of iv. 27, the narrative is taken up by 
Soma : nd ghd sd intirti dpa jdsaih jabhdrd ^bht 'm dsa tvdksasd 
vlryhia: Irmd puramdhir ajahdd drdtlr utd vatdn atarac 
chU^vdnah * Not indeed with ease did he carry me off ; he 
was superior in strength and heroism. The liberal one left at 
a distance the Arfitis (the demons of avarice) ;t moreover he 
crossed the winds with mighty force.' 

♦ Ludwig, Interpretation des Rig-Veda^ pp. 64, 67, suggests that ^euo 
iavdsd he. taken in the sense of cyena-javasd. But the types to wliich 
he refers by way of support involve generally a verb which has a value 
approaching the sense of the copula (e. g. kiivd in the sense of bhutvd : 
CI. the periphrastic perfect, and DelbrQck, Sitntactische Forschwigen, 

F. 103 ff.); and this very fact leads back to our translation *as an eagle 
swiftly flew forth.' Be this as it may, it does not change the value of 
the passage materially. Expressions such as are cited by Ludwig occur 
also in TB. iii. 8. 12 ; Ap. ^r. v. 2. 4 {aQVO rupam kj^vfd) and TB. iii. 7. 
4. 8 {krsno ruparh kftva), 
t Cf. 6iip. 29. 6, afuim (sc. supartio) balend 'ty ataram sapatndn. 



S 



The Legend of Soma and the Eagle, 19 

In this translation the word Irmd is still uncertain. I cannot 
conclude with Pischel, 1. c. p. 214, that it is equal to dtra in all 
its meanings, down to the very palest shades. He translates the 
passage by "da entging der Freigebige (Indra) den Nachstel- 
lungen," da being the equivalent of Irmd, In this translation the 
word da has the faintest meaning possible in the case of dtra. 
That the parallel at RV. iv. 26. 7, dtra piiramdhir ajahdd drdtlh 
may be merely a seeming one is shown by Ludwig, Interpretation 
des Rig- Veda^ pp. 30, 66. At RV. v. 73. 3 and viii. 22. 4, trmd 
may well mean ' apart, at a distance.' At v. 62. 2 it is said to be 
a great achievement of Mitra and Yaruna that Irmd tasth^tsir (so. 
c/^pa ^td dhendvah) dhabhir duduhre^ which Pischel translates 
(p. 214) "dass die stehenden (Ktlhe) Tag fttr Tag hierher Milch 
geben," hierher being the equivalent of Irmd, If the ten hun- 
dred cows stand apart, occupying as it were a large territory, 
their daily milking, which is the function of Mitra and Varuna, 
becomes a greater feat. At RV. x. 44. 6, it is said of the evil- 
disposed (kipayah) who are unable to ascend the ship of the 
sacrifice that Irmai ^vd t^ ny dvi^anta, Ludwig ii. 248 translates 
" die sanken nieder verlassen,"* and this seems correct. It would 
be a very tame punishment for a Vedic Hindu to be compelled to 
continue to dwell upon the earth ; they like nothing better than 
that. Hence the explanation of Yiiska, Nir. 5. 25, rm hdi 'va te 
nyavipantd ^sminn eva loke simply propagates his belief in gen- 
eral that trmd means * here,' giving moreover an extreme theo- 
logical bent to the entire passage. Bergaigne's supposition, iii. 
328, that the parallelism of dtra in RV. iv. 26. 7 with Irmd in iv. 27. 
2 has given nse to the traditional explanation of the word seems 
well worth further consideration. It is useless, however, to con- 
tend that the meaning of lrm,d has been definitely settled ; the 
intrinsic vagueness of the word is aggravated by the highly 
colored mythological character of the passages in which it occurs. 

I have followed in my translation of piiramdhi the general 
exposition of the word as laid down by Pischel in Vedische 
Studien i. 202 ff.f In support of the abstract meaning of the 
word * liberality,' which is in my opinion the primary meaning 
(cf. Zend parefUli)^ I would point especially to the intimate rela- 
tion of piiramdhi with sunr'td ; the latter has been recently well 
treated by Dr. Oertel in the P. A. O. S. for May 1891 (Journal, 
vol. XV., pp. xcv ff.), and he has arrived at the meaning * liberality ' 
for that word. At RV. i. 123. 6 we have Hd tratarh sunr'td -At 
pf'tramdhih ; at x. 39. 2, coddyatam sHnr'tdh , , , Ht piiramdhtr 
Irayatam, Cf. also i. 158. 2, jigrtdm a&ine revdtth puramdhlh. 
At iii. 62. 11 ; vi. 49. 14 ; vii. 36. 8 ; x. 65. 14, we find p'&ramdhi 



* Quite different is Bergaigne's highly mythological explanation, ii. 
502, note 8. 

f For different views of the word see Hillebrandt, Wiener Zeitachrift 
fur die Kunde des MorgenlandeSy iii. 188 ff., 259 ff., and Colinet, Baby- 
lonifin and Oriental Record^ ii. 245. 



20 M, Bloomfdd, 

together with rdt'i. At RV. i. 5. 3 ; ii. 1. 3 ; iv. 34. 2 ; vii. 9. 6 ; 
5. 32 ; ix. 93. 4, the word appears together with rayi * wealth.' 
But I cannot accept Pischel's reference of the word to Indra. 
Here, as well as at RV. iv. 26. 7, the expression pnramdhir ajaliad 
drOtlJi refers to the eagle, and means that the eagle in bringing 
the Soma is liberal. For with the arrival of the Soma liberality, 
i. e. the liberality in sacrificing, gains its strongest expression. 
Therefore the Arfitis, the powers of avarice, who have kept the 
Soma in their power, are left behind. The words pHramdhi iamd 
ardti are opposed to one another also at RV. iv, 50. 11 ; vii. 97. 9, 
without the implication that p^rai'ndhi is Indra, though Indra 
here as well as at v. 35. 8 ; vii. 32. 20 ; viii. 81. 15 appears in com- 
pany with ptiranidhL At RV. ix. 72. 4 we have pdramdhivan 
mdnuso yajna^Mhanah ^cir dhiyd pavate s6ma indra te *the 
bright Soma accompanied by Puraihdhi, forwarding the sacrifice 
of men, flows to you, O Indra, along with prayer.' Cf . also the ex- 
pression pdvamdna , . . rdnhamdnnh p^iramdhyd * Soma hasten- 
ing along with Puramdhi,' in RV. ix. 110. 3, and further iv. 34. 2 ; 
vii. 64. 5 ; also ix. 90. 4 ; 97. 36. From these passages we may 
gather that the pressure of the Soma by itself is a quite sufficient 
occasion for pAramdhi, and there is no need on account of its 
appearance at iv. 26. 7 ; 27. 2, 4 to assign to Indra an active part 
in bringing it down from the clouds. Cf. also Ludwig, 1. c. p. 
66. The only doubt left in my mind is whether it is not best to 
regs^rd puramdhi as the abstract, meaning * liberality,' rather than 
the adjective qualifying pye7?4/ the sense of the myth remains 
the same in either case. 

With the discussion of the first two stanzas of RV. iv. 27 the 
special advantages derivable from our theory of the myth are at 
an end. The general features of the remainder of the story are 
clear, and there has been no serious difference of opinion as to its 
face value. As the eagle flies through space with the Soma, one 
of the guardians of the Soma, Kr9rinu* by name, angered in his 
mind, hurls an arrow at him ; this, however, injures the eagle 
only so far as to cause the loss of a feather from his plumage. 
He succeeds, nevertheless, in bringing the Soma down upon the 
«arth, where it is pressed for Indra. Possibly this falling of the 
feather is the poetic expression of the simple observation that 
the lightning strikes the ground and is visible a moment before 
in its zig-zag (feather-like) form.f The story is told RV. iv. 27. 
3-5, and I have nothing to add to the discussions of these stanzas 



♦For Kr^iinu cf. Weber, Ind. SUid. ii. 313 flf.; Kuhn in K.Z. i. 523; 
Roth, Z.D.M.G. xxxvi. 359; Bcrgaif^ne, 1. c. iii. 30 ff. The connection 
of the word with Zend Keresdni seems untenahle, since J. Darmesteter, 
Zend Aresta, vol. i., p. Ixxxvii, has recently identified the latter with 
Alexander the Great. 

f The heavenly archer, nameless to 1)0 sure, discharges his arrow at 
A^iii. which may lx» the heavenly Agni, the lightning, thus corroborat- 
ing tiie explanation above. 



The Legend of Soma aiid the Eagle, 21 

by the authorities mentioned in the introduction to this paper, 
excepting a remark on the word indrilvato in st. 4. The passage 
reads : rjipt/d* Im tndrdvato nd bhujyUm gye^id jabhdra brh^US 
ddhi snSh, Pischel applies here the doctrine that the literature 
and life of Sanskrit (classical) India must be referred to freely 
in the restoration of Vedic India. With this view I agree in 
principle, and I need but refer to ray remarks in the Contribu- 
tions^ Third Series, J.A.O.S. xv. 145, to point out the manner in 
which, I believe, benefit may be derived from the classical liter- 
ature. Pischel translates the passage thus (p. 215) : '' Da trug ihn 
(den Soma) der Adler eilig vom hohen Himmelsgewolbe, wie (die 
Vogel) den Bhujyu aus dem Himmel trugen." He regards mdra- 
vat as identical with later indraloka (p. 212). The story is that 
Tugra, the wicked father, abandoned his son Bhujyu in the mid- 
dle of the waters, and that he was saved from them, not without 
a good deal of effort, by the A9vins, by means of their flying 
horses. The place in which Bhujyu was abandoned is described 
RV. i. 117. 14 ; 118. 6 ; viii. 5. 22 ; x. 143. 5 simply as the samu- 
(ird ; vii. 68. 7 as mddhye samudre ; i. 158. 8 ; 182. 7 as mddhye 
drnasah; in x. 39. 4 the A5vins carry Bhujyu adbhyds pdri ; in vi. 
62. 6 they bring him out of the waters, the ocean, and the womb 
of the flood : adbhydh samudrdt . . . drnaso nir updathdt ; in i. 
116. 4 they bring him to the sandy shore, the bank of the watery 
ocean : aamudrdsya dhdnvann drdrdsya pare ; in i. 1 82. 5 they 
carry him out of the great flood : ksddaso mahdh; in i. 117. 14 
they are said to have carried him drnaso nth samudrdt / in vii. 
69. 7 they carry him out of the flood after he has been thrown 
down into the ocean : dvaviddhafh samudrd itd uhathur drnasah: 
in i. 182. 6 Bhujyu is described as having been thrown down into 
the water, pushed into bottomless darkness : dvaviddham . . . 
apsv dfUdr andrambhane tdma^i prdviddham ; in i. 116. 5 the 
situation is described as ' the ocean without support and without 
hold': andsthdnd agrabhank satnudre ; in x. 65. 12 Bhujyu is 
freed by the A9vins from distress : dnhasah piprtho nih, I am 
strongly inclined to see in all this primarily nothing more than 
the story of the wonderful saving of an abandoned man from the 
floods of a great water : cf . especially vii. 68. 7, utd tydm bhujy/im 
a^ind sdkhdyo mddhye jahur durevdsah samudre * O A9vins, 
his evil-disposed companions abandoned Bhujyu in the middle of 
the ocean.' But there can be little doubt that the Vedic Rishis 
transplanted the event to heaven : in RV. i. 116. 3 they designate 
the place of Bhujyu's abandonment as udameghd, a aTr.Xsy,, which 
seems tp refer to the water-cloud ;f in x. 143. 5 Bhujyu is carried 
by the A5vins to the other side of the ether : d rdjasah pare. 
In i. 119. 4 the legend is alluded to as follows : yuvam bhujyum 
bhurdmdnam vibhir gatam svdyuktibhir nivdhantd pitr'bhya d. 



• For TJipyd cf . the valuable remarks of Fick, Vergleickendes Wor- 
terbuch\ p. 299. 
t The Petersburg Lexicons render it ** Wasserschauer." 



22 M. BhamfieUlj 

Upon this passage especially Pischel rests his interpretation of 
indrdvat. He translates pitfbhya d 'from the fathers '> and, in- 
asmuch as the abode of the fathers is svargaloka, and that again 
is later indraloka, he feels justified in establishing the equation 
mdrdvat = indrcUoka for the passage under discussion. 

But, if mdrdvat is equal to indraloka, we must import into the 
Rig- Veda not only the word but the conception in all its bear- 
ings. And that is a preeminently joyous one. The notion of 
heme saved from indraloka is, from the point of view of a 
Hinou, just as inconceivable as salvation from paradise would be 
from the point of view of JudaBO-Christian conceptions. On 
the other hand, the passages in which Bhujyu's troubles arQ nar- 
rated show distinctly that the conditions were indeed such as 
to require the help of the deus ex machina. Bearing in mind 
the expression 4 rdjasah pari in x. 143. 5, which states that the 
A9vins carried Bhujyu to the other side of the ether, we may 
translate nivdJiantd pitfbhya d by * carrying him to the fathers ' 
rather than ' from the fathers.' Perhaps for that reason — though 
upon this I do not insist — the help which is afforded Bhujyu by 
the A9vins is designated in RV. i. 119. 8 as svdrvatir utih *help 
resulting in avdr^ i. e. paradise.'* 

Pischel regards the one other occurrence of mdrdvat (with 
long d) in the same light. At RV. x. 101. 1 we read dadhi- 
krdm agnim usdaam ca devtm tndrdvatd ^vase nl hvaye vah, 
which he would therefore translate by * I call you, Dadhikrfi etc., 
down for help from indraloka.^ I would see here in ■mdrdvato 
an expression which, to be sure, is illumined by classical usage, 
but in a different manner from the one assumed by Pischel. 
The word represents here the same usage as appears in the clas- 
sical expression (Nala ii. 23) lokapdZdh . . . sdgnikOh * the guard- 
ians of the world, Agni at their head.' Or, still more precisely, 
it is the equivalent of mdrajyesthdhy RV. iv. 5-1. 5 ; vii. 11. 5; 
viii. 63. 12 ; x. 70. 4 : it expresses the prominence or leadership 
of Indra. I would translate * I call down to you for help Dadhi- 
kra, Agni, and the goddess Usas, with Indra at their head.' 

The word indrdvatah in RV. iv. 27. 4 seems therefore untenable. 
Of the many suggestions which have been made by way of rem- 
edy, that offered by Ludwig, Interpretation des Rig- Veda, p. 66 
(§37), a change to pardvdto, seems to me the most plausible,! 

* The legend of Bhujyu is one of those which will be profited by a 
systematic investigation from the point of view of the Vedic writings 
in general. In VS. xviii. 42 = TS. iii. 4. 7. 1 occurs the expression 
bhnjytU^ suparnahy and the MS. ii. 12. 2 has in its place hhujl supaniah. 
The treatment of the passage in CB. ix. 4. 1. 11 is futile. The Acvins 
themselves are called bhujyil (dual) in TA. i. 10. 1, and, I believe, also in 
the latter part of the TB.— the passa^ is not at hand— and this again 
reminds us of the epithet hhuji applied to the jsame divinities in RV. 
viii. 8. 2. 

f Grassmann's translation, i. 134, "des Indra Schar," presupposes the 
correction of indrdvato to indrdvanto (of. his lexicon s. v. indrdvat); 



f^ 



The Legend of Sotfia mid tlte EagU, 23 

and I would offer in support of it the following considerations. 
In iv. 26. 6, in the parallel passage, we have rjlpt ^yend dddor 
mano an^um pardvdtah gakund mandrd?n madam. At ix. 68. 
6 ; X. 144. 4, the eagle also brings the Soma from the distant 
height (pardvdtah), just as Matari9van brings the fire from the 
same place at i. 128. 2 ; iii. 9. 5 ; vi. 8. 4. Soma is pardvdti at 
viii. 53. 3 (Val. 6. 3) ; 93. 6 ; ix. 39. 5 ; 65. 22. Now Bhujyu, 
according to i. 1 1 9. 8, was abandoned pardvdti, and was thence 
carried off by the A9vin8. If, therefore, we read at iv. 27. 4 
pardvdto nd bhvjyum, we have a comparison perfect in every 
detail. The change from para- to indrd- in a hymn whose final 
purpose was the worship of Indra (cf. st. 5) does not seem to lie 
out of the range of possibility. 

The course which we have followed in our interpretation of 
the legend of Soma and the eagle may be briefly resumed as fol- 
lows : At AV. vi. 48 there are three formulas, the second of which 
is addressed to the Rbhus at the evening pressure of the Soma, 
on which occasion hymns in the jaf/ati-metre are employed. The 
third is addressed to Indra at the noon-tide pressure of the Soma ; 
at tliat time hymns in the tristubh-metTQ arc prescribed. The 
first stanza is addressed to the eagle, whose metre is said to be 
the gdyatrl. This refers to the morning pressure, and in this 
function the formula is employed by the Vfiitana-sutra in connec- 
tion with the stanza AV. vi. 47. 1, which is distinctly addressed 
to Agni. Now, inasmuch as Agni is the divinity of the morn- 
ing-pressure, and the gdyatri the metre of the hymns employed 
at the morning-pressure, there is no room to doubt that the eagle 
of AV. vi, 48. 1 is Agni. 

Further, the bizarre altitude of the Brfihmanas, which con- 
sistently relate that the gdyatri brought down the Soma from 
heaven, becomes quite intelligible. There is at the basis of this a 
complete identification of Agni, the eagle, with his metre, the 
gdyatri, which is perfectly natural from the point of view of 
these texts. 

In approaching the hynms RV. iv. 26 and 27, the principal 
source of the legend in the mantras, we need but remember that 
the heavenly Agni, the lightning, is the eagle, and the entire legend 
resolves itself into the description of one of the most simple 
and salient natural phenomena. The Soma, the heavenly fluid, is 
supposed to be enclosed within the clouds, where the lightning 
also is hidden. When the summer-storm breaks out, the light- 

it receives a certain amount of support from the reading indravato for 
indravantq at TB. ii. 6. 16. 2 (so also the commentary), and the occa- 
sional occurrence elsewhere of this solecism. A better emendation 
would l)e indrdvantdu, referring to the Acvins, who are designated as 
ijidratamd at RV. i. 182. 2. Ludwig ii. 598 and v. 468 suggests indrd- 
vatof^; Roth, Z.D.M.O. xxxvi. 358, irdvato na bhvjyum 'like a serpent 
from a marsh.* Cf. also Bergaigne, 1. c. iii. 330 ff. 



24 M. Bloomjidd^ 

ning, the eagle, breaks from the cloud, and with it comes the 
rush of the heavenly fluid upon the earth. Then it becomes avail- 
able at the sacriflce, especially in behalf of Indra, who is the 
Soma-drinker by distinction. 

The hymn RV. iv. 27 contains the narrative of this event, 
undertaken by the two principal performers in it. The first 
stanza is spoken by Agni, the lightning, and its wording is full 
of allusions to the technical features which characterize that 
divinity in distinction from all others. The next three stanzas 
are spoken by Soma, who describes Agni's achievements in his 
behalf. Soma narrates in addition that Kr9anu, the heavenly 
archer, one of his guardians, shot an arrow at the eagle, which 
did not disturb him in his flight, but simply caused the loss of a 
single feather, that fell upon the earth. It seems quite likely 
that this describes the striking of the lightning into the ground, 
but possibly this last feature of the myth is not a part of the 
purely naturalistic phase of the legend, which may at that point 
have passed into the hands of the poet, who, in India as else- 
where, would draw upon the stores of his imagination for the 
extension and embellishment of myths of a primarily naturalistic 
character, combining in accordance with the dictates of his fancy 
any features from other legendary sources which seemed to him 
suitable to the taste of his hearers.'*' 



II. On the group of Vedic words ending in -pUvd {sapUvd, 

prapUvd, ahhipitvd^ apapitvd).\ 

There is scarcely a group of Vedic words which rests under a 
heavier cloud of misapprehension than that vhich furnishes the 
title of this article. The native exegetcs started the interpreta- 
tion of the words with false and inconsistent etymologies, and 
later the western interpreters have substituted others no better. 
The translations of the passages containing these words have 

* Cf . for this my remarks in the third series of these contributions. 
J.A.O.S. XV. 185 ff. 

f This article was written during the winter of 1891-2, and was pre- 
sented to the American Oriental Society at its annual meeting, April 
1892 : cf . the Proceedings of that meeting {Journal, vol. xv. p. ccxxx). 
The briefest possible abstract of the paper was printed in the Johns 
Hopkins University Circulars for 1892 (Nr. 99, p. 102). Since then Pro- 
fessor Geldner has printed an elaborate discussion of one of these 
words, prapitvd, in tne Vedische Studien by Prof. Pischel and himself 
vol. ii. , pp. 165-179. It is to be regretted that he did not at the same 
time unaertake an investigation of all the words of the small category, 
especially abhipitvd. As it is, our paths diverge hopelessly, and I have 
not been able to assimilate any part of his discussion, interesting, fresh, 
and bold as it is. I cannot repress the hope that he may now yield 
himself up to the seduction of my chief claim, namely that all these 
words contain the stem pitu, and in a future article perhaps direct his 
ingenuity to the further elucidation of the difiiculties which have re* 
mained on my hands even after this recognition. 



Chroup of Vedic words in -pltva. 25 

produced some of the obscurest, vaguest, and most inconsistent 
results in the entire dbmain of Vedic interpretation. In Yfiska's 
Nfiighantavas, iii. 29, the word prapitve occurs by the side of 
abhike^* and Yilska, Nirukta iii. 20, explains both as asannasya^ 
designations of nearness, vicinity. He adds the special transla- 
tion prdpte for prapitve^ as though the word contained the root 
dp with the prepositional prefix pra. In the course of the 67th 
paragraph of Kautsavaya s Nighantavas,f the two words are 
treated by themselves, as follows : prajntve, abhlke : prdptasya — 
indicating obviously the same tradition. Sayana repeats this in- 
terpretation, with direct reference to Yaska, at RV. i. 126. 3, aa 
ca (sc. prapitva^bdah) prapitve ^bh'Jce ity dsa7inasye Hi ydsken- 
oktatvdd dsannavacanah. He operates with this rendering, e. g. 
at RV. i. 104. 1, prapitve ydgakdle prdpte ; i. 130. 9, asurdndm 
prapitve samtpe . . . prapitva ity dsaimandma ; i. 189. 7, sam- 
nihita eva kale ; viii. 4. 3, prapitve prdpte aati ; x. 73. 2, prapi- 
tvdd dsanndd prdptdd vrtrdd, etc. But other translations appear 
also. To iii. 53. 24, where prapitvd occurs in antithesis to apa- 
pitvd^ we have apapitvam apagamanam . . . prapitvam praga- 
matMm ; to iv. 16. 12, prapitve ahnah is explained by divasa- 
aya . . . prakrame purvdhne. We have therefore in the last 
two passages the idea of * advancing,' which might on a stretch 
be derived from that of * nearness.' But at vi. 31. 3 Sayana com- 
ments prapitve by prapatatie yuddlie^ i. e. prapitvd is assumed to 
mean * strife,' and its derivation is now in Sfiyana's mind from the 
root paX and the preposition pra. At v. 31. 7, he presents both 
alternatives : prapitvarh aamgrdmam (battle) aamlpam (nearness) 
vd. The helplessness of the native tradition is especially observ- 
able at vii. 41. 4 = AV. iii. 16. 4 = VS. xxxiv. 37 = TB. ii. 8. 9. 
8. Sayana on the RV. says prapitve ahndm purvdhne^ i. e. *in 
the morning ;' Sayana qn the AV., prapitve adydline^ i. e. ' in the 
evening.' And so Mahidhara on tlie VS. prapitve prapatane 
aatamaye^ and Madhava oh the TB. adyaihkdle. 

The first explanation of abhipitvd occurs at Nir. iii. 15 ; it is 
ahhiprdpti * arrival,' and so the word is explained by Sayana at 
RV. i. 189. 7 ; iv. 16. 1 ; vii. 18. 9 ; viii. 4. 21 ; 27. 20 ; x. 40. 2. 
Similarly at RV. i. 186. 1 : abhipitve ^bhigantavye yajile ; at RV. 
L 186. 7= VS. xxxiii. 34 Sayana has abhipitve ^bhipataniye \^mad- 
yajn€y while Mahidhara has abhipatane dgamanakdle. At i. 1 26. 
3 Sayana again exhibits his perplexity by making abhipitvd the 
direct equivalent of prapitvd: abhipitvapabda d^annakdlavdci 
prapitvapabda itivat. And it would seem indeed that this per- 
plexity drives him to extremes, since he translates abhipitvd at 
RV. V. 76. 2 by ' evening ': ahndm abhipitve ^bhipatane aamdptdu, 



* In RV. iv. 16. 12 the words prapitve and abhtke occur, but not in 
such connection as to suggest even the possibility of synonymous value. 

t Cf. the author in P.A.O.S. for October, 1890, J.A.O S. vol. xv., pp. 
xlvilflF. 



VOL. XVI. 



26 M, Bloomfidd^ 

trllye savana ity arthah ; in the same breath, as it were, the 
word is rendered by " forenoon " at RV. v. 76. 2, divdbhipUve 
divatasydbhipata7ie prdtahkCde, 

The stem sajntvd is a an, Xey., occurring only in the stanza 
RV. i. 109. 7 = TB. iii. 6. 11. 1. Mfidhava to TB. renders the 
word by samhandhitvain 'relationship,' and he may have in 
mind the more common word dpitvdy which the commentaries 
render in some such way quite regularly : thus, Sayan& to RV. 
viii. 4. 3 glosses the latter by bandhutvam. On the other hand, 
Sayana explains sapitvdm dsan at RV. i. 109. 7 by saliaprdptav- 
yavh 8thd7iam dsan hrahmalokam agachariy having, therefore, 
again in mind the derivation from the root dp* 

Thus we see that the native tradition regards this series of words 
as derived from the root dp, or the root pat, and that it presses 
the exegesis of the words case by case into the service of these 
etymologies. Of western interpreters, Benfey, in his glossary 
of the Sfima-Veda, treats the words in the same spirit. The p 
of -pitva is in his view a reduced form of the root dp ; pra-pi- in 
prapitvd is =: Lat. prope ; prapitve means primarily 'in the 
vicinity ' or * near.' Similarly aapi- in sapitvd is z= Lat. scBpe, and 
also abhipitvdy apapitvdy and dpitvd have originated from the 
root dp. Essentially the same view is taken by Roth in the note 
on Yaska's Nirukta iii. 20, and by Weber, Ind, Stud. xvii. 253. 
Grassmann, in his lexicon a. v. pitva, derives the stem from the 
root pat. It is needless to say that the translations made by 
these scholars are necessarily colored by their etymological views. 

The Petersburg Lexicon assigns to prapitvd the meanings: I. 
das Entgegengehen ; 2. dasHerboikommen; Anbrechen desi^ges; 
Frtthe. In Bohtlingk's lexicon the meanings are almost diamet- 
rically opposite, so much so as to raise the suspicion that some 
purely technical error is mischievously at play. The word is 
defined there as follows: 1. Weggang; 2. Flucht, Rtickzug; 3. ein 
zurtlckgezogener Ort ; 4. RUckgang des Tages, Abend. Ludwig 
translates ;>rapi^?;^/m at RV. iii. 53. 24 (1003) and i. 104. I (469) by 
"nearness"; similarly 7>r((/>«7v^m yan at v. 37. 1 (532) by "zu 
leibe ihm gehend," and prapitve at vi. 31. 3 (554) " im nahkampf." 
But at RV. X. 73. 2 (642) prapitvdt is translated by "aus der 
feme"; prapitve at viii. 4. 3 (688) "in der feme." One is strongly 
tempted to exclaim " thou art so near and yet so far." In addi- 
tion he has at i. 189. 7 (293) ; vii. 41. 4 (92) ; iv. 16. 12 (517), 
where the genitive dhndm is either expressed or understood, the 
translation "anuaherung der tage," i. e. morning ; but at viii. I. 
29 he translates prapitve api^arvar^ by " des nachtdunkels nahen." 

The Petersburg lexicons are agreed in translating abhipitvd by 
1. Einkehr; 2. des Tages Ein kehr. Abend. This places Bohtlingk's 
lexicon in the position of assigning the same meanings to ahhi- 

* In the comment on the same passage Sayana mentions a still more 
obviously false derivation, from the root «ap, namely saper bhdva^ 
aapitvam. 



Group of Vedic words in -pitva. 2T 

pitvd and prapitvd^ as can be seen by comparing the statements 
above. Ludwig also adopts the meaning " evening " or the like 
at RV. L 186. 1, 6 (197) ; i. 189. 1 (293) ; iv. 34. 5 (166) ; viii. 
27. 20 (229) ; v. 76. 2 (47) ; x. 40. 2 (70). But at i. 83. 6 (463), 
yrdvd ydtra vddati kdrur ukthyds tdsye 'c? mdro abhipitvisu 
rant/atiy he translates "wo der stein singt als ukthakundiger 
preissiinger, in dieser nahe freut sich Indra." Here then we have 
again the translation " nahe," which Ludwig frequently ascribes 
to prapitvd ; yet the words are evidently not the same, being 
employed in distinct antithesis at i. 189. 7. It would be possible 
to add much more of this sort to the arraignment by looking 
systematically through the literature of the translations. Enough 
has been presented to render it clear that a new theory in refer- 
ence to the group of words is imperatively demanded. 

We begin with the word sapitvdy which occurs in a single stanza, 
RV. i. 109. 7=TB. iii. 6. 1 1. 1, d hharatam giksatarh vajrcUfcihu as- 
mtin indragnl avatath ^dctbhih: ime nH te ra^mdyah sArycLsya 
yebhih sapitvdm pUdro na dsan^ 'Bring hither (property or 
wealth), render help, O you two gods who have the thunderbolt in 
your arms ; help us, O Indra and Agni, with your might. These 
here (i. e. the sacrificers ?) now are the rays of the sun with whom 
our fathers were in boon companionship.'! According to ^B. i. 9. 
3. 10, the rays of the sun are the pious dead : ya esa tapati tasya 
ye rapnayas te sukrtah, just as at ^B. vi. 5. 4. 8 the light of the 
stars : naksatrdni vdi janayo ye hi jandh punyakrtah svargam 
lokam yanti tesdm etdni jyotlhsL Cf. also RV. x. 108. 1 ; ^B. 
ii. 3. 3. 7 ; TS. v. 4. 1. 3 ; TA. i. 9. 3 ; 11.2; and Mahidhara to VS. 
xix. 69, where the fathers are also brought into relation to the 
rays of the sun, though, to be sure, in a quite different manner. 
Though the exact relation of the second half to the first half of 
tlic stanza is not quite clear, we may regard it as certain that the 
former contains the statement that the deceased ancestors of the 
sacrificer are in the company (sapitvdm) of the blessed departed 
who have preceded. All translators are agreed as to the mean- 
ing of sapitvd. The Pet. Lexx. translate it by " (etwa) Gemein- 
schaft"; Grassmann, by "vereint"; Ludwig, by "im vereine." 
No one, however, since Benfey has stated the reason why the 
word is to be so translated. The padapfitha divides it into sa -f 
pitva, and that is quite correct. In pitva there is hidden the 
word pita * sap, dnnk, nourishment ;'J hence sapitvdm is trans- 

* TB. reads dyan. 

f Grassmann's translation of the second half is unintclli^ble : " Hier 
eben diese Sonnenzugel sind es, durch die mit euch vereint die Vater 
waren." Saya^a : sHrydtmana indrasya yehhi roQmibhir ydir arcibhir 
no *smdkam pitarah purvapuru^dfy sapitvath sahaprdptavyath sthdnam 
dssan^ brahmalokam agachan . . . ycul vd, yebhl ragmibhih sapitvaih 
aamavetatvam adhyagachan. . . 

\ Yaska's Nigha^tavas 2. 7, as well as Kautsavaya 38, place the word 
among the annandmdni ; at Yaska's Nirukta ix. 24, the derivation of 
the word is given as follows : pitur ity annandma pater vd pibater vd 
pydyater vd. 



28 M, BJoomfiM, 

lated above by 'boon companionship.' Eating and drinking is 
the special occupation of the manes, as is stated times without 
end : e. g. RV. x. 15. 4 = AV. xviii. 1. 51 = VS. xix. 66 = TS. ii, 
6. 12. 2 ; RV. X. 15. 8 =: AV. xviii. 3. 46 = VS. xix. 51 ; also RV. 
X. 17. 8 ; VS. xix. 58-60, 66 ; TS. i. 8. 5. 2, etc. In RV. x. 16. 3 = 
AV. xviii. 1. 45 = VS. xix. 56 = TS. ii. 6. 12. 3, jtw^ti is the name 
of the nourishment of which the manes partake : bhdjarUa pitvda 
td ihdgamisthdh. In the hymn to Xhe pitUy RV. i. 187, in stanza 
1 1, the pitn is spoken of as the sadhamdd devdndm * the feast- 
companion of the gods'; just so the manes are designated in RV. 
vii. 76. 4 : td id devdndm aadhamdda daann rtdvdnah kavdyah 
purvydsaJi: cf. also AV. xviii. 4. 10 ; TS. ii. 5. 5. 6 ; TB. iii. 1. 1. 
8. At RV. X. 1 4. 10 = AV. xviii. 2. 1 1 = TA. vi. 3. 1, also at TS. 
i. 8. 5. 2, the manes are said to be the boon companions of Yama : 
yamena y^ sadhamddam mddanti. At AV. vi. 122. 4 *boon 
companionship ' in the third heaven is asked for : trttye ndke sa- 
dhanuXdam madema. The combined sense of all these passages 
is that the manes enjoy themselves in heaven with Yama and the 
gods, and the pitd is the exhilarating material which produces the 
effect. Hence sa-pitv-d means Hhe act of enjoying the pitii 
together.' It is a synonym of sadha-^ndd-ay and the substitution 
of the latter at Rv. i. 109. 7 = TB. iii. 6. 11. 1 would yield just 
the same sense as the existing text : yebhih sadharnddam pitdro 
na dean (dyan)= yebhih sap itv dm pitdro na dsan (dyan). 

My readers will now surmise that the following discussion is 
an attempt to find the stem pitn also in the remaining words of 
the group. The number of stanzas containing these words is 
quite considerable, and many of them are unquestionably obscure 
up to the point of hopelessness. I shall therefore be content if 
I can show the way ; certainly there will be a strong case made 
out ; and, if it shall come to pass finally that my theory fails, the 
chapter of accidents, of specious verisimilitudes, will be enriched 
by one more striking instance. 

I begin with RV. i. 83. 6, grdvd ydtra vddati kdrdr ukthyda 
td^ye \l mdro abhipitvhu ranyati. The Pet. I^ex. cites this sen- 
tience under abhipitvd 1. " Einkehr"; and it is difficult to recog- 
nize the precise conception in virtue of which it was placed there. 
Grassmann takes up the same idea, and renders : " bei wem der 
Stein als liederreicher Siinger tOnt, da einzukehren ist des Indra 
Lust." But tdsya . . . abhipitvesu can naturally only mean * bei 
seinen einkehrungen,' and not * beim einkehren bei ihm.' Lud- 
j^rig (463) translates : " wo der stein singt als ukthakundiger 
preissiinger, in dieser ntihe f rent sich Indra." But why the plural 
abhipitv&m if the singular abhipitoe means * nearness'? And 
td^ya . . . abhipitvesu would again naturally mean *bei seinen 
(des steines) niihen :' i. e., the supposed action of drawing near 
which underlies the word abhijyittjesu would have for its subject 
the press-stone. The notion of the press-stone coming near to 
Indra is not Vedic, and strikes me as faint and insipid. But this 
testimony in rebuttal is of secondary importance as compared 



Grmvp of Vedic words in -pii/oa. 29 

with the Rimple fact that ran is applied here to Indra. Now 
when Indra takes delight, it is always in the pressed drink, suti^ 
siUesu, RV. i. 10. 6 ; viii. 12. 17 ; 13. 9 ; 31. 6 ; 93. 20 ; 96. 19 ; 
or in the soma-festivals, adoanesu, x. 43. 6 ; or, what is much the 
same, in the stoma, uktha, or ^Jstra^ the song of praise which ac- 
companies the pressing of the soma, RV. iii. 4. 6 ; viii. 12. 18 ; 
33. 16 ; 34. 11 ; 92. 12. There is no expression outside of these 
in which Indra figures as the subject of the root ran, and it 
seems therefore more than reasonable to suppose that abhipitvd 
means ^ the flow of the sap (jntn) of the soma-plant.' Hence, in 
RV. i. 101. 1, the uktha, stotra, or nostra along with the soma 
which is pressed for Indra is designated as pitumdd vdcas. The 
pfida reads prd mandine pitumdd areata vdcah. In RV. i. 61. 
7, Indra drinks pUii at the sdvanas: sdvanesu . . . pitiim papivdn. 
Further, in close parallelism with abhipitvesu ranyati are the 
expressions RV. x. 64. 11, ranvdh sdmdrstdu pitumdn iva ksd- 
yal} 'delightful to behold like a home full oi pttu^; RV. iv. 
1. 8, ranvdh pitumdfi ^va samsdt 'delightful like a feast rich in 
pUu.^ Regarding then the expression abhipitvisu ranyati, as 
said of Indra, by itself, no one will be disposed to deny that our 
interpretation is almost self-evident in the light of these parallels. 
We turn next to RV. x. 40. 2, kuha svid dosd kHha vdstor 
a^vina kiihii ^bhipitvdm karatah kaho ^satuh. Ludwig (70) 
translates : " wo stellen sich die A5vinri am abend, wo beim auf- 
gange ein, wo ist ihre einkehr, wo ilbernachten sie ?" Grassmann's 
translation differs only in the wording. In these translations 
the expression " wo ist ihre einkehr, wo tlbemachten sie " is tauto- 
logical I am not aware that there is in the Veda any such ex- 
pression as * einkehren, turn in,' which savors rather of modern 
travel with inns and stations. The nearest approach to such an 
idea is expressed by the root sd-\-ava, which means primarily 
' unhitch horses,' and hence 'halt.' The common noun of action 
is avasdna. But if we look at RV. i. 104. 1, ydnis ta indra 
nvtdde akdri tdm d ni slda svdnd nd ^rvd : vimvcya vdyo ^vasdyd 
^pH'in dosd vdstor vdhlyasah prapitve, we see that something 
more salient and special is meant. For, if not, we should be 
compelled to assume that abhipitvdm in x. 40. 2 and prapitvi in 
i. 104. I are exactly the same, and that would prove inconvenient 
in the sequel. And one may ask at once what it is that the 
A9vins or Indra really come for. Is it a polite visit ? The third 
stanza of x. 40 takes up the questions asked in x. 40. 2 in the well 
known catenary manner, and, as might be expected, one of them 
is kdsya . . . savand '«a gachathah ' to whose soma- pressing do 
ye come down (O ye A9vin8)?' Now the second stanza expresses 
the same Question in the phase kUchd ^bhipitvdth karathah ' where 
do you take your potations of pit'Ci ?'* And the expression vdhl- 
yasah prapitve at i. 104. 1 must mean * (the horses) which quickly 
carry you to the soma-drink,' or ' which bring yon at the time of 
the soma-drink.' All that is necessary in addition is to show 



30 M, Bloomfield'^ 

that abhipitvft and prapitvd are different kinds of soraa-drink, 
and this we shall endeavor to do in the sequel. 

Similarly, iv. 16. 1 is addressed to Indra : d satyd ydtu ma- 
ghdvdn rjlst drdvantv asya hdraya iipa ndk : tdsmd id dndhah 
8U8umd siiddksam ihd '*hhipitvdm karate grndndh, Ludwig (5 1 7) 
translates the second half "denn ihm haben wir saft (der) grosse 
ti'lchtigkeit (verleiht) gepresst, besungen voUziehe er hier seine 
ankunft." Grassraann essentially in the same way. Three words 
in the stanza allude distinctly to the soma, namely fjvuy dndhah^ 
and susumd ;* and yet, according to the translators, there is no 
indication of the fact that Indra is to drink it. How feeble 
would be the invocation to Indra in the fourth pfida merely to 
* arrive,' after the first and second pfidas have stated in good 
Indra-language * may the liberal one, to whom belong the pressed 
soma-shoots, come hither, may his bay steeds run to us'! Taking 
the stanza by itself, it is a veritable egg of Columbus to claim 
that the fourth pfida is to be translated * may he, while- songs of 
praise are singing for him, take here his potation of soma (pittiy 

Again, RV. i. 186. 1 = VS. xxxiii. 34, d na Udbhir viddthe 
su^astl vi^vdnarah savUd dei^d etu : dpi ydthd yuvdno rndtsathd 
no vi^vam jdgad abhipitve 7nanlsd, Ludwig (197) translates the 
second half thus : " dass auch ihr, o jugendliche, trilnket all 
unser lebendes bei der einkehr." And Grassmann very much the 
same way. We need but glance at those instances in which the 
root mad is used transitively to find ourselves again, almost 
invariably, in the midst of words designating the soma. Thus 
RV. ix. 107. 2, »iU^ cit tvd . . . maddmo dndha^d ; i. 80. 2, sd 
tvd ^madad vr'sd mdda/t sdniah : i. 53. 6, te tvd mddd amadan . . . 
ti sdmdsah ; iv. 42. 6, ydn md sdmdso mamddan ; likewise ii. 
22. I ; iii.'si. 11 ; vii. 22. 2 ; 26. 1, 2 ; ix. 90. 5 ; 94. 5 ; 96. 21 ; x. 
116. 3, et al. I would therefore put the words of RV. i. 1 86. 1 , 
rndtsathd vi^vam jdgad abhipitve upon the same plane with 
vnaddmah tvd sate in RV. ix. 107. 2, and translate *do ye inspire 
the whole world at the soma-drink.' 

In the same hymn, RV. i. 186. 1, we have utd na Irii tvdstd 
gantv dchd amdt sunhhir ahhipitvk sajdsdh : d vrtrahe ^ndrag 
carsaniprds tuvUtamo nardm na ihd ganiydh. Both Ludwig 
(197) and Grassmann translate abhipitv^ by "zur einkehr." 
Again the invitation extended to Indra and Tvaatar foreshadows 
the 8oma,f and there is positively no reason for not translating 
abhipitvi * to the soma-drink.' 

In RV. viii. 4. 21, the last one of the three stanzas of a ddna- 
atiUi, we have again the expression abhipitve ardranuh, ])arallel 
with abhipitvesu ranyati in i. 83. 6, and more remotely with i. 
1 86. 1 : vrksdg cin me abhipitvi ardranur gam bhajanta mehthid 



* Note also the words sdvane and ukthdm in the stanza iinniodiately 
following, 
t For the relation of Tva^t^r to the soma see now Hillebrandt, Soma, 
515. 



Group of Vedic words in -pUva, 31 

^pjam bhajaiUa rnehdnd, Grassmann translates *' die Baume 
selbst erfreuten sich bei meiiiem Nalin." Ludwig (688), " selbst 
die bilume brausten bei ineinem (Indra's) nahen." There is, so 
far as can be seen, no reason why the root ran employed with 
abhipitvd should be translated otherwise than by * rejoice ' here, 
any more than at i. 83. 6. The hymn is addressed to Indra, but 
it is very unlikely that Indra is the speaker in the ddnastuti. 
It seems to me that the prii*st or the yqfamdna is speaking : 
' Even the trees* have rejoiced at my soma-feast.' In the third 
stanza of the same hymn occur the words prapitvi and apitvi ; 
the connection in which they appear is again almost conclusively 
in favor of our view of the word abhipitvL They will be treated 
next in order. Before continuing with our discussion of abhi- 
pitvdy it will be of advantage to turn to those cases of the re- 
maining words which support our view with special clearness. 

We consider first RV. viii. 4. 3 = SV. i. 152 ; ii. 1071 (Nirukta 
iii. 20), the passage just alluded to : ydthd ydurd apd krtdrh 
trsyann ety doe ^rinani : dpitve nah prapitve tiiyam d gahi kdn- 
oesu su sdcd piba. Grassmann translates : *' Gleich wie der 
BQiTel dQrstend hin zur wasserreichen Quelle eilt, so komme 
Abends Morgends eilend her zu uns, und trinke bei den Kanvas 
gern." Ludwig : " wie der wilde stier, wenn er dtlrstet, zu dem 
mit wasser versehenen salzsumpf kommt, ob in der nahe ob in 
der feme komm schnell heran, trink viel bei den Kanva." As 
was indicated in our introductory statement, this translation of 
prapitve is diametrically opposed to that given by the same 
scholar at i. 104. 1, where he translates vdhlyasah prapitv^ "die 
in die niihe ftlhren." Without attempting any further criticism, 
we may point to the theoretical conclusion to the comparison : 
Like a bull to the pond do you come — to what ? It is altogether 
unlikely that the comparison is left unfinished in mid-air ; either 
dpitve or prapitve are certain to contain some word connected 
with soma-drinking. We may translate . . . prapitvi tilyam d 
(jahi kdnvesd sib sdcd plba *do you come here to the soma-drink 
(prapitvd). Do you bravely drink with the Kanvas.' Or, if the 
locative designates time, then we must render * Like a bull to the 
pond, do you come at the time of the soma-pressure designated 
by the term jjrapitvd :' i. e., according to our assumption below 
(\). 33), the prdtahsavana. Then this stanza is on the same 
level with RV. i. 104. 1, where the horses are said to convey 
Indra prapitve, either to the soma-drink, or at the time of the 
prapitvd, the prdtafisavana, I have not been able to make out 
whether dpitve (nah) is another designation of some kind of 
soma-drink, or whether it simply means ^ in friendship (to us)' as 
a secondary derivative from dpi * companion,' being employed 
here in alliteration with prapitve. The latter sense seems to be 

* The wooden utensils of the soma-pressure ? Cf . RV. ix. 27. 8, soma 
vanem, and the many wooden instruments and vessels for its prepara- 
tion : camasUy camu, drona, kalaga, etc. 



32 M, Bloomfiddj 

required at RV. viii. 20. 22 ; 21. 13. Lud wig's inconsistency has 
been pointed out. Grassmann renders dpitve in the same way as 
he frequently does abhipitv^, namely " in the evening."* By what 
right ? As regards prapitve, he finds himself in straits not much 
less severe than Lud wig's ; he translates, at i. 104. 1, dosd vdstor 
vdhlyaacLh prapitve "die trefflich fahren frtth, am Tag, am 
Abend." The phrase dosd vdstor means * by night and by day '; 
what use is there in adding anew after vdhlyasak an expression 
for * in the morning ' (f rilh) ? This alone shows that prapitve 
means something more than a mere designation of time. The 
perplexity of both translators, and the probability of the solution, 
' are equaUy Htriking. 

We consider next RV. v. 31. 7, ^tisnast/a citpdri mdyd agrbh- 
ndh prapitvdrh ydnn dpa ddsyunr asedhah. Grassmann trans- 
lates the last pada " und vorwartsdringend triebst du weg die 
Feinde." Even the most unbounded faith in the transition of 
meanings will be staggered at the suggestion that one and the 
same word shall mean 'vorwiirts' (v. 31. 7), and *morgends' (viii. 
4. 3), in addition to other values. Ludwig (532) translates : 
" auch des ^^^s^Jia dauber hast du gefangen genommen, zu leibe ihm 
gehend triebst du hinweg den Dasyu." And yet, as we have 
seen, at viii. 4. 3 he renders prapitve by " in der feme." That 
prapitvdm ydn means ' going to the soma-feast ' may be gath- 
ered from RV. vi. 20. 4, in a manner which I am strongly tempted 
to designate as unmistakable. The statement there, in a hymn 
to Indra, is ^atair apadraii . . . vadhath (sc. hidrasya) ^usnasyd 
^^{isasya mdydh pitvo nd ^rirecU khh cand prd * 13y a hundred bolts 
(of Indra) the wiles of voracious ^usna came to nauc^ht. He 
(Indra) had not left anything of the soma-drink.' That is to 
say, Indra, having imbibed deeply of the soma, destroyed the 
demon — the old story. Can the parallel occurrence of prapitvd 
and pitu in two otherwise identical passages be due to accident V 
In RV. i. 187. 1 we have pitum nu stosatn . . . ydsya tritd vy 
djasd vrtrdrh viparvarn arddyat * Let me now praise the pita . . . 
by whose might Trita tore Vrtra joint from joint.' The passage is 
quoted Nir. ix. 25, and Roth remarks very fittingly in his commen- 
tary that, as it stands, it would suit Indra as well as Trita. Now 
is it not obvious that Indra avails himself of the force of the pitti 
by prapitvdrh ydn, RV. v. 37. 7 ? The same statement in more gen- 
eral terms is made also in RV. x. 55. 8, where Indra is likewise 
urged to destroy the Dasyus : pitvt sdinasya diva d vrdhdndh 
^ro nir yudhd ^dharnad ddsyufi. At any rate, we may assert 
confidently that the expression praintvdm ydfi means neither 
"vorwartsdringend" (Grassm.) nor "zu leibe gehend" (Ludw.), 
since in RV. iv. 16. 12 the expression prapitve dhnah is employed 
to indicate the condition under which Indra slays demons and 
Dasyus. Here prapitvd almdh must be a designation of time, 
or of some special situation. 

*So also hesitatingly Bohtlingk, in his lexicon. The Pet. Lex. trans- 
lates it by *' friendship/' just as in viii. 20. 22. 



Group of Yedic words in -pitva. 33 

This brings us to a point in our investigation which renders it 
necessary to distinguish between the various compounds of -pitvd. 
Hitherto we have simply endeavored to show that both ahhipitvd 
and prapitvd contain tne word pit'A^ and refer to soma-drink. 
We now advance another step : it seems equally clear that pra- 
pitvd is the designation of the morning-pressure, the prfUahaa- 
vana or pratahsdva ;* on the other hand, ahhipitvd is the desig- 
nation of the trtlya-aavana, the evening pressure. The par- 
aphrase of prapitvd is contained in RV. i. 124. 12 = vi. 64. 6, 
ndra^ ca ye pituhhdjo vi/'Ctstdu *the heroes who drink pitii in the 
morning.' Let us firet return to prapitvdm ydn at RV. v. 31. 7. 
According to our view, prapitvdm ydnn dpa ddsyfmr asedhah is 
to be translated * while going to the morning-pressing (of soma) 
you drove away the Dasyus.'f A very good parallel, which 
shows that the special divisions of the sacrificial day are made 
salient in appeals to the gods to destroy the evil one, appears at 
RV. iv. 28. 3, dhann hidro ddahad agnir indo purd ddsyun ina- 
dhydmdinad abhike . . . purt sahdsrd gdrvCi nt barhit, Ludwig 
translates : " Indra schlug, Agni brannte, o Indu, die Dasyu vor 
dem mittag noch im kampfe . . . warf viele tausende mit dem pfeile 
nieder." Grassmann also renders purd madhydmdindd by " vor 
der Mittagszeit." This is correct, and I would merely add that 
the expression refers by implication to the mid-day pressure. 
The time of the mid-day pressure, the niskevalya, is by distinc- 
tion the time in which the demons are slain : etad vd indrasya 
niskevalyam savanam yan uiddhyamdinarh savananij tena vrtrani 
ajiyhdnsat tena vyajigtsata (9^« iv. 3. 3. 6). This puts it upon 
the same plane with prapitvdm ydn : i. e., Indra, having strength- 
ened himself at his breakfast of soma, as it were, is able to des- 
patch all hostile creatures before the noonday-pressure, which is 
peculiarly his own.^ And, as has been indicated above, the same 
thing is expressed in prapitve dhnah at RV. iv. 16. 12, kdtmya 
^isrui/n a^sarh ni barhl/i ]}rapitve dhnah kuyavam sahdsrd: 
8ady6 ddsyun prd rurmt k'd.tsyena prd straQ cakrdrh vrhatdd 
ahhike. Ludwig (517) translates: "den Kutsa warfst du den 
(^usna den gefrassigen nider, beim nahen des tages, den verachter 
des getreides mit tausenden, mit dem Kutsa freundlichen totetest 
du also gleich die Dasyu : ' er rolle des Sura rad heran,' so dachte 
Kutsa." Grassmann similarly renders jyrapitve dhnah by " f rUh 
am Morgen." In our view it means literally *at the morning- 
pressure of the day :' that is, * at the daily morning-pressure.' 



* RV. viii. 3. 7 ; X. 112. 1, it is designated as pHrvdplti. Yasna 10. 2 
ff., the first of the two 'daily Mazdayasnian pressures is designated as 
the havanem fraiarem, contrasted with the havanevi uparem. Cf. also 
(in what way) rapithva and its derivatives rapithvina and rapithviiara ; 
arempithva, Yasna 44, 5 (cf . Neriosengh), and frapithvo, Vd. 3. 10 ; fur- 
ther FickS p. 80. 

t Cf. RV. vi. 47. 21, div^-dive . . . kf^id asedhad dpa sddmano jdh. 

I RV. iv. 35. 7, prdtali sutdm apibo haryagva rnddhyarhdinath sd- 
vanath hSvalath te. 

VOL. XVI. 5 



34 ^ M, Bloomfidd^ 

Hence the expression, from the sacerdotal point of view, means 
much the same as ' in the morning.' 

In connection with the last passage, we must place before our 
readers the difficult, but obviously parallel, passage RV. vi. 31. 3, 
tvdih kutsend '^bJu ^sna?n inara d^sarh yudhya kdyavam 
gavistdu : dd^i 2>r(fjntve ddha strynsya inusdyd^ cakrdni dviver 
dpdnsi* Ludwig (554) translates the second half: "du bissest 
ihn im nahkampf, und raubtest des Silrya rad, und tilgtest die 
schiiden." That is, here prapitv^ is translated by " im nahkampf," 
but in the parallel passage iv. 16. 12 prftjntve dhnah is rendered 
*' beim nahen des tages." Grassmann more consistently translates : 
''am Morgen zehn Daemonen (schlugst du), nahmst hinweg dann 
der Sonne Rad und tilgtest aus die Schaden." Aufrecht in Kuhn's 
Zeitschrif t xxv. 60 1 boldly substitutes dhnah for dd^y and trans- 
lates '' auch hast du in der FrQhe des Morgens der Sonne ihr Rad 
geraubt und grosse Thaten ausgef tlhrt." I cannot illuminate the 
suspicious word dd^a^ which Sayana derives from the root dan^ 
' bite.' But, leaving it out of the question, there is again no 
difficulty in translating prapitve * when drinking the soma of the 
morning-pressure,' or * at the time of the morning-pressure.' 
The mention of the morning-pressure in connection with Indra's 
destruction of the hostile forces, alluded to in both the two 
passages, iv. 16. 12 and vi. 31. 3, is the same as that contained in 
RV. X. 112. 1, mdra }nha irratikdindm siitdaya prdUihsdvds tdva 
h\ purvdpltih : hdrsftsva hdntave ^ura ^dtruriy etc. The difficult 
passage RV. i. 130. 9 is related to iv. 16. 12 and vi. 31. 3, stiru^ 
cakrdfti 2)rd vrhaj jdtd 6jam jtrtipitvi vdcani artwd mtisdyatl 
'*'*Qdnd d immdynti : updnd ydt pnrdvdto ^jagann vtdye kave, etc. 
Ludwig (472) translates: " des Sura (Svar) rad rollte er in gewaltig- 
keit sich zeigend hcrvor ; rothflammcnd entlockt er die stimme 
(oder : raubt er den donnerkeil ?t) ; diss vermogend entlockt er sie, 
als, o U9ana Kavi, aus der feme du zur hilfe kamst," etc. I do not 
see that the word pnipitve is translated here at all, unless it is 
represented by the word " hervor" in the first clause, the division 
of the padas notwithstanding. In the commentary on the pas- 
sage, Ludwig gives up his translation and suggests an extremely 
hypothetical view, one feature of which is v4ca?n as an absolutive 
from a root v(f€ ' rollen.' Grassmann translates : '* geboren kaum 
trieb kriiftig er der Sonne Rad, bei Tages Anbruch nimmt er flam- 
mend sich das Lied ; erreisst es an sich mit Gewalt." Bergaigne, 
ii. 339, takes essentially Grassmann's view, adding that vdcam is 
" le prototype celeste de la pri(;re humaine." The passage is one 
of the countless ones which allude to legends so well known that 
the poets do not take the trouble to narrate them in full. There 
is, to begin with, no hindrance in the way of regarding prapitve 
as ' at the matutinal soma.' The mention of U9anas Kavi (or 
Kavya) in connection with Indra also suggests the soma. Thus, 

♦ The padapa^ha and the editions read dvive rdpdfisi. The excellent 
emendation is that proposed by Aufrecht in Kuhn's Zeitschrif t^ xxv. 601. 
f This implies the emendation of vdcam in the text to vdjram. 



Oroup of Vedio words in -pitva. 35 

at i. 51. 11, mdndista ydd u^dne kdvy^ sdcdn indrah, and com- 
pare Bergaigne ii. 340 (middle of the page) ff. Is arund in our 
stanza really an epithet of Indra, as all who have dealt with the 
passage assume, and as is claimed explicitly by Ludwig v. 39, 
bottom? I am, for my part, not acquainted with any passage in 
which this is the case, unless we except TB. ii. 7. 16. 6, where 
Indra is designated as aruna vrka, which does not prove that he 
might also be designated as plain artma. Soma is aruna * and 
in the light of Indra's well-known achievements in the matter of 
drunkenness (cf. v. 29. 7; viii. 66. 4; x. 116. 4; x. 1 19, and our Story 
of Indra and Namuci, J. A.O.S. xv. 143 ff.) pada /> may perhaps be 
translated ^ at the matutinal drink the bright (soma) steals (In- 
dra's) speech.' In pada c, a mtisdyati means perhaps ' steals it 
back, gets it back ' (cf. ii-\-dd and dd ; d-\-har and har ; d-\-dru 
and dru ; d-^-muc and tnuc); and t^dnd may be Indra : *but he, 
the mighty (Indra), obtains it back.' Be this as it may, it seems 
quite certain that prapitve here again appears in connection with 
soma-practices, and there seems no reason, from any point of 
view nitherto suggested, to deny it the translation which we 
advocate for the wprd throughout. 

The two following occurrences of prajntv^, taken by them- 
selves, are^gain so clear as to offer well-nigh conclusive proof of 
the truth of our interpretation. RV. viii. 1. 29 reads : mdma tvd 
siira 'dditd md/na madhydrhdine divdh : iiuuna prapitvt api^ar- 
vare vaso d stdmdso avrtaata. The Pet. Lex. translates apipurvard 
by " an die Nacht angrenzend, am Ende der Nacht befindlich," 
L e. ' matutinal.' The diametrically opposite translation in the 
abridged lexicon, by " in die Nacht reichend, nachtlich " marks 
again most interestingly the havoc which has been wrought in all 
translations of the passages which contain the words ending in 
-pitvd. Grassmann in his concordance has followed the larger 
Pet. lexicon, but in his translation he has again become confused: 
" bei Sonnenaufgang, Indra, sind dir meine Lieder zugerollt, und in 
des Tages Mitte und am Abend dir, und in der Diimmerung der 
Nacht." That is, he takes prapitve apiparvare asyndetically for 
two designations of time ; he translates prajntvi " am Abend " 
in the teeth of his own rendering of the word by " in the morn- 
ing" at RV. viii. 4. 3 ; i. 104 1, and especially at vii. 41. 4, which 
is in closest parallelism with our stanza. Ludwig (585) trans- 
lates : ** meine stoma sind bei der sonne aufgang, in des tages 
mittaglicher zeit, bei des nachtdunkels nahen, Vasu, dir entgegen- 
gekommen." He too is compelled, however, to render prapitve 
" in the morning " (" bei der anniiherung . . . der tage ") at viii. 
41.4. The latter reads as follows: ute ^dimrn hhdgavantah 
nydino Hd prapitvd utd niddhye dhnd?n : ut6 '*ditd magfiavan. 
stry^isya vaydrh deodndrh swnaidu aydma. 

There can be no question that the translators are correct in 
agreeing that iiditd sArya^ya here means ' at sunset,' just as it 

* See Grassmann^s lexicon, and Hillebrandt, Soma, p. 18 ff. 



36 M. Bloomjiddy 

unquestionably does at RV. v. 69. 3, pratdr devim dditim joha- 
vhni madhyamdina iiditd stryaaya ; or at v. 76. 3, utd yatam 
Bamgave pratdr dhno madhydrhdina nditd stiryasya. Hence 
prapitve at viii. 41. 4 must mean *in the morning,'* or, as we 
construe it, *at the matutinal soma.' At viii. 1. *29 the three 
divisions of the day are stated inversely f (*^^" udite means ' at 
sunset'), and prapitve api^arvare is the more explicit version 
of prapitve : it means ^ at the matutinal soma in the period of 
the day next to the night,' i. e. 'at the dawn';J cf. pituhhdjo 
vy^tdu at RV. i. 124. 12 = vi. 64. 6. The mention of the stoma in 
viii. 1. 29 shows distinctly that the secular divisions of the day 
are not so much in the mind of the poet as the sacerdotal divis- 
ions, into prdtah-aavanain^ 7Hddhyaihdinam, and trtlyaih sa- 
vanam. The expression prapitve api^arvare is equivalent to 
prdtahsavane, or prdtahsdve. 

The word api^arvare occurs once more in RV. iii. 9. 7, tdd 
hhadrdrh tdva dansdnd pdkdya cic chadayati : tvdm ydd agne 
pa^dvah sanidsate sdwiddham api^trvare, Sayana glosses p(tr' 
varlmukhe agfiiviharanakdle^ and Ludwig (309) translates the 
second half of the stanza " wenn dich, o Agni, die herdentiere 
umlagern, den entzflndeten bei beginn der nacht." A good pic- 
ture this, the cattle lying about the fire kindled at night, and it 
may be supported by such statements as TB. iii. 2. 1. 5 ; (^B. iii. 
9. 1. 3 : tasftidt sdyam jjapava npa^avidvartante * therefore do 
the cattle return (from the pasture) in the evening.' Yet it ap- 
pears from a simple investigation of the root idh with sani that 
It is not in place here. Nowhere do the Vedic poets speak of the 
fire lighted in the evening ; on the other hand, it is stated in nu- 
merous instances that the fire is lighted in the morning, and more 
specifically at dawn. 

Thus RV. V. 28. I , sdniiddho agmr divi ^ocir agret pratydnn usd- 
samvrviyd vi bhdti ; RV. iv. 39. ^^admiddhe agnd usdso vyCtstdu; 
RV. vii. 8. 1, a ^gnir dgra usdsdfn a^oci ; RV. iii. 10. 9 (cf. also 
i. 22. 21), tdm tvd xnprd vipanydvo jdgrvdnsah% sdni indhaie ; RV. 
i. 44. 7, 8, sdm hi tvd vlpa ind/idte, $d d vaha puruhuta jin'dcetasd 
^gne devdn ihd , , . vyilstisu ksdpah (cf. also stanza 4) ; RV. x. 101. 
1, 'dd hudhyadhvam sdrtianasah sdkhdyah sdrn agnitn indhvatn ; 
vii. 78. 2, prdti slia agmr jarate sdmiddhah . . . risd ydti jydtisd 
bddkatadnd vi^vd tdmdhsi^ etc. Hence mar-badh 'awakening 

* So Sayana to RV. : prapitve *hndm prdpte purvdhne. But Sayapa 
to the corresponding passage AV. iii. 16. 4 : prapitve sdydhne ahndm ; 
Mahidhara to VS. xxxiv. 87 : prapitve prapatane astamaye ; MSdhava 
to TB. ii. 8. 9. 8 : sdyarhkdle. 

t Cf. Roth, Yaska^s Ninikta, Erl&uterungen, p. 84. 

t Here S&ya^ offers a translation antipodal to that given by himself 
at RV. vii. 41. 4 : prapitve prdpte divam asyd ^vasdne, 

§ This word offers a good example of what might be called the in- 
flated translations of Vedic passages. The connection in which we 
have placed the passage shows conclusively that jdgjrvdnsafy means 
simply * having awakened (in the morning).' The Pet. Lex. explains it 
a8**munter, eifrig, unermGdlich ;" Grassmann, **die wachsam sind ;" 
Ludwig (310), *' die liederkundigen brahmapas&nger, die wachen.'" 



Group of Vedic words iii -pitva, 37 

in the morning' is a standing epithet of Agni (RV. i. 65. 10 ; 
127. 10 ; ill. 2. 14 ; vi. 4. 2 ; 15. 1). The situation expressed at 
UV. iii. 9. 7 in the words tiuim j/ad (fgn^ pagni^fth saftt/tsate adin- 
iddhaiii apiparvor^ is therefore rather that which is epitomized 
in the word 8(n'ng<n)d at RV. v. 76. 3 = SV. ii. 1104, a stanza 
addressed to the A^vins : ntd ydt<nh samgave prdtdr dhno tna- 
dhydindina ndita ^ryasga : dhul iidktcun. dvasd ^dditamena, etc. 
The expression sorngtrve prfttdr dhwih is described graphically 
by Sfiyana on the SV. as the time of the morning wlien the cattle 
come home from grazing in the forest to be milked : samgachante 
gdvo dohabhuinim yasinin kMe^ rdtrgapitrnkdle hi gdvo vane 
hiiinitradni hhakangitva dohagd say'ngave pnftinirvartdnte. In 
Hir. GS. i. 19. 3 the day is divided into five divisions : prdtfih 
samguve i/Htdhtprthdme ^pardhne sagmn. Here, to be sure, the 
somgavii is in the second place, still, however, early in the morn- 
ing ; and at any rate not too much value must be attached to 
sporadic systematizations of this sort. Of. also TB. i. 5. 3. 1 ; Ap. 
Qr. ix. 7. 3 ; xv. 18. 13, and scholia. That npi^arvard is not to be 
regarded with Sayana (to RV. iii. 9. 7) and Ludwig as the begin- 
ning, but rather as the end of the night follows also from the 
passage AB. iv. 5 : apii^nri^irya (inu sua f si "^ty ahrnvonny ifpi^i- 
rvardni khitlu vd etfuii chimdarisi '*tu hn sunt "* hdi HOni hi ^ndram 
rdtren ttnuaso inrtyor hlhhyntinn atyapdrnyans^ tad api^arva- 
rdndtn ajn^arvariftvam * They (the metres) said : ** We endure 
the (entire) night." He (the sage Aitareya) therefore called 
these metres api^arviara. For they safely carried beyond the 
darkness of night, that is death, Indra who was afraid of it (the 
night). That is the api^.arvara'i:\\%x?i>QX^x of the apigarvara- 
metre.' Cf. also GB. ii. 5. 1,3; Ap. ^r. xiv. 3. 11. We may 
conclude by saying that the juxtaposition of prapitve with api- 
^arvare at RV. viii. 1. 29 is the most explicit statement which 
determines the time of the prapitrd * tiie matutinal soma.' It 
takes place at dawn, the time of the first activity, when the fire 
is kindled, when the divinities of the morning are invoked, when 
the cattle assemble to be milked. 

It is easily conceivable that the word jfrapitve should have 
assumed the general value of a division of time. Thus prapitve 
may perhaps in one or the other instance have arrived at the 
faded meaning 'in the morning,' just as ahhipitve (see below) 
may have assumed the value 'in the evening.' In RV. i. 189. 7, 
tiuhh tdtt agna 'ahhdydn vt vidt^dn vesi prapitve /adntiso yajatra : 
ahhipitve atdnave ^dsyo hhah etc., it is not easy to say whether 
the primary or secondary value is to be assumed : ' O Agni, you 
partake of (the sacrifice) at the matutinal soma,' or ' in the morn- 
ing.'* In either case Agni is doubtless imagined as a partaker of 
the «oma ; the passage is absolutely otiose. 

♦Cf. the formula agne ver hotram, Katy. Cr. xxiii. 3. 1 ; Sayana, 
prapitve sariinihita eva kale . . . ahhipiti^e ^bhiprdptakdle ^hhigamana- 
^^t% yajHe vd. For the translation see Ludwig (293) and Grassinann ; 
also Geld ner*8 criticism, Ved, Stuff, ii. 156 ff. 



38 Jf. Bloomildd^ 

I do not venture to translate RV. x. 73. 2, abhivrte ^va td mahd- 
padena dhvCuitdt prapitvdd nd aranta gdrhhCih, Grassmann 
speaks of the hymn as partly unintelligible, and then proceeds 
to make his assertion more than good by translating " ungeben 
gleichsam waren diese (Orte, etwa die Wolken in denen die Wasser 
eingeschlossen waren) von dem weitschreitenden (Indra, oder 
Visnu ?) ; aus der dunklcn Tagesf rUhe erhoben sich die neugebo- 
renen (Wasser?)." Ludwig (642) renders "das war gleichsam 
umhallt vom grossen orte, aus dem dunkel, der feme kamen 
sie als kinder hervor (die Marut)." The chief interest of this 
version lies in the translation of prapitvdd by " aus der feme," 
since the same interpreter reijders prapitve at vi. 31. 3 (554) by 
" nahkampf," prapitve at i. 104. 1 (469) by "in die niihe," and 
prapitvcnn at v. 31. 7 (532) by " zu leibe." In his commentary 
Ludwig translates prupiivdd by **in der nahe." Does dhvantat 
pnrpitvdd mean * from the dawning morning,' i. e. from the morn- 
ing when still dark with twilight ? cf. jprajntve api^arvare above. 

There is but one additional occurrence of the word f^apitva, 
with apapitvdy at RV. iii. 53. 24 ; of this we shall speak below. 

We return now to the remaining cases of ahhipitvd. Here 
again there seems reason to believe that the word was not merely 
a general designation for the act of soma-drinking, but that it 
refers to the draughts of soma at the evening-pressure, the 
trtiuai'n 8av(tnaitt, RV. iv. 34. 5 is addressed to the Rbhu : d vah 
pltfh/o ^lihipitve dhndni iind dsttnh nava^vd iva gtnan, Ludwig 
(166) : " Zu euch bei des tages einkehr* sind die triinke wie zur 
wohnung die ktthe, die erst gekalbt, gekommen." Grassmann 
also renders ahhipitve dhndiu " bei der Tage Einkehr." I would 
translate * To you the drinks have come at the daily evening 
pressure etc' This, as a matter of fact, is always said of the 
Rbhus : RV. i. IGl. 8 ; iii. 52. 6 ; iv. 33. 11 ; 35. 9. AV. vi. 47. 3 ; 
ix. 1. I3.f The phrase parallel to ahhijntve dhndni in these pas- 
sages does not contain some general statement of time, but the 
technical terms trtvpim savanttm and ahhipitve designate the 
same occasion, not precisely from the point of view of the pres- 
sure of the soma, but from the subsequent one of drinking the 
draughts of soma. The addition of the word dhndm or ahnah^ 
which is found with both ahhipitve and jmtpitve (i. 126. 3 ; iv. 
16. 12), is the same as in the phrase idd ^hnah *at this time of 
the day' at iv. 33. 1 1 ; just as the word dhnah is preceded here 
by a designation of time, idd^ so ahhipitve and prajntve taken by 
themselves are secondarily employed as designations of time. 
The notion of the * turning in of the day ' is poetic, but not Vedic. 

The passage RV. iv. 35. 6 is also addressed to the Rbhus, and 
is explained by the preceding : f/6 vah sundty ahhipitve dhndm 
tJvrdm vdjasah sdvfinam nidddya. Here also ahhipitve dhndm 

* But at RV. i. 126. 3 Ludwig (1001) translates the same expression, 
abhipiive dhndm, by *als die tage gekommen.' This cannot be under- 
stood to mean 'evening* in any sense. Is it at all likely that the ex- 
pression should have passed under two such widely different values ? 

t Cf . also the preceaing article, pp. 4, 5. 



Group of Vedic coords in -pitva. 39 

is secondarily the equivalent of trth/arh savanaitK Here again 
the word sdvana Accentuates the steady adherence of the group 
of words under discussion to the soma-sacritice. 

Once more the special restriction of the word (ihhljntod to the 
enjoyment of the soma pressed in the evening appears at RV. iv. 
16. 1. The stanza has been discussed above. 1 would here draw 
attention anew to the word rjlsl in the expression a mitijo yaiu 
inaghdvdn rjist . . . ihd ^fMjntvdm karate grndndh. The word 
is a secondary derivative from rjtsdy which means * the previously 
pressed soma-shrubs.' That is, the soma-plant after it has been 
pressed for the morning and noon libations is employed anew at 
the third or evening libation. The use of the rjlsd is described 
at K^S. X. 3. 12 ff.; 9. 1 ff.; Ap. ^r. xiii. 10. s'ff.'; 20. 8 ff.; it 
belongs regularly to Indra and the Maruts. The situation im- 
plied therefore by the two words rjl.si and abhijdtvditi is simply 
this : Indra is called to make his soma-potations in the evening 
from the rjlsd^ the previously pressed soma-shoots. Cf. on rj'im 
and rjlsm Hillebrandt's recent discussion, Soniff, p. 235 if. 

The more general meaning * in the evening ' may have arisen 
out of the primary one *at the evening soma.' Thus, in RV. 
viii. 27. 20 (Ludwig 229), the word occurs imbedded in designa- 
tions of time. It is preceded in stanza 1 9 by s^rj/a mh/att, ?ii' 
tnrtfci, ftrahudhi, and madhydindine divdh ; it is followed in 
stanza 21 by »tira uditSy ftKidhf/dtfidine, and diuci. There seems 
no special reason for associating the word here with any feature 
of the soma-cult ; but on the otber hand it is also possible that all 
these designations of time are made with reference to the sacri- 
ficial day, and that the three advnna are in the mind of the poet. 
He may be eclectic in the choice of his designations, emj)loying 
the ordinary astronomical names in most cases, and the sacer- 
dotal name for evening in the case of ahhijtitve. Nothing is 
more natural in the Rig- Veda, which may be designated not only 
by the name of sacriiicial poetry, but by a more salient and spe- 
cifically Hindu title, the poetry of the sacrifice. It is for the 
most part unquestionably in the bonds of sacrificial institutions. 
Similarly in RV. v. 76. 2 (addressed to the A^vins), d'lvd ""hhipitve 
^Vifsd ^^jfimisthd prdty dvartim dO^aae ^d^nhhnvisthd^ ahhipitve 
may mean * in the evening.' Ludwig (47) translates '* am tage 
am abend mit gunst bereitwilligst kommend," etc. In the next 
stanza occur other designations of time : samgave^ /trdtdr d/ma/i, 
madfu/dmdbiej and uditd s^ri/asga ; the presence of the word 
samgave as a designation of time (see above, p. 37) illustrates well 
the possibility of the poetical grouping together of astronomical 
designations of time with such as are derived secondarily from 
other important circumstances of Vedic life. In the ddnastuti^ 
RV. I. 126. 3, upa tnd , . . dd^a rdthdso asthuh: mstih sahdsrani 
dnu gdvyain dgdt sdtiat kakstvdn abhipitve dhyidniy it is again 
impossible and unnecessary to decide whether abhipitve dhndm 
means * at the evening soma ' or secondarily and poetically * in 
the evening.' Ludwig (1011) translates '^zu mir sind gekommen 



40 M, lilomafield^ 

zehn wapfen etc. . . als die tage gekommen empfieng sie Kaksi- 
vfin." The expression " als die tage gekommen " has a poetic or 
even biblical flavor, but it does not really mean much here, and 
it does not accord with the same scholar's rendering of the ex- 
pression at RV. iv. 34. 5 (cf. above). Grassmann more consist- 
ently translates " Kakschivat empfieng sie bei des Tages Kinkehr 
(d. h. am Abend)." Sfiyana, ahhipitva^ahda asannakdlavdcl. 

There is one more occurrence of the word abhipitvd, in RV. 
vii. 18. 9, a stanza clear enough in outline, but obscure in a num- 
ber of details. The text is as follows : t^tir drtham nd nyarthdm 
pdmisnlm d^{t^ caned abhlpitvdih jagfnna : suddaa mdrah sutu- 
kiln amUrCm drandhayan mdnuse vddhrivdcah. The stanza 
pictures enemies of Sudas who seem to cross the river Parusni 
in order to attack him, or in order to escape after an unsuccessful 
attack. Roth, Ziir Literatur und Gesckichte desWeday p. 96, 
translates " Zu einem Krfolge, nicht ohne Erfolg, giengen sie in 
die Parusni, und schnell (wie ein Pferd) schloss sie sich wieder 
zusammen (ab/upitvdm jagdnia),^^ Roth regards the first state- 
ment as an ironical description of the failure of the enemies of 
Sudfis to reach him. Ludwig (1005) rendei^ " wie zu dem ihnen 
bestimmten ziele sind zu ihrcr vernichtung sie an die Parusni 
gegangen, selbst der rasche kam nicht heim." Grassmann, " Ihr 
Ziel, der Strom, ward ihnen zum Verderben ; der schnellste selbst 
fand dort die Kuhestiitte." All three translators resort to render- 
ings of abhipitvd which cannot be employed in any other passage 
in which the word occurs.* Possibly the translation is * They 
went as if to a goal [or as if after proj)erty (drtham wrt)], into 
destruction, into the Parusni ; even the swift one did not come 
to the evening-soma.' The last statement in the mouth of a Brah- 
manical worshiper would be equivalent to saying " he did not 
reach his home and hearth." Or, if we take caned positively in- 
stead of negatively, we may translate * the swift one alone came 
to the evening soma, i. e. reached home.' (Cf. Ho{)kins in this 
Journal, xv. 202, note 2.) But these translations are no more 
certain than the preceding ones. 

We turn now to the (xtt. Xey. apapitfui, which occurs in con- 
nection with prapitvd in RV^ iii. 53. 24, hnd indra hharatdsya 
jmtrd apapitvdih clkltur nd prapittuhn : hmvdnty d^vatn aranam 
nd nityarh jyd lu'ijaj'n jnirl nay ant y Ojaii, Roth, Zur JLiteratur 
etc., p. Ill, translates "diese Sohne Bharata's kennen (feindliches) 
abwenden, nicht (freundliches) hinwenden. Sie spornenf ihr Ross ; 
wie einen ewigen Feind tragen sie den starken Bogen (spiihend) 
umher in der Schlacht." Ludwig (1003) translates "O Indra, 
dise Bharata denken nicht an niihe und nicht an feme ; sie trei- 
ben das I'oss wie einen nie versagenden heifer, als hiltte es der 
bogensehne kraft fttiiren sie es in den wettkampf." Grassmann 
translates *'0 Indra, diese Sohne des Bharata halten <las feme im 

* Ludwig in liis commentary, *' in die nahe " for ** heim." 
f On p. 106 lie reads pinvanti for hinvantu 



Orauj) of Veilio wards m -pUva. 41 

Auge iiicht das nahe etc." It is evident that the words under 
discussion are one of the chief causes of the obscurity of the 
translations. By what road Ludwig arrives at the rendering 
" niihe " for apapitvd and " feme " for prapitxni it seems impos- 
sible to discover. But for the fact that he renders prapitvdd 
at RV. X. 73. 2 (542) by "aus der feme," one might assume that 
he has merely transposed the two words in his translation, intend- 
ing indeed that apajntvd shall have the value of " feme." 

In the explanation of the stanza I believe we must bear in mind 
the traditional hostility of Vi9vamitra and the Bharatas against 
Vasistha and the T^tsus. Suyana says in explanation of our 
stanza aj4 ca samgrCune sahajam aranaia arim iva vasisthdn 
praty apvam prerayanti^ tata^ ca baUim dhanum parinayantiy va- 
siUhOn hantiuii ^rdsarhdhdnena caranti, Sayana doubtless has 
in mind the stanza RY. vii. 33. 6, which to him speaks in plain 
language of a defeat of the Bharatas by the Tytsus : danda. ive ^d 
godjandsa dsmi pdrichinnd bharatd arbhakdsah: dhhavac ca 
pur(%€td vasistha dd U tftsunam vtgo aprathauta ' Like staves 
used for driving cattle, the insignificant Bharatas were broken. 
And Vasistha became the leader ; then indeed did the clans of 
the Trt«u spread themselves out.' The stanza has been inter- 
preted variously (cf. Hillebrandt, Sonui^ p. 110), but there seems 
to me no way of avoiding one conclusion. It states that the 
Bharatas were either for a time or altogether hostile, or without 
the services of Vasistha : cf. PB. xv. 5. 24. Either it contains 
an account of a contest between the Bharatas, the followers of 
Vi^vfimitra, and the Trtsus, the followers of Vasistha, in which 
the Bharatas were worsted — or, if the Bharatas and the Trtsus 
are identical, as has been assumed by Ludwig, Rig- Veda, iii. 176, 
and Olden berg, Buddha, p. 413 ff., then the stanza states that the 
Bharatas (Trtsus) were powerless until Vasistha became their 
priest. Or, again, if we favor Hillebrandt's assumption that the 
Bharatas were defeated until the Tytsus with Vasistha at their 
head came to their assistance, it is again the presence of Vasistha, 
the representative of the Brahmanical principle, which is con- 
trasted with the condition of hostility or strangeness to ]^rah- 
manical life on the part of the Bharatas.* I am, for my part, 
inclined to adhere to the simplest construction of the stanza, that 
which would see in it the account of a battle between the Bha- 
ratas (kmtriya) and the Tilsus with Vasistha (hrahman), the 
latter being representatives of brahmanical orthodoxy. In the 
course of the n(;cwuy</-ceremony, at TS. i. 8. 10. 2 ; TB. i. 7. 4. 
2 ; G. 7, we find the formula esa vo hharaid rdjd, soma ^amdkam 
fn-dhtna ntlndm raja * This person here, O Bharatas, is your king ; 
iSoma is king of us, the Brahmans.' The TB. adds tasmat soma- 
rnjdno brdhmand/j. In V8. ix. 40 ; x. 18, the same formula 

•Oldenberg's after-thought (Z.D.M.a. xlii. 207 ff., based ujwn Ber- 
flpaigne, Religion Vediqae, ii. 862), that the Tftsus are identical with the 
v asi^tfaas, both being the priests of the Bharatas, seems to me the least 
probable of all that have oeen suggested. 

VOL. XVI. 6 



42 J/. Bloomfidd. 

occurs in the version esa vo ^ml rdjd^ etc., and Siiyana at ^B v. 3. 
3. 12 remarks that Bfiuddhfiyana reads esa vo hharatd etc., but 
that Apastamba presents the option of any of the following 
ethnic designations : hharatdh^ kuravah^ pancdldh, kurupaflcdldhy 
or the indefinite jandh* Correspondingly, in the Kfmva school 
of the VS. xi. 1 1 and 27, the formula occurs in the version esa vah 
kuravo rdjdi ^sa vah pancdld rdjd. It would seem as though the 
obvious prominence of the name bharata in the formula again 
accentuates the, so to speak, secular character of this clan : the 
Bharatas etc. with their ksatriyaAnvng on the one side ; the 
Brahmans with king Soma on the other. And we must not fail 
to remember in this connection that the Vasisthas are the typical 
Brahmans, as is stated explicitly e. g. at T8. iii. 6. 2. 1, tasmdd 
vdsistho brahiud kdryah. Upon the basis of this we would con- 
jecture a possible literal translation of RV. iii. 53. 24: * These 
sons of Bharata, O Indra, know separation [or separate feasts], not 
the (brahmaiiical) soma- feast.' Ihe expression cikitur nd /yrapi- 
tvdni may mean * they know not (or, they regard not) the matu- 
tinal soma-drink,' in the sense of *they do not participate in brah- 
manical sacrifices;' on the other hand, apapitvdm cikitur may 
mean either * they know (or regard) separate feasting (or separa- 
tion),' apapitvdia being the opposite of sapitvd^n. The warlike, 
non-brahmanical character of the Bharatas is also clearly ex- 
pressed in the second half of the stanza : * they drive the foreign, 
not the native horse ;t they lead about in the battle the prize 
gained by the bow-string.' 

We have thus concluded our course through the passages con- 
taining this group of words. There can be no illusion as to the 
degree of certainty which attaches to some of our interpretations; 
they are at times quite doubtful. But the majority of the pas- 
sages with which we have dealt are fairly clear, and in some 
cases the denial of the presence of the stem pita would seem to 
us to amount to mystification. We would emphasize once more 
that the relation of these words to the soma-practices runs like a 
red thread through a large number of the stanzas in which they 
occur. We may hope at 16ast to have established our funda- 
mental point, the connection of the words with pitii. The crit- 
icism in detail of the prevailing translations — if we may indeed 
speak of prevailing translations in the midst of so much unset- 
tledncss — will also arrest attention, and suggest to some one else 
the key to the renderings of some of the passages which our essay 
has not placed in the right light. 



* Cf. MS. ii. 6. 9 (69. 7), esa te janate rdjd etc. 

f The horse not bred at home, but obtained in predatory expeditions ? 
Perhaps * they drive their horses against their own people as though 
they were enemies/ thus again indicating the turbulence or the Bharatas. 



ARTICLE II. 



THE STORY OF EL-'ABBAS IBN ELAHNAF 
AND HIS FORTUNATE VERSES. 

By ClIARLKS C. TORRKY, Ph. D., 

INSTRU<TOH IN ANDOVP.it TIIR()M>C]K!AL SKMINARY. 



Presented to the Society April, ISO.*?. 



A VERY interesting, though little known, Arabic handbook of 
Polite Literature (v->i>l) is the work entitled The Rising-places 

of the Full-moons (^jj^Jl JvLl^ ^ )^^^ ^Lk^ ^Ixf), 

written by *Ala M-Din el-Ghoziili* of Damascus, who died in 
the Mohammedan year 815 (beg. Apr. 13, 1412 A. D.). It is 
composed on a very original plan, which cannot be described 
here, and gives a birds-eye view of Arab life and customs and 
literature in a good many different phases. H«'^gi Halifa (v. 59H) 
mentions it, citing the opening words ; and it is <piite fully 
described by F^lftgel, in his Catalogue of the Arabic, Persian, 
and Turkish MSS. in the Royal Library at Vienna, i. .37(5 ff. 
The book was first printed at Cairo, in the year 1882.f Manu- 
script copies are scarce ; very few, at least, have found their way 
to Western lands.;^ One came into the possession of the Library 
of the University of Strasburg§ in the winter of 1800-01, and 
at that time I was able to learn of only one other copy in Kurope, 
namelv that at Vienna. I have quite recently learned that the 
firm E. J. Brill, in Leyden, also posse.sses a copy.|| Of these 
manuscripts I sluill have more to say later. 



♦The full name is ^Lg^l &JLJI cX.a.x ^ ,J^ ^it<^^ '^^ 

t Brill. Catalogue p4riodique. No. 273(28). 

J In the colophon of the Cairo edition, the editor says that ho knows 
of only a very few MHS. of the work. 

§This MS., which was brought, with a number of others, from Zan- 
zibar, appears to l)e of Egyptian origin. 

I Catalogue (Tune Collection de Mnnuscritit Arahp.s et Tares. M. Th. 
Houtsma, Dr. ; 1890 ; No. 148. It is very much to he wished that some 
library in this country would purcliasc this important collection, wliich 
Is for sale. 



> 



4-t a a Tarrey, 

The 20th chapter of this )^d-^\ «JLkj« vyLxy is entitled 

Story-Telling by Night, in High Life (jvaajJI JlsdI 8y>oLuu«).* 

The chapter is divided into 7 *' Nights" (not 6, as Fltlgel states), 
each Night containing a single narrative. These narratives vary 
considerably in length, and are in no way connected with one 
another. They have, for the most part, a distinct historical 
flavor. Authorities are generally cited, sometimes with consid- 
erable care. The whole chapter occupies about 27 large octavo 
pages in the Cairo edition. f 

Soon after the above-mentioned manuscript was brought to 
Strasburg, l^rofessor Noldeke called my attention to the fact 
that, of the seven narratives of this 20th chapter, four at least 
are to be found in the Thousand and One Nights. J Upon making 
the comparison, I found the correspondence to be very close. 
Story No. 1 is the well-known tale of the Young Man of Bag- 
dad, who lost his fortune, and was obliged to sell his favorite 
singing-girl.§ No. 3 is the adventure of Ibnlhim ibn el-Mahdi 
at the house of the rich merchant, where he saw the beautiful 
hand at an upper window, and obtained entrance by playing the 
parasite II The Prologue to this tale, the narrative of the Para- 
site of el-Basra, a])pears in the 1001 Nights as the Story of the 
Barber.^ No. 5 is the historical anecdote of the reconciliation 
of Ibrahim ibn el-Mahdi with the Caliph el-Ma'm<in, with the 
episode of the barber-surgeon.** No. 6 is the story oi the Man 



* There is of course no necessary connection between this title and 
the *• 1001 Nights." Few Arab customs are older or more characteristic 

than the s^oLaaa^ . 

f Whole number of pa^es, 608. 

X It is not only in this 20th chapter of Ghozdli that parallels with the 
1001 Nights are to be found. The storv of Ibr&him el-Mau^ili and the 
Devil is told in Gh. i. 241 almost exactly as in the Nights. (In the lat- 
ter, a similar anecdote is told also of Ibrdhtm's son Ishdk.) The story 
of Ish&k el-Mauis^ili and the Basket is another example, though in Gh. 
(i. 248) the form of the narrative differs somewhat from that in the 
Nights, and the hero of the story is again Ibr&htm. 

flOOl N.,2d BmAk ed., iv. 208 ff. (890th Night); Habicht's ed., x. 
430 ff. (864th N.); Macnaghten's ed., iv. a57ff. (806th N.) ; Lane's trans. 
(1841), iii. 572 (of. ii. 578); Burton's trans., ix. 24. Also Kosegarten, 
Chrest. 22 ff. (of. especially Preface, pp. x. xi). 

I Bfll. ii. 256 (847th N.) : Hab. vii. 892 (606th N.) ; Mac. ii. 298 (846th N.): 
Lane ii. 506 (cf. i. 225 !) ; Burton iv. 278. Also Mas'ftdt (ed. Barbier de 
Meynard), vii. 12 ; el-Ikd el-Farid (2d ed.), iii. 884. The story is a great 
favorite. I have found it, more or less altered, in other places besides 
those here mentioned. 

1IB01. i. (30th N.); Hab. ii. 263; Mac. i. 249. In all editions and 
translations 

*♦ BAl. ii. 128 (278d N.) ; Hab. vii. 159 (536th N.) ; Mac. ii. 188 (27dd N.) ; 
I^ne ii. 886 ; Burton iv. 103. Also Mas'ftdi vii. 68-4, 67-72 ; AghAnt ix. 
60 ff.. and. more or less abridged, in a number of other places. GhozCilt 
cites as his authority W&kidi, who heard the story from Ibr&him 
himself. 



The Story of Kl.'Ahhda Ihn El-Ahmif. 46 

of Upper Egypt and his Frankish Wife, who had come to Pales- 
tine with tl)e crusaders.* In each of these cases, the form of the 
narrative as told by el-Ghoz<iIi is identical with that found in the 
1001 Nights ; in fact, the correspondence is to a great extent 
verbal.f Slory No. 2 also has points of connection with the 
Nights, as we shall see presently, though the relationship is far 
less apparent. Only Nos. 4 and 7 seem to have no such affinities. J 

I made a copy of the whole chapter, from the Strasburg MS. 
(S), in the early spring of 18J)1. This MS. is dated 1004,§ and 
18, on the whole, quite well written, though the writer omitted 
the diacritical points by the wholesale.|| Soon after, through the 
kindness and courtesy of the Library-Directors at Strasburg and 
Vienna, I was able to collate the Vienna MS. (V). This is dated 
965,*[ and is beautifully written, in a very distinct and even hand. 
The diacritical points are almost always j)resent. I also obtained 
a copy of the Cairo edition (C), and made a collation of this 
chapter. The edition seems to be based on a single manuscript. 
The text it presents is not so good as that of the Vienna man- 
uscript. 

The collati<m of this portion of the Brill Codex (B), which 
arrived after most of this article was already in print, shows that 
the manuscript stands on the same footing with the others. It 
presents a very good text, most nearly resembling that of S, but 
on the whole superior to it. My thanks are due to the members 



• Bftl. iv. 200 (894th N.) ; Hab. x. 421 (868d N.) ; Mac. iv. IJ53 (894th N.) ; 
Burton ix. 19. 

f The supposition is by no means unreasonable that Ghozfil! was used 
directly as a source by a compiler of the Nights. There is the alterna- 
tive of a common source (or sources), however. Of course the ques- 
tion cannot be touched upon here. One thing is certain : if there is 
direct dependence, the order is from Ghozi^li to the Nights, not the 
reverse. 

X No. 4 is a characteristic Bedouin tale of two separated lovers and 
their trusty friend ; short, but well told. As for No. 7, it was certainly 
never included in the 1001 N. It is the story of the Caliph Mo*dwia, 
his son Yezld, and the wife of *Abd-Allah ibn Sal&m, mentioned 
by Landberg, Provterbes, i. 155. Ghozilli borrowe<l it directly from 
Ibn Badrfin. It is long-winded and tiresome, and nobody but a 

JLiijOs^ would have found it sufficiently interesting to be included 

^^ 

here. The same version, slightly abridged, is given in IIumbert*s 
Analecia Arabica (Paris, 1838), pp. 72 if . 
g Beg. Nov. 22, 1653. 

I In thLs MS. constant use is made of the not uncommon system of 
diacritical signs according to which a small v-shaped mark written 

over — ., *, jww, yjOj and c indicates that they are to be read un- 
pointed, while the same is indicated in the case of <> and Ic by a dot 

underneath. I learn from a description of the Brill MS., kindly sent 
me by Dr. Herzsohn, of Leyden, that the same device is employed 
there also. S. abridges the narrative somewhat in the 6th and 7th 
Nights by omitting clauses from time to time. 

II Beg. Oct. 24, 1557. 



46 C. a Torrey, 

of the firm E. J. Brill for their kindness in allowing me the use 
of their manuscript, and to Dr. Herzsohn for his very careful 
copy.* 

So much by way of introduction. My ])re8ent purpose is to 
furnish the text of Narrative No. 2 of this series, according to 
the available manuscripts and the printed edition, with a transla- 
ti(m and some added comments ; and further to demonstrate, if 
possible, another point of connection, besides those already men- 
tioned, between the 1001 Nights and el-Ghoz(llt ; with the added 
hope of throwing some light on the origin of the particular nar- 
ratives under discussion. 

The second Night (aUiUJI xJLJJI) in el-Ghozdli's 20th chapter 
is a very good example of the semi-historical narratives already 
alluded to. Its hero is the j>oet el-*Abbas ibn el-Almaff (tl9*3 ?),J 
and the scene is laid in Bagdad. The omnipresent Caliph 
Plariin er-Rastd and his Veztr Yahya ibn Ilalid ])lay an important 
part. The whole is told in a remarkably simple and matter-of- 
fact way, however, and on no less an authority than that of the 
celebrated writer el-Mubarrad. I do not know that the story in 
this form is to be found anywhere else. 

The Arabic text given here, while containing readings from 
any of the sources, as they seemed preferable, will be found gen- 
erally to represent the Vienna MS., which is beyond question the 
best of all. I have restored hemza (in the M8S. written as usual 
A instead of i etc., and omitted altogether when in the line), 

and teMid in most cases. I have also added vowels here and 
there, according to my own judgment. The four versions pre- 
sent no important variations, only such as ordinarily arise in })ro- 
cess of transcribing. I have given them all here. The restored 
text has still some traces of copyist's blunders, common to all of 
the versions, as will be seen. Accordingly, all are to be traced 



* Besides making a ])retty careful comparison of those four Nights 
(1, H, 5. and 6) in Ghozfili with the standard eds. of the 1(K)1 N., and 
with the other sources mentioned above, I have compared the version 
of story No. 5 given in the very interesting Reinhardt Codex of the 
1001 N., owned by the Strasburg library. This MS. and the Macnaghten 
e<l. correspond here much more closely with (IhozOli than do any of the 
others. Passages of some length entirely wanting in the Breslau and 
BOI&k editions are supplied by Codex R. and Macn. together, one fur- 
nisliing a part and the other the rest. 



t The full name is ^^aJLSsJI v^JL^iH ^^ lT^-H^' J^-*^' r"?' 

^^L»jJI (^WaJI in Hag. Hal. iii. 243, vii. 1067, seems to be a mis- 
take). This poet seems to have been personally a great favorite among 
the men of his time. His verses were generally in an amatory vein. 

According to Ibn Hallik&n, not a single laudatory poem (^j Juo) is 

to be found in his dtvdn. C* 

X So Ibn Hallik&n. Ibn el-Ath!r, Chron. vi. IBO, gives the date as 

188, and adds that some authorities give 193. 



The Story of El-'Abhds Ihn El-Ahnaf. 47 

to a single copy, or else the autograph itself was faulty in these 
places.* V. must have stood close to the original, and none of 
the others can be far removed. In this story of el-' Abbas, the 
restored text is not wholly free from difficulties. In several 

§ laces, especially toward the end of the narrative, it has evi- 
ently been abridged, generally at the cost of clearness. In 
translating, 1 have tried to follow the original closely, without 
sacrificing English idiom. 



SLbyo UjJo Ji^ -'Jo J^y iu> 'jU Cui xSiLct ^ ''o\j\ 






J^ iU*J '^1 jwfJlS' tX^I; |.LIaJ i ^jOLiJC^Uj 1^)1^ 
'iAjU-S"! Jo UTJU |»-^ ^lo XXi auL:s:^b iUS^ &Jbe| 



*Froiii the (iharactor of some of the blunders, the former would 
Ht'eiii to havt* Ik'C'ii thi^ case. 

' Om. V. and C. e p f r ^y 

^^ ' ** C. pLuI , Hn<l inserts ^aV<^ 

* V. 3L^ (sic). after the next word. 

» C. ^^ d3y . B. om. Uj JlS . » V. Ub JiTI (sic). 




48 0, C, T(ytTey^ 

\jS^ U-'UJb i^y^S v>ljJLo iJ^vlaJI J^ ^ ^iUpU iyt> 



.lyi *^jC^ Lo ^IjuLc ^^ bL^I ^^^ bLu^l 'jJUl 



«^^;.a;^I b^<>^ ULTI b^l 131 lir^ J^ill yftjJI ioUsL^I 
^iiUu-o ^^ '^31^ U^ viJLJtXT lib ^^ ^^i(^ ^.M^ ^ iJuuJ 



15 ■" 



'^^•-^ &:^w!l ^ '^Ul^ J^^ 13b Juuol iJ bJUi LulU 



18 



UJU 



o o 



* C. Ri^^Muc , and omits tX-i*. . ^ S. inserts another cX^IJI . 
In B. 31 JJlo follows iLcjLi . • C. ^A-gJLJI . 

« C. UXi . 10 om. B. 

' V. jugjju , and (with S. and " So V. and S. S. rarely writei 

, , , ^, final Q in any other way ; thus evei 

B.) omits bl^l y^^y . The c.hashere J^. B. JLSo 

reading of V. may be the original, ^ 

aft<?r all. " S. omits if . 

* C. jJJUj . ^ * C. omits ^ . B. U« . 
^ V. ycXXwMj . B. ^aXIJu^ , ** B. s-ft>yaJ . 

expressly marked ^*^ I '* S B i_ft j>..^ 

« C. Loy» . '• C. &Jjt ^^.^ . B. jOity^ . 

' S. Uo^ . B. ^ ^1^ . S. is 11 B. Jjc! . 

especially apt to confound the two ,, 

forms of final A. *" C. B. Jb^ . 



The Story of El-'AhhU Ihn El-Ahnaf. 49 



^^jU U J5I auoiUJ JU ^jK' JlS^ JuujJI ^ sya} viyyLlI 

^ y /hlt l |»Ui0 LjAi^ u';)^ ^*^ ^*' <^* y^ 'c)' 1*^* 
,j^ LxLiti "xiaJ^ *°v.jLiui^ ^jUil^ (jU^^ ^U^ cS<J^ 
^H^t ^ 131^ jLa.yi ki^it^ Lblyi ^^ Lu^l ,v3 >iU3 



J^yi ki^il, Lblyi «i Uiif ^ ^^ \b\ '''i^^ ^ 



"bU^JuLoI L4; l^^ "LaILj Liiik ^^JLJI ,j,u^\ ^yjD lib 



' C. j^jJL^jI . B. transposes " ^' s-aA^d^^ . 

with thefoUowing. " C. aJLa-l J . 

« a v^U . " C. ^j Ujydil . 
»So B. and apparently S.; C. " C. ^^ju^I ; S. Lu^ . 

^^♦XAXSU . u s. B. v;i>U.iLo ; C. c^UiLJI . 

* V. IpUri (sic). Read sUiUI ? 

•R U^^Lj . "^ S. ^ ; C. ^j Luuoil . 

*S. B. c^Loi. ^* ^* inserts after this word 



^ C. 161 . and om. JlS ; S. B. Ji ^ ^^^ C^"*^^ 

"I In Thig whole clause from J^ on 

^ ' I ^ is hardly more than a mere repeti- 

• 8. B. add ^^^ , B. I g a 3 , tion of the preceding, and probably 

omitting • . haditsorinninacopyist^8l>lunder. 

^ J I have omitted it m the translation. 

*C.^yAu. '• I. e., sliAXoT . 

VOL. rvi. 7 



50 C. C. T(yrrey, 



LJ 



; g t^ A ^ *je^ *il pXii ^jJI -^^1 J\ s^ftjo 'Jl 



'LJULJ 05; &^^ oyi i 'vlU3 ^5^5 5^ »Ju^ i( «j| 



**7** 7*^ '^ ^'i'^ r*^ ****'^ **^^^ "^7*^ vJ* 



La53 ^L^ «:,Io V>h?«' «>^li'3 X=»;l^ 1*^1^ "i >^H--« 



^ vsJLj '*54Xj» |«Xsi*i "oolj^ i3!»;ii^' ^5Jl* (j«^JLaaJI 



IP T. '8. B. biJ. 
' C. ijU . 

* C. Joo ^ ^)l . '8.6. U^ lUM ^j.^30 UjUaj 

• c. di"o . B. y^ . ^1 :^i (B. jLs 61) JUi . 

< I. e., of course, ^JJb . So B. lo c. J|3 . 

» V. B. UJJL&J , which would 

imply that the preceding was read * ®* ^yj^^ • 

aul(>l^ . B., I find, really has the " S. ^^ (sic), otherwise as in 

point under the 4> . the text. C. has J^ L5&43uum ^b^ 

• This and all that precedes, be- jvSly^ . The feminine is undoubt- 
ginning with Ll^. , is omitted in edly correct, and appears again 
C, the double occurrence of the b«low. See the translation, 
word «ff^^ being the occasion of is g 1^ 

the blunder. ^ 

'Read^LjC^^? S.B. " C. ^^.LUI . B. ^^ Ud,U . 

have *Juo (B. O jO) ouU3 J^ " S- o^j'^ . 

and omit &i^ . i« om. S. 



The Story of El-'AU&s Ihn El-Ahnaf. 61 






ioLxftiH L)U ,^-L* ^^^ ^^ Lux (.Ul^ Ljjyuiti 



jy »Sy "^ UlUi Luc yJLXa.t ,v5 "jUajSuOJ ;^^I^ «J^ 
^iXxi &JLjo aLM<u»xib ^«JLe xJ o«ju |J^ iliJ^ ^^^ ^O^^ 



1 C. and S. j-v ^ '«gv ^ . 


B. 


«a^|. 


^^VS^^A^U. 




» Om. C. 


» Read ^T^LXJ ? B. (jd*J . 




"C. ^^. 


' C. LJU , and omits &j . 




" C. KA^Juugj (sic). 


* For 51 , as usual. 




" It is evident that something 



' S. B. have the consonants all 

. . , ,x . , ^ . (perhaps od^ ?) has fallen out be- 

unpointed, V. apparently y^:^\_^ , ^*^ ^ '*'^ ' 

though the point might belong to fore this word ((jd^jo). 

the " 

^ ' "V. appears to have ^JCi (sic !), 

• C. J^xlai , S. JoAJ . though the three points are so 

placed that they might be distrib- 

' V. ^^U, as usual. B. has uted in almost any way. 

«JLH^ after JUi . » V. ^j,,,^^ ^jLo . 



1 



52 C. C. Tmrey, 



»J3LsJ» JU Ur »Ai OXj 



£ ^ 



^^yTi »^ i^jjuo dUbl Ui j^^. 



JhlJ-^ ^> Jhh^ v-^ i ^ jj? io 161 'uLc'jJ\ ^ 



JU |vS' &3LJU iaj0ol^ aO^b ^ iaj0ol Lb ^y^a^ cm 



^^^1 ^^A^U pXJUcLcl v^5 i^Juu yfi.A^ "UsD U "'^y^l b 

l%Xi^l JUi &JUO UJL4i Jcyu^M ^1 Lb I^JLyp ^S3^ JyJ\ 



^juu ^^ ^ uK', ou^ill ^^ ^LoJI bl ^^..Ja, y 



f c. 131 if I . inserts after these words ^«J I 

xJLJI ^ 

»B. w^LaJI . The metre is 5 • 

Tawli. ^ " After this word C. B. insert ^ , 

* S. jv.4jb*icJo . S. ^ . One would prefer to read 

• S. and V. S^ . 



' B. ^y^ Ue^l JJU LoLl . " ^- V5***' cs^^ • 

« C. iLSLo Jl . B. om. Lo^ » V. C. B. ^1 . 
eceding). ^ ^^,' 



The Story of El-'Ahbds Ihri EUAhnaf. 53 

>li Jo ,j^ ^^kiytJ^S UjI ^Ux b viX^U^ '^ JUi JJI^ 
*«J JLJljJLJ j^JJI ^T^ ^n^JIajU ^^-*^5 JtXiJLo ^^ JLl ^L&JI 



v:^^^7^' 



in. 



^y^jujl 






^^wuuOtt^l «juel '^sL^4> *^ &;o^L5^ iC"*^^ J^^H^^ 



» Om. S. B. » s. 10. 

* C. ^„^J:^ . 



^° C. yu (sic). 
» V. S. B. w JJI . „ n I I •• 

*I. e., dUlli , infin. of ^| i» c. ^^1 . 



-. O " o ^ 

AA^,_> . But C. 

•» 



* V. S. dJ xis Ju . B. aO^ Jul 
, , . ^ SyJL>M„V , the s being regarded as 

dU (81C). ; 

' c. xj|, . 7 . 

-^ " C. » JjD . B. inserts xj after 

** C. SJilcX-J , S. J^Ll-? (un- 1^ 

doubtedly for Jif^Xj with the 

»« B Lfei> 
usual diacritical point under the ' * 

4>). B. Jif JL? . " V. bIjJ . 

VOL. XVI. 8 



54 C. C. Torrey, 



<'-• . » > 



^•oUsJ '^fj J^pl^ .^ ^ ^\ ^ &AiU jy ^ 



ibUI^I aUL^ 'v5^^' &SSu^SSuo v:>jt^^ l^SU^; v;:^tul »f;t 



o . P- 



^^1 ^^yi AJbl Ju«yi 4Xa.5> oJUi ^^ '^JUe U JuSiL. 



4 •» 



/^s>'yi L^ o>g>^ Axiuo I g,o ^1^ ^Li v::^LajI &JU^I v:>JU (X3* 






f* w 9 






> •• > f» • > 






9^09 9., 9.W 



d^ 






,wjS^.«we ^jo JJI vdJU^I ^1; 



9 65 ^ -'-» , «f« -* •- C -* 9 



^^iAi) U Jj> ,4^1 ^1 



* B. Ijja . The words seem to * C. o^aaS^ . 

be a serio-comic adaptation from 

the Koran (Sur. xxiii. 46). C. has • C. S. B. v:i>Luifl &JUj jft . 

<<4X> ..vAJ instead. 

" '^'^ 'Om. v.; 8. B. add I JUS. 

»B. UjuJI. ^^ 

** S. y^j^jtOMjuo . In B. the second 

D. ihtlaAj^ . g^jj^i fourth half -verses have ex- 

* Om. B. changed places. 



The Story of EUAlh&s Ihi EUAhnaf. ' 55 



•JjLk;)! yii W ^» C5 



'vlAJi^ v^AiJ^J' y^uJ^% 






O -* ,. '"-'». o^ 



j.^^aJI^ JmJJ ^ «^j^- 



-^. " > <* 






» C. J JsL) . " C- S. ^^- . In B. the first 

consonant is unpointed, and the 

* B. 1^3 . final letter is | . 

' All the texts have SUttJlAMJI n a • ' r au , 

(except B., which leaves the s un- , ^ ,^ i • • 

^ . * , ^ , , ,, , places where a vowel is given, 
pointed), but a glance at the metre 

is sufficient to show the true read- " C. J| (^UjGU o^-to-* ,*i* 

ing. The suffix in xJ refers of .j 

cou«eto ,,.I«UJI . ^,^ j^^ j^ „■ ^, 1^ 

* The metre is K&mil. . i . t < . i i 

,.v^9u Uj XxCuI lotw ool) bo 

' Metre, SarT. B. adds I Jti . ^"^^ . ^ "^ 

r^ ^^KJ JJJI^ l*XJ» ^^^ IL^ 

•B.oU!uaJ. ^^ JUi &. cj^- 



•C. L.lj>l. •» B. w ^^..oiijl ool il idJI^ . 



56 C. C. Torrey, 






* ^ 



^^^1 'aJUol^ u^-^ ^J^l ^l^ f^ ^. f^) J^ /^y 

SLSil^ ^ *S5 Lc vAiflJI IJJD ^XU vLJLs «>^^ "siU ^L 
o» *n g ) |%»J ^Inx o^^ jiflgAi '^s^L.AA^ ^^[J...AMj] »L^ f^ 



' V. B. ^1 . " V. J . 

' S. L«jo . " Something of the kind has 

fallen out here and must be sup- 

^ S. B. ^tf w3 . plied, as the context shows plainly. 

/ it is an interesting fact that all 

* B. ^ v t^ , the ijo marked the texts show the same gap. 

th the JLUjx . 1.. c. a^^Ui . V. »pUi . 

... » V. ^. Jul . 

« S. B. JU^ , and omit J . * ' i5^^->^ ' 

p- 

• S. ^yXMf , " C. ^^ySb , and omits ^\ , 

B. wyoill . B. om. Jo . 



10 



The Story of EUAhbda Ihn ElrAhnaf. 57 



« •* 



'^t L oJUi 'KxasUJ oJU LJ ^j^yJ^ y*^\ 'o^- 
♦^^ ^jSf Ijje JU5 ut,A » LffUa^U fjjt (-aaS* ^j^Ox^f 

Lo oJLS oLL*ill y^ i;«U*J» JU 'jJ^ ^^ oJLs dLJI 



J ^ • •• 



^^Ij.^. viU ^^ ^^ jljJI ^ ^•^^- il J dLLo JuJI 



»C. e 



•a &;l 



» Om. B. 
1 B. ^juoL) • *** ^* is evident that something is 



' C. B. ». , but corrected in B. •"'^''*« ^^'^- ^*"''*l« "^^^"-^^ 
to^^. "Om-C. B. ^ill. 

.B. jJU. "S-insertsi. 

.^ ^, . # 11 • " B. om. JLp and xj . 

•S. omits the four followmg ^ 

words, the double occurrence of uq^ ^ y g^ ltX_JD 

,^:Aij !> being the occasion of the C / * ^ 

blunder. ;'^' • 

'V. B. ^b\. "B. IjjD JJU^. 

VOL. XVL 9 



58 G. a Tcynrey, 

1^:^43 ^ ^^u ^5Jji ^-jjdJ» I jLfi cWJi si^ 2f 



fi «» 



xJUt JLjO iJ LJUi JUI |*XAi ^Jy»\^ £^^* |JC^I«1 

L^Ai u js\ iLb ^^,M„^,.s :^ 's^ &jLa^ 2b^u oai^^ 



o ^ 



Jod. 1^ '^&SLo io.A3 v^^AjlIU "sIjU:>.U pLjbi> &5I. s> 



> s. B. ^Lo . • c. AyX^ . 

« Om. B. 



' 



' Tlie ordinary form of expres- ' ^jum«.S9u (2d pers.), if the text 

sion would be U.a-U |W-^Li jg eorreet. S. ^-u-^^U (4th stem, 

auXe U » M « H lj : cf . e. g. Aghdni passive), which is at least as good ; 

vii. 125. 11. After these words we in B. the first consonant is un- 

should expect at least Ji before pointed. C. ijMdSuo . 
JU . 

* Om. B. S. Lj^yCAjJ . ' ^- ^^^^ ^'*">- 

»C.B. Lj-j^Lo. the same diver- »V. C. B. iK . B. has 

gence from V. and 8. as that noted Ljjl^Lo 

above in the case of L.^' Juuww . 

There is no further mention of this " ^' B. ^JuoUumI . C. ^JuoLmI . 

* mistress,' and in the negotiations 

that follow only the actual owner „ ^ i ? 

of the girl (L-J^if.— x) appears. •• 3 ' 

I ^ gA '^l ^ ^l«> Jt would have " 8. B. add ^LjLj4> . V. 8. B. 

been less ambiguous. omit the three following words. 



The Story of FI-' Abbas Ibn El-Ahnaf. 59 

JU '^^^U iL. jji xiU "LJLs 'jL, UT sLbo &5l.,M..s. 

"xSL. vi^iki- djJj Cs. ^^ Lff^yc ^ «lAi.>Lai Jju ijl^ 

«y^i jiy ^Jl vii l;:^)uo lj «j|) Ui «^^UL? u^^ 



' V. S. B. JU . • Here, where |»J» Jc*L«. yjLi 

is really needed, it is wanting! 

' C. adds iMx^i . Read jJokfiU ? C. has juk^U . 

• S. LjJ (8ic). ' ^- ^- J*^' • 

, ^ B. adds xJ , and omits Jo . 

* C. LjJ . There is evidently 10 g^ IjD^yo USv>Lai . 

a «littograph here. The second , . ^ .. 01 ... 1 ... ,, 

*^ Jl&Um ijL9 , at any rate, is to / ... 

be canceled, and it is perhaps best 
to read Laj here, and strike out 



S. B. ..wxi 




the following words as far as "The narrative in these last 
^1 . lines is so condensed as to be ob- 

•y5 Ld . scure. 



60 C. a Torrey, 



Translation of the Story of El-^Ahbds Ibn EUAhnaf and his 

Fortunate Verses. 

Narrated by Abu 'l-*Abb^ Mohammed ibn Yeztd, the gram- 
marian, generally known as el-Mubarrad.* 

I heard the story (he says) from Mohammed ibn *Amir el- 
Hanafi,f one of the chiefs of the tribe Bekr ibn Wa'il. At the 
time of my acquaintance with him he was a very old man, living 
in straitened circumstances ; but he was one who, whenever he 
found anything left over from his scanty means, was generous 
with it. He had been formerly prefect of the police of el-Basra, 
and he told me this story, which I repeat. I have happened to 
hear it from another source, and 1 do not remember now what 

Farticulars were added or omitted in either of the two versions ; 
am only sure that all the essential points of the narrative are 
contained in that which I relate. 

The story goes that there were certain young men who had 
joined themselves together into one band, each of them a member 
of the wealthy class of society, who had withdrawn from his 
own people, and was content with the society of his comrades. 
One of their number recounts as follows : We had hired a house 
looking out upon the most frequented street of Bagdad. We 
were sometimes poor and sometimes rich, according to what one 
or another of us could get out of his people, and we were not 
unwilling that the burden of providing for us should fall upon 
some one of our number, if he was equal to it, or that one and 
another of us should be left without a copper, in which case his 
comrades would stand by him for any length of time. In times 
of prosperity we used to feast, and call in the musicians and 
singing-girls. We occupied the lower part of the house ; so, 
when we were in want of diversion, our place of resort was a 
certain balcony, where we could amuse ourselves with looking at 
the passers-by. J At all times, whatever the state of our funds, 
we kept a supply of nehtdfi% on hand. 

One day, while we were occupied in the manner just described, 
a young man, a stranger, asked to be admitted to our presence. 
We replied : " Come up !" So there appeared a well-dressed man, 
with a pleasant face, of noble disposition, || one whose appearance 
indicated that he was a man of condition. Approaching us, he 



* Born 207, died 285 A. H. 

1 1, e., a member of the family Hanlfa, who was the son of Lugaim 
ibn Sa*b ibn 'All ibn Bekr ibn w£^il. He thus belonged to the same 
family as el-*AbbAs himself. 

X This feature of the Bagdad club has a very modern sound ! 

g The well-known substitute for wine. 

I This part of the description is a little premature, evidently. The 
enthusiasm of the narrator may excuse him. 



The Story of EWAbhds Ihn El-Ahnaf. 61 

said : " I have been told of your social life together, and your 
admirable good-fellowship, which is such that you have come by 
degrees to have one heart in common, as it were. And I had a 
strong desire to become one of you ; so do not treat me ceremo- 
niously, as an intruder." It happened that just then our stock 
of provisions was very low, while nebtdh was abundant. Now 
the man had said to his servant : " As soon as they grant me per- 
mission to become one of them, produce what you have brought !" 
So he (the slave) disappeared for a moment, and then reappeared 
with a oamboo basket filled with dainties fresh from the bake-shop, 
kid's flesh and young fowls, and thin cakes; also uhidn, and mahlab^ 
and tooth-sticks.* So we applied ourselves tof these, and then to 
our neMdhy and the man relaxed, and we found him the liveliest of 
Allah's creatures when he was telling stories, and the best possible 
listener while another was narrating, and most admirable in refrain- 
ing from contention when there was difference of opinion. We 
used often to test him by proposing to him that which we were 
sure he would dislike, but he always showed us that it was just what 
he wished, and we could see this in the lighting-up of his face. 
While he was with us, we never lacked for bright and witty con- 
versation, and we used to read over his anecdotes together ; and, 
as it happened, that occupied us so completely that we failed to 
find out about the man himself or his lineage. In fact, we got 
possession of nothing more than his kunyaji for we asked him 
what it was, and he said : " Abu'1-Fadl." One day, soon after we 
had received him as our comrade, he said to us : " Shall I tell you 
how I came to know about you ?" We replied : " We shall be 
very glad to hear." So he said " I have fallen in love with a 
certain girl here whose mistress has charge of singing-girls,§ and 



* Vsndn is alkali for washing the hands ; mahlab, an aromatic grain 
used for perfuming. It was generally mixed with the alkali. It may 
seem strange that our hero should have seen fit to furnish his newly- 
made acquaintances with toothpicks and toilet-soap, in addition to the 
eatables ; but it was quite in keeping with Bagdad etiquette that he 
should do 80. Such accessories as these were indispensable to every 
meal in high life, and it was evidently good form to be particular about 
them. Ghozdli himself devotes nearly a whole chapter-division (ii. 64 

ff.) to the preparation and use of (^LuiitU _. 1 ^ ^ tL J^kji.! . 

t Dozy (Suppl.) gives a single example (Kosegarten, Chrestom. 147. 

11) of this use of ^^yo v^Lol , which he renders "godter." I find it 

also in Ghoztllt i. 238. 14 ;' 248. 17. 

X The nickname, which every Arab had. As we might say that we 
had learned only the first name of a new acquaintance. 

g It was at this time the regular thing, particularly in Baf2:dad and 
the neighboring cities, for numbers of especially promising slave-girls 
to be educated together in establishments under competent manage- 
ment. (Cf. Kremer, Kulturgeschichte des Orients, ii. 108 ff.) Such 
houses as these often play an interesting part in stories of the 1001 N. 
The girls were carefully trained in music and poetry, and it was almost 
always the case that a few in each establishment were celebrated far 



62 C. a Torrey, 

I used to sit by the street waiting for her to pass by, that I 
might see her. But at last, when I was worn out from sitting 
beside the street, I saw this balcony of yours ; so I asked about 
it, and was told of your good-fellowship and how you help one 
another. Then the wish to become one of your number grew 
hardly less strong* within me than the passion for the girl." 
So we asked him about her, and he informed us. Then we said 
to him : " We will leave no effort untried until we have enabled 
you to get possession of her !" But he replied : " O my 
brothers, you see in what a state of passionate love for her I am, 
and yet I have never been able to use unlawful means. I can 
only wait for her, with all possible patience, until Allah shall 
graciously bestow riches upon me, and then I will buy her." 

So he remained with us two months, and we were in the 
highest state of delight at having him among us as our comrade. 
Then he suddenly disappeared from us, and his absence caused 
us the greatest sorrow and distress ; moreover, we knew of no 
dwelling-place of his, where we might seek him. So everything 
in our existence became gloomy which had been gay, and we 
found those things hateful that had been beautiful in his society. 
It began to be the case that we experienced no joy or sorrow 
without calling to mind how we had been united with him in 
friendship, and our joy in his presence, and our grief at his 
absence. Our condition was that described in the words of the 
poet : 

Whatever good or ill I experience reminds me of them ; 

And yet how far removed I am from them, in spite of the remembrance I 

So he was absent from us for about twenty days. Then, one 
day, as we were coming from er-Ru8afa,f all of a sudden he 
appeared, attended by a stately cavalcade, and himself in gorgeous 
array. The moment he saw us, he dismounted from his beast, 
and his servants dismounted also. Then he said : '* O my 
brothers, life has been of no use to me since I have been deprived 
of you ! I will not make you wait for my story until we come 
to the house, but turn aside, and come along with us now to the 
mosque." So we went with him, and he said : " I will tell you 
first of all who I am. I am el-*Abbas ibn el-Ahnaf ; and this is 



and wide for beauty and for skill in song. Visitors were of course 
welcome, as possible purchasers, and it is easy to understand how these 
houses l)ecame the most popular gathering-places for rich young men 
of taste. Our hero, being low in funds, was reduced to straits. 

n^^La:^ ^:yl^i makes here the impression of a phrase in common use. 

It is one with which I am not familiar, however. 

* Reading ^jlio . 

f The name of a quarter in the eastern part of Bagdad, especially 
known as the burial-place of the Abbaside Caliphs. Ibn Athir, vii. 185, 

speaks of a &iLo Jl ^i^ . 



The Story of El-'AIU^ Ihi EI^Ahnaf. 63 

what happened to me after I left you. I went to my dwelling, 
and lo and heboid, a guard from the palace'*' appeared and took 
me in charge. So I was taken to the royal residence, and upon 
my arrival there was brought into the presence of Yahya ibn 
H^id, who cried out to me : " O ^Abbas ! I have selected you 
from among the makers of elegant verses, because of the aptness 
of your improvising, and your painstaking deliberation, and also 
because the matter to which I have summoned you is something 
in which you will be interested. You know the whims of the 
Caliphs. I mubt tell you that the girl Maridaf is just now in 
power with His Highness, but the two have quarreled ; so now 
she, in the presumption of a favored mistress, refuses to seek for 
forgiveness ; and he, in the majesty of the Caliphate and his 
royal dignity, also holds back. I have sought to bring about the 
reconciliation from her direction, but the task has proved too 
much for me. Now he is the more inclined of the two to re- 
kindlel the affection ; so do you compose some verses by way of 
making this easy for him." Then, just as he had finished speak- 
ing, the Caliph summoned him, and he went into his presence. 
I was given ink and paper, but consternation had seized me, and 
taken every rhyme out of my head. Then I had a sudden inspi- 
ration (for inspiration is sent only at intervals),§ and there 
came to me four verses that just suited me — verses of the 
necessary point, of smooth diction, and exactly corresponding 
to what was required of me. So I said to one of the messengers : 
** Tell the Veztr that I have composed four verses, and, if they 
will suffice, I will send them in." The messenger came back to 
me with the answer : " Let us have them ; the smallest one of 
them will suffice !" Now, while the messenger was going and 
coming, I had composed two more verses, with a different 
rhyme-letter ;] so I wrote the four verses on the upper part of 
the sheet, and followed them with the two. 
The first strophe was as follows : 

The two lovers have quarreled ; 

Each feels agg^eved, each nurses anger. 



* 84>L»omJ1 , lit. ' wearing the black ' (the Abbaside color), came to be 

the technical designation for those in the employ of the Caliph. 

t A slave-girl of foreign parentage, and an especial favorite with 
er-RaAtd. She was the mother of the Caliph el-Mo' ta^im. Mas'ddt vii. 
108 and Ibn Athir vi. 874 give the names of her parents. 

X The word in the text means to train (horses) well, to bring into 
lively condition. 

^ A punning reference to the Koran, Sur. xxiii. 46. 

I The lines of an Arabic poem must all rhyme with each other, and 
are so written that the terminal letter (which is the same throughout) 
Is repeated in unbroken succession down the page, forming a perpen- 
dicuJar row as regular as an embroidery pattern and called the *^ fringe." 
A change in the rhyme-letter means accordingly a new poem (or 
strophe). 



64 C. C. T&rrey, 



She has turned away in wrath from him, and he from her ; 
Each is weary of whatever might bring healing. 

Return to the loved-ones you have renounced ; 

The enslaved one,* truly, should not stand long aloof. 

When the estrangement between you has lasted long, 
Then indifference creeps in, and the reconciliation sought is hard to 
reach ! 

And I had written below this : 

To every lover the time is sure to come 

For him to stand *twixt strife and dissension sore ; 

Until, when he feels the quarrel too long drawn out, 
He returns, in spite of himself, to his love once more If 

When the Cali])h heard these verses, he said : *' Really, it souDds 
as though I myself were the one aimed at here !" Yahyd replied : 
" Sure enough, you are the one intended ; this was written by 
el-Abb/ls ibn el-Ahnaf, to fit this very case." The Caliph said : 
" I have never seen verses that describe our present circumstances 
more exactly than these." Then, as he read the lines, and came to 
the words: " He returns, in spite of himself, to his love once more," 
he caught the humor of the situation, and burst out laughing, so 
that I heard him. Then he said : "Very well, I will ' return in spite 
of myself.' Here, boy, fetch the mule !" J So he rose up to go, and 
his joy made him forget to reward me. So Yahya called me, and 
said : " Your verses made a magnificent hit, but joy caused the 
Amir to forget to reward you." I replied : " Very well ; only I 
can't say that these tidings make much of a ^ hit ' with me !" iout 



* I. e. enslaved by Love ; an expression often occurring in Arabic 
poetry. 

f I had been struck by a certain resemblance between the last line of 
this couplet and that of the graceful verses quoted by Ghozdli in 
another place (i. 280) : 



I notice now that Mas'Mt (vii. 246) in citing a portion of the latter, 
ascribes it to el-*Abb&s ibn el-Al^af . 

X I should have been inclined to read with C. Jjij (' shoes,' or ' san- 
dals,') if I had not happened to come across a passage in Agh4nl (ix. 
90) telling how the Caliph er-RaHtd kept a little black donkey for the 
pmpose of riding about from one apartment to another in ms palace. 

^^1 ^ gjS^ 4>^l aJ (jK' ^Ussu ^*b ,3;L4^ lyjLsD JUi . 



Tlic Sltonj of PU-'Ahhm Thn El-Ahnaf, 65 

soon a messenger* came, and spoke with him aside. Then he 
(Yahya) sprang up, and I, who had remained where I was, now 
sprang up too. " 'Abbas," he said, " you are bound at last to be- 
come the richest of men. Do you know what private message 
this man has brought me ?" I answered : " No." lie said : " He 
told me that Marida came to meet the Caliph, when she heard of 
his approach, and said to him : * O Commander of the Faithful, 
how has this happened ?' He handed her the poem, saying: * This 
has brought me to you.' ' Who is its author ?' she asked ; and 
he replied : * E1-* Abbas ibn el-Ahnaf.' * And what have you done 
for him?' *I have done nothing yet.' * Then,' said she, * I vow I 
will not sit down until he is rewarded.' So the Amtr puts him- 
self at her bidding,! and I put myself at his ; and they are wait- 
ing now with rival eagerness for your coming. So all this is for 
you." I answered : " What am I to get from * all this,' as you call 
It, except the visit with them ?" He laughed, and said : " i ou are 
more humorous now than you were in your verses !" 

So the Caliph ordered a great sum of money to be given me,t 
and Marida and the Vezir followed his example, and I was raised 
to all this state of magnificence which you see. The Vezir said, 
moreover : " One thing more is needed to make your fortune com- 
plete, and that is that you should not leave this palace until you 
have provided yourself with an estate for part of this money." 
So an estate was bought for me, for twenty thousand dinars, and 
the rest of the money was paid over to me. And this is the 
adventure which kept me from you. So now come, and I will 
divide the money and the estates with you." We said to him : 
** We wish you all joy of this property of yours ! As for us, 
we are all back again in Allah's own prosperity. "§ He insisted, 
but we would not hear of it. Then he said : ** Come with us now 
to where the girl is, and we will buy her." So we went to 
the dwelling of her mistress, and found her a beautiful girl, with a 
charming face, one whose excellence was unsurpassed in elegance 
of speech and aptness of expression.] She was valued at 150 

* The word is wanting in the text. 

t In L^LJlI fv^ti' there is a punning reference to tlie imJL:^ of 

the preceding sentence. For the ordinary use of the expression cf. 
e. g. 1001 N. (Macnaghten) iii. 418. 13. 

i It is characteristic of the manner of this narrative that the most 
interesting scene of the entrance of the fortunate poet into the pres- 
ence of the Caliph and M&riJa and his reception by them is wholly 
passed over. 

$S I. e.. we are more than satisfied in having you with us again. ^ 

1 1 am not sure just what accomplishment is intended by dbt^U 
JuLm Ji . In the story of Ibrdhim el-Mau^il! and the Basket, as told 

by GhozOli, the hero tells his cliarming acquaintances, the slave-girls, 
not to show themselves next day when he brings his companion, nor 
to let their voices be heard from behind the curtain except * in such 

songs and recitations (?) as they may select McUjJI ^>o &3%jCiS^' Lo ^ 

iLJjA JyS ^ &aJUl» ^I): i. 244, 18. ^ / jm 

VOL. XVI. 10 r 



I 



66 C. a Torrey, 

diniirs; hut, when her owner saw us, he demanded of us 500 
dinars for her. We expressed our astonishment at this, so he 
came down one hundred in the price, then one hundred more. 
But el-*Abbas said : " O my friends, I am really ashamed, after 
what you have said,* but she is a necessity to me, and the one 
thing needful to complete my happiness ; so, if you approve, I 
will do what I intend." We answered: "Say on." He said: "I 
have had my eye upon this girl for some time past, and purpose 
now to bestow upon myself this crowning gift. And I am 
unwilling that she should look upon me as haggling over her 
price. If you agree, I will give him 500 dinars for her, as he 
has demanded." ** But," we said, " he has already come down 
two hundred in the price." " Even that fact shall make no dif- 
ference," he answered. But her master proved to be a generous- 
minded man, for he kept three hundred dinars, and gave her the 
remaining two hundred for her outfit. f 

And el-* Abbas remained with us, in close friendship, until 
death separated us. 

Corr€^po7idences and Comments. 

Professor Noldeke directed my attention to the fact of a certain 
resemblance between this story and that of Abu '1-Hasan of Hora- 
sun, narrated in the 1001 Nights. J (Found in the Bfllak and Cal- 
cutta [MacnaghtenJ editions,g but wanting in the Breslau ed. 
Lane's trans, omits it, as do the English translations generally. 
Burton, ix. 229 ff., has it.) Its main features are as follows : A 
certain rich young merchant of Bagdad falls desperately in love 
with one of the favorite slave-girls of the Caliph el-Mutawekkil. 
He manages, at the risk of his life, to enter the palace, disguised 
in the Caliph's own clothes. After once or twice barely escaping 
discovery, he accidentally meets the sister of his charmer, who at 
first takes him for a robber, but finally brings about a meeting 
of the two lovers. Just as they are rushing into each other's 
arms in the approved fashion, a messenger appears at the cham- 
ber door and announces the approach of the Caliph. It is a 
moment of desperation, but the girl thrusts her lover into the 
refrigerator, II and shuts the cover after him. So the Caliph 
enters. He is in trouble, for he has had a quarrel with the girl 



* I. e., after you have taken the trouble to beat the man down in his 
price. 

!I. e., the gahdz, or bridal furnishings. 
Concerning the nature of the resemblance intended by him I can 
only conjecture, as I neglected to ask. I did not at that time expect to 
make a special study of this 2nd Night. 
§ Bdl. iv., (959th N.) ; Macn. iv., 557 flF. 

I v^lj%.AM , generally a small underground chamber, where provis- 
ions, wine, etc., could be kept cool. Burton remarks that almost every 
house in Bagdad has one, though it is unknown in Cairo. The word is 
Persian. 



The Story of KJ^'AlMs lU El-Ahnaf, 67 

el-Benga,* his favorite of all the hartm, and wishes our heroine, 
who is the most skilful of the singing-girls, to comfort him with 
her music. She takes a lute, and improvises some verses calcu- 
lated to soften his heart. f The singer surpasses herself. The 
Caliph is enraptured, and the young man, listening from the 
depths of the refrigerator, is so excited that, as he himself ex- 
presses it, ** had it not been for the grace of Allah Almighty, I 
should have shouted for joy, and thereby brought destruction on 
myself and my friends." After listening to a few more verses 
of the same sort, His Majesty trots off to make peace with his 
favorite, first rewarding the singing-girl by releasing her from 
slavery and making her a free woman. So the young man is 
brought forth from his narrow quarters, and measures are at once 
taken to get him out of this dangerous place, the palace. He is 
disguised as a woman, and attempts to pass out unobserved, but 
is discovered, and brought before el-Mutawekkil. He regards 
himself as a dead man, and in sheer desperation tells the exact 
truth. But the Caliph, instead of ordering his head to be cut 
off, pardons him, and marries him to the girl ; and the two live 
together in happiness and luxury to the end of their days. 

Here* is the genuine flavor of the " Arabian Nights." The 
story is told with all the bright coloring and splendor of circum- 
stance with which we are familiar, full of striking situations and 
hair-breadth escapes. It makes a far more dazzling and exciting 
tale than this " Second Night " of ours, which seems bare and 
commonplace in comparison. Moreover, we receive the impres- 
sion of two entirely distinct stories, standing in most respects 
far apart. But it is quite possible, after all, that the two are 
closely related to each other. 

There is one point, manifestly, at which they cross : namely, 
the fact that in each a Caliph is reconciled to his mistress by the 
influence of an opportune verse of poetry. In both el-Ghozdli 
and the 1001 Nights this is the hinge on which the whole story 
turns. The narrative at this point, moreover, exhibits a certain 
verbal correspondence in the two versions. J In the story of 



* So named in. all the editions, and further defined as the mother of 
(the Caliph) el-Mo*tazz. But the name Is incorrect, and the result of a 
Hcribal error for KabH^a. Cf . Mas^Adt vii. 270, 372 ; Ibn Athtr vii. 185. 
The latter adds that el-Mutawekkil gave her this name (* Ugly-face ') 



because of her extreme beauty : ^,.,^,^,-f,H UDLft.AM J^yC«JI ^1^ 

K^K' J^^l jc-*-*/^ UJ" L^Ua^^ IgAM*.^) ; which latter com- 
parison reminds one of how in our Southern States, in slaverv times, 
•• Snowball " was a name frequently given to particularly black darky 
babies. 

t Hie verses are quite different, however, from those in el-GhozAlI. 

X This, together with the point of agreement just mentioned, I sup- 
pose to have constituted the resemblance alluded to by Professor 
Xdideke. 



68 0, a Torrcy, 

Abu M-Hasan, the incident is introduced in the following words : 
" Now the Caliph was devoted to a certain girl named el-Benga* 
(she who was the mother of el-Mo'tazz), but a quarrel had parted 
the two ; so now she, for the might of her beauty and her 
charms, will not seek to be reconciled with him ; and he, for the 
majesty of the Caliphate and the royal throne, will not seek 
reconciliation with her."f This coincidence in form of expres- 
sion with el-Ghoziili may be explained, of course, on general 
grounds ; but it is more natural to suppose either direct depend- 
ence of sojne sort, or that these words are a characteristic sur- 
vival from an oft-repeated popular anecdote. 

A few months ago, I happened to be looking into Kosegarten's 
Chre8tomathy,J for another purpose, and noticed this same story 
of Abu'l-Hasau of Horasan, edited from a MS. of the 1001 
Nights in the library at Gotha. The text given here varies 
little from that of the other editions, except in the case of the 
verses which the singing-girl recites to the Caliph. Among these 
I was surprised to find the identical couplet ascribed by Ghoz^li 
to el-* Abbas ibn el-Ahnaf in this narrative. The first half-verse 
has been lost, and its place supplied from the second verse ; there 
is no other change of importance : 

au ^jU y^\ lit ^ 

This, it seemed to me, furnished an additional link in the chain 
of connection between the two stories. 

At about the same time, I came across two more of the verses 
of our Ghoziili narrative, namely the two that form the basis of 
the first strophe. They are cited by Ibn Hallikan in his article 
on Ibrahim el-Mausili. After speaking in general terms of 
Ibrahim's fame as a musician, the author continues :§ " It is 
related that the Caliph Iltiriin er-RaStd was passionately fond of 
a fair slave named Marida, but they quarreled, and their mutual 

displeasure continued for some time. This induced Ga'far the 
Barmekide|| to order el-' Abbas ibn el-Ahnaf to compose some- 
thing applicable to the circumstance, and the following verses 
were written by him in consequence (here follow the two verses 



* Read ** Kabila," according to preceding note. 

f The Arabic text is the same in all the editions. The form of words 
used is generally different from that in Qhoziilt. 
X Chrestomathia Ardbica, Leipzig, 1828. 
g Slane's Translation, i. 21. 
I Tlie well-known Veztr, son of the Yaliya of our narrative. 



The SUyrij of EU'Ahhdfi lU El-Ahnaf. 69 

beginning * Return to the loved ones you have renounced ' etc., 
given in the same form as in el-Ghoz^ll). In pursuance to 

Ga'far's orders, Ibr&hlm* sung these verses to er-Ra§id, who im- 
mediately hastened to MArida, and got reconciled to her. She 
then asked him what brought about this event ; and, being 
informed of what had passed, ordered to Ibrahim and el-' Abbas 
a present of 10,000 dirhems each ; and er-Ra5id, on her request, 
recompensed them with a reward of 40,000 dirhems." From 
this it would appear that the same story of the poet el-'Abbas, 
with some slight variations, and with the same verses (at least in 
part), was widely known and credited in literary circles in the 
early centuries of Isl&m. 

That the story told by GhozAll is considerably older than that 
in the 1001 Nights is of course certain, if it really comes from 
el-Mubarrad ; and this I see no good reason for doubting, f He 
was a contemporary of el-Mutawekkil,J and any such stories con- 
cerning this ruler must have arisen after his time. His cautious 
statement concerning the " two sources " from which he had 
heard the story may mean much or little ; but at any rate it is 
plain enough that what we have in el-Ghoz^li is not a story made 
up out of whole cloth, nor one that has been much " worked 
over." What facts lie back of it is another question. The 
verses — certainly the two cited by Ibn Hallikan, and probably 
the others also§ — are genuine compositions of the poet el-*Abb^s, 
and were much quoted. Possibly they gave rise to the whole 
story, though the incident of the reconcilation may have had 
some foundation in fact. That any other than er-Rasld was the 
original of the story seems unlikely.) In any case, this is one 
of the oldest tales of this class that we have concerning that 
monarch. 

The relative age of this version would appear to be attested 
also by the episode of the young men's " club " in Bagdad 
(which certainly did not originate from the story of the verses), 
and the very tame incident of the purchase of the slave-girl, 
together with the somewhat loose way in which both are con- 
nected with the adventnre in the palace. 

The addition of Ibrahtm el-Mausili, as found in Ibn Hallikan, 
is evidently a later improvement. 



* He was perhaps the most celebrated musician of all Arab history. 
His son Isll^ak was hardly less gifted, and the two are the heroes of 
many anecdotes. 

t Ghozdli generally makes the impression of using his sources care- 
fully. 

X Reigned from 282 to 247 A. H. (847-861 A. D.). 

^The first two verses of the first strophe are decidedly common- 
place, not to say awkward. If our poet wrote them, they are at least 
no credit to him. 

I The tendency to substitute his name on all possible occasions is well 
known. 



70 C. a T<yrrey. 

As for the tale of Abu '1 Hasan of Ilords&n, it is an ad- 
mirable specimen of the work of the professional story-teller. 
Its chief incident, that of the verses, was furnished by the older 
anecdote of the poet el-' Abbas. I am inclined to think that 
in the above-mentioned appearance of the el-Ghoziilt couplet in 
the Gotha MS. of the 1001 Nights, edited by Kosegarten, may 
be seen a survival from the original borrowing, though it may 
be a later transfer. Of course, the substitution of el-Mutawekkil 
for Hur^n er-Rasid followed necessarily, in view of the fact 
that the anecdote of the reconciliation of the latter with Marida 
was already well known.* Concerning the growth of the re- 
mainder of the story of Abu'l-Hasan, and whether some other 
already existing tale was utilized, one can only conjecture. 

A story quite similar in many respects is that of the Young 
Merchant who Ate the Garlic (Habicht ii. 165, Macn. i. 217, 
BCtlak i. 27th N. In all the well-known translations). In this 
case, the young lover is brought into the palace concealed in a 
dry-goods box. The girl hides him in a closet, to avoid the 
Caliph. There is no mention of a royal quarrel, and no verses 
are recited. The Caliph is er-Ra§ld. This tale appears to have 
belonged to the oldest redaction of the Arabic " Nights " of 
which we have any certain knowledge.f Very possibly an older 
variation of it may have furnished tlie framework for the story of 
Abu '1-Hasan of Horasan. J Still, the exciting incident of a young 
man falling in love with one of the famous beauties of the royal 
harim, and daring to effect a meeting with her, almost before the 
very face and eyes of the Caliph, is a theme that would most 
naturally suggest itself to story-tellers of the days of the 
Caliphate. One may well be cautious in drawing conclusions 
here. 



*0f course there is no significance in the apparent ''coincidence' 
that M&rida and Kabiha, both foreign slave-girls, were mothers of suc- 
ceeding lines of Caliphs. During this period of the Abbaside rule, a 
Caliph whose mother was not a foreign slave was the exception. Not 
so in the days of the Omayyads ! 

f Of. Zotenherg's Aladdin, 7, 38 ; Burton x. 93 ff. ; August Mdller in the 
Deutsche Rundschau for July *87, p. 83 etc. 

X Since the above was in print, a copy of Professor De Goeje's inter- 
esting and valuable paper **De araofsche Nachtverteliingen " (pub- 
lished in ** De Gids," 1886) has come into my hands. It throws addi- 
tional light from another side on the question of the origin of these two 
tales from the ** Nights " (p. 12 ff.), and I am glad to fina my conjecture 
of a relationship between them thus confirmed. With the incident of 
the verses, and the story of el-'Abb&s, De Goeje's essay is not concerned. 



AKTICLE III. 



A CYLINDER OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR. 

By Dr. ALFRED B. MOLDENKE, 

\ OF NEW YORK CITY. 



Presented to the Society April, 1893. 



The cylinder published in the following pages was purchased 
in 1878 by Gen. C. P. di Cesnola for the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art of New York City from the British Museum. Although 
it has been in New York for so long a period, and several 
attempts at decipherment were made, it has never, as far as I 
am aware, been published. It is 'still in a splendid state of pres- 
ervation, and forms one of the principal attractions of the 
Mnseum^s collection of Babylonian antiquities. The individual 
signs are blurred in some parts (especially II. 6) ; but the outlines 
can still be traced. The cylinder is 5 inches high, and 2J inches 
in diameter at the thickest part. 

The text is divided into two columns. These columns are, 
however, separated only by a slight ridge-like elevation of clay, 
and not, as we generally find it, by straight lines. The latter, 
on the other hand, are employed to divide the individual text 
lines. A small space marks the beginning of the text. The 
lines of columns I. and II. meet each other in the middle of the 
cvlinder, and really form one long line. The only exceptions 
are: I. 16=11. 16, 17; I. 22 =11. 23, 24; and I. 25 = II. 27, 28. 
Hence column II. contains three lines more than column I. 

The text treats of a wall that Nebuchadnezzar had built in 
order to strengthen the defenses of Babylon and its cherished 
temple Esagila. This wall he built even further away from 
Babylon than its already strong and famous wall Imgur-Bel. 
Both are to protect the eastern part of the city against an enemy. 
Each forms a defense by itself; the walls are not connected \n 
any way. The new wall is strengthened also by the digging of 
a ditch on the outer side. It is built " like a mountain," out of 
pitch and glazed bricks, and it forms an addition to the wall that 
Nabopolassar had built, called Oatnushi. Nebuchadnezzar's work, 
however, is superior to that of bis father. For the wall built by 
the latter had to be made higher in order to be in harmony with 



72 A. B. MoUenke, 

the one built by his son. The work is done thoroughly, the 
foundation being placed even below the level of the water. The 
document, perhaps also this cylinder, tinds its place on the level 
of the sea, so low as to be out of the reach of inimical hands, 
but still high enough to be safe from the destructive power of 
water. The side of the wall, the one toward the enemy, is par- 
ticularly strengthened against the ravages of the battering ram. 
The wall is then adorned with a large gate, undoubtedly of the 
most beautiful architecture, which shall remain an eternal monu- 
ment of the fame of Nebuchadnezzar. But Babylon was a land 
of religion, and the king knows that he can only succeed with 
the help of the gods. Hence the inscription ends with a prayer 
to Marduk, the tutelary deity of Esagila, which sanctuary Nebu- 
chadnezzar is thus eager to defend from defiling hands. 

Through the kindness of Prof. Hall of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, who placed the cylinder at my disposal, I am 
enabled to publish it here in full. 

First Column. 






8 



=!_ H V ~"m""jM 






Transliteijatiox. I Translation. 

I. 1. ''\Va-bi-Hrn ku'du-ur-ri-u' Nebuchadnezzar, 
su-ur 



2. sar Ba-bi'lam *^^»^^* 



King of Babylon, 

adorner of Esagila and Ezida, 
son of Nabopolassar, 



'^, za-ni-m Lsag-ila a 1-zi-da 

4. indr ''" N'a'bi'Wit'apal-U' 

sH-ur 1 

5. .s(ir Bii'bi'Utm *^**^" a-na' King of Babylon, am I. 

ku I 

6. aS^sum ma-as^sa-arM 7- ! ^" ^^^f , ^^ ( ') strengthen (6) 

saff'ila I ^^^ defense of Esagila, 



A Cylinder of Nebucliadnezzar. 



78 



s^T 



^}} 



^ 



<:<! 



, ^^^T A4f 3:<T <T>-m :^n -^t\^ -TT^ t^< 

.T? -^ H :^ ^!^TT ^ -^I :f:m ^ -fe 



10 



:s:^ HP ^T H< 4f ^^ !^ ^ A4f ^T ^11 !^T 



ut&^ H :^ m ^ -:gT H<T A ^T 
jj^T ^M H s^iT ^T ::^ m ^ 



13 



14 



15 



::H^T ET<T iti: H ^IT ^tt<T -^ ^I ^I ^\ 



^t^W\i^ ffi ^FT - ^ 



>4^ 




„^ -!!<! ^TT 



^ -!!<! :^]f H 



Tba nsliter ation. 

7. du'tin-nu-nitn 

8. li-im-nim u Sa-ak-ffi-Sum 

0. a-rta Ba-bilam ^W'^ /^^ 

10. ga-an ta-f^-zi a-na Im- 

gur-BU 

11. <^ar JBa-bi'lam »^^*^ /d 

12. ^a ma-no-a-ma »ar ?/<a- 

a/i-ri W i'pu'fu 

13. fn ^o-ma-o^ Ba-bi- 

lam *''^»^ 

14. c/t^r<i dannu ba-la-ri sit 

V 

15. Ba-bi'lam *^^ ii-Sa-aS' 

16. hi-ri-tu afy-HArma 

VOL. XVI. 11 



Tbanslation. 



I 



(that) an enemy and a destroyer 

I against Babylon might not press 
I 

, the storm of battle, in addition 
to Imgur-Bel, 

a wall of Babylon not touching 

it, 

which no king before had done, 
on the outer line of Babylon 

a strong wall, in the region of 
the east, 

I let surround Babylon, 
Its canal I dup^; 



74 



A. B. Moldenke, 



.jy t^ <^\ <tt t^} ^]t]t M] ^T 



18 



:^:^T 



^ 



»^ 



T 



H 



.^]^] <+-TT<T !^ ::^ 41^ J4^ ^TT t^tj\ ^ 



aojJff- 



i m ^ <\- i^ \\i^ 



=T 



21 



22 



23 



24 



25 



86 



■?r 



■B^t] ^T<T pt mVJ t^ ET ^m ^^^T :^^T 



:T 



'T 



j4f-< 



U 



JT 



iifc^ n a ^T ti=^T T? <i-m ^s^t^ ^fia :^^ ei 



T 




:t 



TAT -T- ^T:^T <T-TT<T Tl :^ JJ^ :eTT s^^^TT .OJ 



} 



<« 



^} 




JJ^ 



H 



<T- :btt i^> ^ ei ^t I^ ^v <t- 



Teansliteration. 

17. sH-pU'Ul mi-i ak-su-ud 

18. ap-pa-li-is-ma 

19. ka-ar a-bi'im ik-zu-ur-ru 

20. Ga-at'7iU'si *^?*^ /w-«m 
•21. c?flr?« dannu Sa ki-ma 

sa-iu-um 

22. /d ut'ta-ciS'Su 

23. «4 kupri u agurri 

24. ab-ni-ma 

25. ^^<^ A:a-ar a-^i tA:-2M-wr-rw 

26. d-«e-m-2A:-ma 

27. i-Si 9u in i-ra-at ki-gal-Si 



Translation. 

the level of the water I reached 
aud I saw. 

The wall (that) my father had 
erected 

(namely) Gatnushi, I raised: 
a strong wall, like a mountain 

(which) cannot be moved, 
of pitch and glazed bricks 
I built, 
and with the wall (that my) 

father had erected 
1 joined. 
Its foundation on the breast of 

the lower world 



A Cylinder of If ehuchadnezzar 



75 



Second Colwmn. 



tffi 



il^T <IMT<T <!■ 



:TAT ^T 



.^T[<T M <I- JI ^V^ *BT<T .4^ ^TT 






1^ 



-T!^Ti 



^v 



:TT 



.^ i^ t|T t^f-T T^ .^ t^T :^]f^ -7^ :2:<I 



^m 



n 'im im] :^TT 



:l 



, :iTT ^ caft^I ]} ^] -m M <:rc HAT H 



T 4f^^ 



.^ ^T^T <!-!!<! <T- HAT ^T ^ -U ^T 



10 



:T % ^ <T-TT<T -<T 



►<!>-< 



T ^T!^T S^^JMI 



►fl-l Hh 



„<T-mH:^m ^ ^ ^T<T -4- .*K <t:r ET 



Tbanslitsbation. 

II. 1. u-M-ar-H-id-ma 

2. ri'i-Si-Su sa-da-ni-iS 

3. u-za-ak'ki'ir 

ntm 
6. U'ia-cd'hi{!)'U-ma 

6. in c?w a-hjir-ra-a-ra ti-a-am 

7. iiF-c?» dftJre a-gur-ri i-mi- 

id-ma 

8. in i-ra-cU ap-si-i 

9. u-Schar-Si'id ti-mt-in-Su 

10. ma'as-sa-ar-ti I-^ag-ila 

11. u Ba-bi'lam^^f^^U'da-an- 

ni'mi'ma 



Translation. 

I placed; 

its top mountain-high 

I raised. 

The side of the wall for strength 

I fitted (clothed). 

On the outside a beautiful (?) 

sea, 
at the foundation of the wall, 

with glazed bricks I built; 
on the level of the sea 
I established its document. 

The defense of Esagila 

and of Babylon I strengthened. 




76 



A. B. Moldenke, 



.H ^T g^A H<T 'BTT Vi g^A 

• 

.HP «^T MU :«=! 





16 



16 




^ 



:T 



^ 



ffi 



T? 



Hi 



:T 4^ 



m ^TtT 



Ki=^ W ^^T ffi H ^^^ HAT <:^:^ .gj 
«m-^I :=tli:^»^rf ]} ^' H<T »^TT T^ -^ 



10 



T -^T t^T ^T <!^:^ A-T^ 4f<T M ]^ -^ 



»^^ 



»-< Hf- 



I 



jr 




;TAT ^^^T -T- 



«IEI :^l^ -7^ 



TIT 



iTT ^ 



2S 



<T-m 



:T H -TT<T ^ »^ t?=]f 



Transliteration. 

12. ha-ha-am da-ir-a-am 

13. Sa Sar-U'ti-ia aS-ta-ak-ka- 

an 

14. "• Jfar^^wA: ^'^ ftW iWne 
16. i-lii ha-nu-u-a 

16. m ma-afi-ri-ka 

1 7. ip-Si-tu-u-a lirit-mi-ru 

18. lu-la-db-hi'ir a-na da-ir-a- 

tint 

19. ha4a-at um-mi-im ri-i-ku- 

20. ^-fti-i li-it-tU'ti 
22. u la-ha-ri pa-li-t 



Translation. 

An eternal gate 

of my majesty I made. 

O Mardak, lord of the gods, 

god, my creator, 

before thee 

let my works appear; 

let become old to eternity 

(my) life for distant days. 

Enjoyment of the fullness of life, 
permanence of throne, 
and long duration of reign, 



\ 



A Cylinder of Nelmchadnezzar, 



77 



n 



T? ^ <I^ ^TT<T jj< 4> jy ^tj\ ^ 



94 




4f<T tITT ^^^T <^m 




-f «^ t|T 



»^^< 



^ Tl 



27 



in 






.J^ 



Mt! 



^T? 



i! 



Hi^ ^ :^^T HP< :^T:^T ^ H4iT -<} 



►-<!►-< 



•!T<T 



m v^T ^^- ffl^ m f^ -Ts^T:^ ^^] 



^TtT 



-1^1:= 




ffi 



Tl 



.^ ^]t] -Mj: ^ -fe -n<T ^«T <tj: ^? ^TT 



Tkansliteration. 

23. a-na H-ri-ik-tum Sti-ur- 

ham 

24. lu-ri-si'tu ktU'[lat napSat]- 

ia 

25. •'" Marduk atta-a-ma 

26. tn ki'hi'ti'Jca ki-it-ti 

27. ifa W na-ka-ri 

28. lu'ti'hu'U lu-za-ak-tu 

29. ka-ak-ku'U-a 

30. ka-ak na-ki-ri li-mi-i'SU 



Translation. 
for a present may he present and 

■ 

may he help (me) all my life. 

O Marduky thou, 
According to thy just commands, 
which do not change, 
may go out, may wound 
my weapons; (and) 
the weapons of (my) enemies 
may they lay low. 



NOTES. 

1. 16. ''Its" canal: that is, the canal that was considered a neces- 
Bai7 adjunct to each wall. 

IL 5. The fourth sign in this line, usually read li, is to be read bi 
here, and the word is to be taken from labdm. 

II. 6. a'Sur-TCt-a-ra I would, for lack of a better explanation, con- 
nect with SarHru * beauty, splendor.' kima ^ arhi unammir Sa-rU" 
ru4u (VB. 64, col. n. line 28) * Like the rising of the moon I made its 
"beauty" shine.' 

The sense of lines 6 and 7 of column II. is that Nebuchadnezzar 
lined the sides of the Lake he constructed with glazed bricks, thus giv- 



78 A. B. Moldetike. 

ing him the right to call the lake ** beautiful," and also to use the word 
** build." 

This Babylonian dialect, found on nearly all the building inscriptions 
of Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnezzar, and Nabonidus, has many marked 
peculiarities. A few of those that occur in this text are : 

The use of s tor S: in the suffix of the 8rd pers. sing., I. 16, J^i-risu 
for hi-ri-su ; I. 27, i-H-su for i-U-hi, This, however, is often met with 
also' in Assyrian texts. Then in I. 21 we have sortu-um for Jo-du-titn ; 
n. 2, aa-da-ni'iS for Sa-da-ni-iS. 

Also the use of k for k : I. 9, aa-na-ki for sa-na-ki from sandku * press 
with hostile intent.* Also in is used for ina : I. 18, 28, 27, n. '6, 20, 26. 
In I. 8 we have ia-cUc-giSum for Sa-ak-kiSum ; and in II. 8 u-za-ak-ki-ir 
for U'Za-ak-ki-ir, 

I would conclude from this, either that the use of incorrect signs was 
due to the carelessness of the Babylonian scribe, or that these signs had 
already obtained the required value in Babylonia. 



ARTICLE IV. 



THE JAIMINIYA OR TALAVAKARA 
UPANISAD BRAHM ANA : 

TEXT, TRANSLATION, AND NOTES. 

By HANNS OBETEL, Ph.D., 
instructor in yale university. 



Presented to the Society April, 1893. 



Introduction. 

The text of the BrShma^a, as here published, is founded on 
manuscript material sent by A. C. Bumell* in 1881 to Professor 
Whitney (see Proc. A.O.S. for May, 1883 ; Joum. vol. xi., p. 
exliv), as follows : 

A., according to Bumell's note on the cover, copied " from a 
Malabar MS." in 1878 ; at the end he has added : " Date of 
original, KuUam 1040=1864 A.D. From a MS. at Palghat"; 

fi., from " a MS. on talipot leaves, written about 300 years 
ago, and got from Tinnevelly, but which was originally brought 
from near Aleppee;" of tnis only the various readings are 
given, interlined in red ink on A. ; 

C, a transliterated text in Burnell's own hand, breaking oflE 
after the beginning of i. 59, apparently because the copying 
was carried no further. 

Tlie text of A. and the variants from B. are in the Grantha 
character, on European paper. They were copied in transliter- 
ation by Professor John Avery, and the copy was compared 
with its ori^nals by Professor Whitney, who also added the 
readings of C. ; from this copy was prepared the text given 
below. The originals are now in the Library of the India 
Office, London. 

The attempt has been made to obtain new materials, but 
without success. Professor G. Oppert, in his List of Sanskrit 

^Bumeirs discovery of the ezistence of the J&iminlya Br&hma^ 
was announced hy him in the London Academy of Sept. 29th, 1877, and 
bis acquisition of the MSS. in the same paper for Feb. 8th, 1879. 



80 H. Oertdy 

MSS. in Private Libraries of Southern India (Madras, 1880), 
mentions three Jaimini or TalavakS^ra BrahmaQas (i. 416, No. 
5045 ; ii. 22,462, Nos. 385, 7876) ; and, at my request, he kindly 
promised to examine them, in order to ascertain whether they 
were Bumell's originals or independent copies ; but as, after 
a year, no information has come, I infer that his endeavor to 

Erocure it has been in vain, and that nothing would be gained 
y further delay of publication. 

Burnell's MSS. of the Jdiminiya-BrahmaQa proper are alto- 
gether insufficient to found a complete edition upon ; extracts 
from it have been published, by Burnell* and by myself (see 
this Journal, vol. xiv., d. 233 ff.) ; and I may perhaps hereafter 
undertake further work in the same direction ; the text is in 
great part very corrupt. The Upanisad-Brahmai;La is less un- 
manageable, though the manuscripts go back to a faulty arche- 
type, and present in common considerable corruptions. They 
are also carelessly written as regards punctuation, orthography, 
and samdhi ; and these points I have taken the liberty of reg- 
ulating ; in all cases not purely orthographical I have given at 
the foot of the page the various readings of the manuscripts. 
For convenience of reference, I have numbered the sections 
{khanda) in each book {adhydyd\ successively, disregarding the 
useless anuvaka division, and nave added a division oi the 
sections into paragraphs by inconspicuous but readily discover- 
able figures ; this last has no manuscript authority. 

The translation is literal, and purely pliilological. I have 
sometimes been compelled to force a translation of an obscure 
passage ; attention is called to this in the notes, lest it might 
appear that the translation pretended to offer a solution of tne 
difficulty. 

In the notes at the end will be found chiefly parallel passages 
from the Jaiminiya Brahma^a proper and elsewnere, which may 
help to throw lignt on certain passages, to support emendations, 
and to show, to some extent, the relation oi our text to the 
kindred literature ; but regarding the last point an exhaustive 
collection has not been aimed at. 

At the close I have added an index of proper names, of 
quotations, of the aira^ etprj/j^va and rare words, and of some 
grammatical points of interest. 

Professor Whitney has placed me under deep obligation by 
his kind assistance throughout this work. 

♦ Namely, A Legend, etc. (Journal, xiv. 238, note), and The Jaiminiya 
Text of the Ar^eya Brahma^ of the Sdma- Veda, Mangalore, 1878. 

There should also be mentioned Professor Whitney's translation of 
the story of Cyavana in the Proceedings for May, 1888 (Joum., vol. xi.). 



> 



Jaiminlya- Upanisad-Brdhmana, 81 



Jaiminiya-Upanisad-Brahmanam. 



I. 1. I. />rq/(?;)rt^^> vd idam trayena vedend^ '* jay cur yad asye 
'*daih jitani tat. a. sa diksate Htham ced vd anye devd anena 
redena^ yaksyanta imdm vdva te jitlm jesyantl ye ^yam via ma. 
hanta* trayasya vedaaya ra^arti ddadd iti. a. sa hhur ity eva 
rffvedasya rasam ddatta. se ^yam prthivy ahhavat. ta^ya yo 
ra^ah^ prdnedat so ^gnir abhavad rasasya rasah. 4. hhuva* ity 
eva yajurvedasya rasain ddatta. tad idam aiitariksain ahhavat. 
tasya yo rasah prdnedcU sa vdyur abhavad rasasya rasah. 
6. 8var ity eva sdmavedasya rasain ddatta. so' ^sdu dydur abha- 
vat. tasya yo rasah prdnedat sa ddltyo ^bhavad rasasya rasah, 
6. cUJuii ^kasydi 'va ''ksarasya rasam nd '^^uknod dddtum om ity 
etasydi ^va. 7. se ^yam vdg abhavat. om eva ndmdi \sd. tasyd u 
prdna eva rasah. 8. tdny etdny astdu. astdksard gdyatrl. gdya- 
tram sdma brahma u gdyatrl. tad u brahmd '^bhisampadyate, 
astd^iphdh papavas teiio pa^vyam. 1. 

prathame 'nuvdke prathamafy khan^fy. 

I. I. I. Prajapati verily conquered this [universe] by means of 
the threefold knowledge (Veda) : that [namelv] which was con- 
quered of him. 3. He considered : "If the other gods shall sac- 
rifice thus by means of this knowledge (Veda), verily they will 
conquer this conquest which is mine here. Come now, let me 
take the sap of the threefold knowledge (Veda)." ». Saying 
Mt/#, he took the sap of the Rigveda. That became this earth. 
The sap of it which streamed forth became Agni (fire), the sap 
of the sap. 4. Saying bhuvas, he took the sap of the Yajurveda. 
That became this atmosphere. The sap of it which streamed 
forth became Vayu (wind), the sap of the sap. ft. Saying svar, 
he took the sap of the Samaveda. That became yonder sky. 
The sap of it which streamed forth became Aditya (sun), the 
sap of the sap. e. Now of one syllable he was not able to take 
the sap : of om, just of that. 7. That became this speech. 
This [speech] is namely 0)n. Of it breath is the sap. s. These 
same are eight. Of eight syllables is the gdyatrl. The sdnian 
is in the //<7y</irl-metre and the gdyatrl is the brahman ; and thus 
it becomes the brahman. Eight-hoofed are the domestic ani- 
mals, and therefore it belongs to the domestic animals. 



\, ^ A. vedena. '^ A, vajapad. '""A.padena. *hantd. *A.B. insert da. 
* repetition and confusion in G. ^ sd. 



VOL. XVI. 12 



82 H. Oeridy 

I. 2. 1. sa yad om iti so ^gnir vug iti prthivy om iti vayur 
vCig ity aiitariksani^ om ity adityo vdg iti dydur om iti prano 
vdg ity eva vOk, a. sa ya evarh vidvdn udgdyaty otn ity evd 
^g7um dddya prthivy dm pratisthdpayaty om ity eva vdyum 
dddyd ^Jitarikse pratisthdpayaty om. ity evd^ ^^dityam dddya 
divi pratisthdpayaty om, ity eva prdnam. dddya vdci^ pratisthd- 
payati, s. tad dhdi ^tac chdiland* gdyatram gdyanty ovdSc 
ovdSc ovaSc* hum bhd ovd iti, 4. tad u ha tat pardn ivd ^ndyu- 
syam iva. tad vdyoj^ cd '^pdm cd ^nu vartma geyam. 5. yad vdi 
vdyuh pardn* eva ^^avc^a kslyeta \sa\, sa purastdd vdti sa 
daksinatas sa pa^cdt sa uttaratas sa yparistdf sa sarvd di^o 
^nusarnvdti, 6. tad etad dhur iddrmh vd ay am. ito ^vdsid* athe 
HtJidd vdt'i ^fi, sa yad resmdnam janamdno^ nivestamdno vdti 
ksaydd eva hihhyat, 7. yad u ha va*° dpah pardcir eva />ra«r^a« 
syanderan ksiyerans tdh, yad^^ ankdnsi^^ kurvdnd nivestamdnd 
dvartdn srjamdnd yanti ksaydd eva bibhyatVi. tad etad vdyop 
cdi ^vd ^pd7h cd ^nu vartma geyam, 2, 

prathame ^nuvdke dmtiyafy khatufah, 

I. 2. 1. Om is Agni (fire), speech is the earth ; om is Vfiyu 
(wind), speech is the atmosphere ; om is Aditya (sun), speech is 
the sky : om is breath, speech is just speech, a. He who know- 
ing thus sings the udgitha saying o/n, he takes Agni (fire) and 
causes him to stand firm on the earth ; saying om, he takes 
Vtiya (wind) and causes him to stand firm in the atmosphere ; 
saying om, he takes Aditya (sun) and causes him to stand firm in 
the sky ; saying om, he takes breath and causes it to stand firm 
in speech. 3. Now the ^^ilanas sing the gdyatra {-sdina/i) thus : 
ovdSc ovdSc ovdSc hum bhd ovd, 4, Truly, this is thrown away 
(pardn), as it were ; not productive of long life, as it were. It 
should be sung in accordance with the course of wind and waters. 
5. Truly, if the wind should blow only straight away {pardn), it 
would be exhausted. It blows from the front (east), from the 
right (south), from the back (west), from the left (north), from 
above, it blows from all quarters together. 6. This they say : 
" At this very moment it hath blown in this direction, now it 
bloweth thus." When it blows begetting a whirlwind, winding 
itself in [it does so] just fearing exhaustion. 7. And if the 
waters should flow streaming straight away {pardcir) only, they 
would be exhausted. When they proceed making bends, winding 
themselves in, producing eddies, [they do so] just fearing exhaus- 
tion. 8. Therefore that [5«/na»] should be sung according to the 
course of the wind and waters. 

3. >C. antar%k§-. * B. apd, 't^dci. ^ B. chel-; C. chU'. *-ca. « A.B. 
pardhd; C. purdd. 'B.C. -rifpidt ® C. sit, •A. yaf'amdno, the ya 
correction : B.C. jaindno, ^^ C, vam. " A. day ad ^ da struck out in 
B. ; C. yad, " ankdsi. 



Jaimimya- Upanisad- Brahmana, 88 

I. 3. 1. ovd^ ova ova hum dhd ova iti karoty eva.^ etdhhydm 
tarvam dyur eti. «. sa yathd vrksam dkramaiidir^ dkrama- 
mdna iydd evam evdi He dve-dve devate samdhdye ^mdn lokdn 
rohann etV ». eka u eva 7nrtyur anvety a^anaydi 'ya. 4. at ha 
hinkarotL candramd vdi hinkdro ^nnam u vdi candramdh, 

m 

annend ^^anaydm ghnanti, ft. tdm-tdm a^anaydm anneiia hatvo 
'w ity etam eva ^^dityaih^ aamayd Himucyate. etad eva diva^ 
chidram, 6. yathd kham vd '^nasas* sydd rathasya'' vdi ^vam 
etad diva^ chidram, tad ra^mibhis samch^innarh!' dr^yate. 7. yad 
gdyatrasyo ^^rdhvam hinkdrdt tad amrtam, tad dtmdnam da- 
dhydd atho yajamdnam. atha yad* itarat sdmo ^Vdhvarh tasya 
pratihdrdt, e. aa yaihd '^dhhir dpas samsrjyeran^^ yathd ^gnind 
^gnia samsrjyeta yathd kslre ksiram dsicydd evam evdi Had aksa- 
ram, etdhhir devatdbhis saihsrjyate. S, 

prathame *nuvdke tftiyal^ khan^h. 

I. 4. I. tath vd etam hinkdram hhn bhd iti hinkurvanti, prir 
vdi bhdh, asdu vd^ ddityo bhd iti. «. etam ha vd etam nyangatn 
anu garbha^ iti. yad bha iti strlndm* prajafiaiiam nigacchati 

I. 3. I. He utters ovd ovd ovd hum bhd ovd. By means of 
these two [divinities] he arrives at complete age. a. As one 
would keep climbing up a tree by steps, even so uniting these 
divinities pairwise he keeps ascending these worlds, a. Death 
alone goes after, viz. hunger. 4. Then he utters him. The 
hifikdra is the moon, and the moon is food. Through food they 
»lay hunger. 6. Having slain through food this hunger and that, 
saying om, he escapes through the midst of this sun. That is 
the fissure of the sky. e. As is the [axle-] hole of a cart or 
of a chariot, even so is this fissure of the sky. That appears 
all covered by rays. 7. What of the gdyatra [■■adman] is beyond 
the hinkdra, that is immortal. There he should place himself as 
well as the sacrificer. And the rest of the sdman is beyond its 
pratihdra. s. As waters might be united with waters, as fire 
might be united with fire, as one would pour milk into milk, 
even so this syllable is united with these divinities. 

I. 4. 1. They utter this same hinkdra as Jiim bhd. Fortune is 
Uids (splendor); yonder sun is bhds. a. According to this same 
sign is [the word] garbha (foetus). In that he, saying bha, ap- 

S. ^ova. •A.B. div-. 'A.B. akram-. *A. iti. ^B. -tydrh; C. -tya 
*na»a. ''rasasya. "A.B. -nna. * A.B. tvad ; C. tad {?). "'B.-rdn. 
4. 'A. om. ^gaihbha. •A.B. #frtn-. 



84 H. Oertel, 

tasmdt tato Irrdhmana rsikalpo jay ate Hivyddhl* rdjanya^ ^urah. 
3. etam ha va etarh nyangain anu vrsabha iti. yad^ bha iti 
nigacchati tasmdt tatah punyo^ baVlttardo duhdnd dhenur uksd 
da^avdjt' jay ante, 4. etam ha vd etam nyangam, anu gardabha 
iti. yad bha iti nigacchati tasmdt sa pd/nydii chreyas'tsu carati 
tasmdd a^ya pdp'iyasa^ ^reyo jdyate ^^vataro vd ^p^atarl vd, ». 
etam ha vd etam nyangam ami knbhra iti, yad bha iti nigacchati 
tasmdt so ^ndryas'' sann aj^i rdjilah prdpnoti, 6. tarn hdi ''tarn 
eke hinkdram him bhd ovd iti bahirdhe** 'ya hinkurvanti. bahir- 
dhe 'ra*° vdi grlh. ^rlr vdi sdrntio hinkdra iti, 7. sa ya enam 
tatra brUydd^ bahirdhd nvd ay am Qriyam adhita pdplydn bha- 
visyati,^^ 

sa yadd vdi mriyate Hhd ^gndu prdMo bhavati : 
ksipre bata marisyaty agndv enam prdMsyantl 
^ti tathd hdi 'va sydt, 8. tasmdd u hdi Ham hinkdram him vo 
ity antar ivdi ^vd ^''tmann arjayet, tathd ha na bahirdhd priyam 
kurute sarvam dyur eti, J^ 

prathame ^nuvdke caturthaJj khantfaJf^. 



preaches the secret parts of women, therefore thence is bom a 
Brahman like a rsi, a piercing kingly hero. ». According to this 
same sign is [the word] vrsabha (bull). In that he approaches say- 
ing Ma, therefore thence a [sacrificially] pure bull, a milking cow, 
an ox possessing tenfold strength (?) are born. 4. According to 
this same sign is [the word] gardabha (ass). In that he approaches 
saying bha, therefore he (the ass) being inferior covers those 
[mares I which are superior ; therefore of this inferior one some- 
thing better is born, either a mule or a she-mule. ft. According to 
this same sign is [the word) kiibhra. In that he approaches saying 
bha^ therefore he, even though he be not an Arya, obtains kings 
(?). 6. This same hinkdra some utter him bhd ovd — outside as it 
were. Truly outside is fortune ; fortune indeed is the syllable 
him of the sdman, 7. If upon this one should say of him : 
" Truly he hath now put fortune outside, he will become worse ; 
Truly, when he dies, he is thrown into the fire ; quickly, alas, he 
will die, they will throw him into the fire — " even so it would 
come to pass. ». And therefore one should put that hinkdra^ viz. 
him vOy inside of one's self, as it were. Thus, indeed, he does 
not put fortune outside, he attains complete age. 



4. •* C. jdyata itivy-, * A. ya^at, * -ya. ^ insert Hi. * A.B. ndk-- 

thyas ; C. ndrthyas. * C. om. hahirdhe'va tatra brUydd 

*® bahirddhve^ om. va, " -yatl Hi, 



Jaiminlya- UpanisadSrahmana, 86 

5. 1. 8d hat ^sd khald devatd ^pasedhanti^ tisthatL idarh vdi 
tvam atra pdpam akar ne ^hdi ^^st/asi. yo vdi punyahrt sydt sa 
ihe ^ydd iti. a. sa bruydd apapyo vdi tvam tad yad aham 
tcuT akaravam* tad vdi md tvam nd ^kdraylsyas tvarh vdi 
tasya kartd VZ ''ti, s. sd^ ha vedu satyam md "Ae"* V/. aatyam hdi 
^sd devatd, sd* ha tcutya ne "p^ .V^'^^ enam apasedhet satyam,' updi 
'I'a hvaynte. 4. atha ho hntcdi ^^ksvdko^ vd vdrsno *"niivaktd vd 
Bdtyaktrta^ utdi ^sd* khald devatd ^paseddhum eva dhriyate^^ 
^sydi di^ah. t, [tad^ diva ^ntah. tad ime dydvdprthivi sarh^lis- 
ycUah. ydvatl vdi vedis tavatl ^yam prthivl, tad yatrdi Hac cdtvd- 
larh khdtam tat samprati sa diva dkd^ah, s. tad bahispavamdne 
stuyamdne manaso '^dgrhnlydt, 7. sa yatho ^cchrdyam prati- 
yasya^^ prapadyetdi ^vam evdi ^tayd^^ devataye ^dam amrtam 
ahhiparyeti yatrd '*yam idam tapatl ''ti, 8. atha ho '*vdca — 5, 

pratJmme *nuudke paficamali khan(}ah, 

6. 1. —gobalo vdrsnah ka etam ddityam arhati samaydi Uum. 
durdd vd esa etat tapati nyan. tena vd etam purvena sdmapathas 
tad eva manasd '*'*hrtyo ^paristdd etasydi ^tasminn amrte nida- 

I. 5. I. This same base divinity stands driving away : " This 
evil thou hast done here ; thou shalt not come here. Verily he 
who is doer of good deeds, he may come here." a. Let him say : 
** Thou sawcst what I thus did ; thou wouldst not make me do 
this; thou art doer of it." a. That [divinity] knows : "He telle 
me truth." This divinity is truth. It is not competent _to drive 
him away ; he just calls upon truth. 4. Now either Aiksvaka 
Varsna or Anuvaktar Satyakirta said : " And this base divinity 
begins to drive away from this quarter, s. [There] is the end of 
the sky ; there heaven and earth embrace. So great as the sac- 
rificial hearth is, so great is this earth ; and where that ditch 
(for the northern altar) is dug, precisely' there is that space of the 
sky. 6. Thus, when the hahispavamdna is being sung, he should 
take up [the cup] with the mind. 7. As one would approach an 
elevation, toiling toward [it], even thus by means of this divinity 
one compasses this immortality, where this one here burns. 8. 
Moreover — 

I. 6. I. — Gobala Varsna said : "Who is able to go through 
the midst of this sun ? Verily from afar he thus burns down- 
ward. On that account, verily, the 5ama«-path is before him (?) ; 
seizing [him] thus with the mind he should place him above this 



5. * insert Hi. * B.C. tvad, ' C. arka-, * sd, * C. satyam mdhe, 
*matam. ''k^ko, '* B.C, sdtyakirtta, *B. -d, >*dftry-- ^^ pratyasya. 



A.B. Hatay-, 




86 H, Oertel, 

dhydd iti, «. tad u ho ^vdca ^atydyanis samaydi ^vdi Had enam 
has tad veda. yady eta dpo vd ahhito yad vdyum^ vd esa upa- 
hvaynte ra^nun vd esa tad* etasmdi^ vyu/iatl Hi. «. atha* ho* 
^vdco Hukyo* jdna^ruteyo yatra vd esa etaf tapaty etad evd 
^mrtam. etac ced vdi prdpnoti tato fnrtyiind pdpmand vydvar- 
tate, 4. kas tad veda yat parend^ ^^dityam antariksam idani 
a7idlayanam* avarena. 5. athdi Had evd ^mrtain. etad eva mdrh 
yuyam prdpnyisyatha}'' etad evd ^harh nd Himanya^^ iti. 6. tdny 
etdny astdu. astdksard gdyatrl. gdyatrarh adma hrahina u gdya- 
<r*. tad u braJimd ^bhisampadyate, astd^aphdh pacavas teno 
papayvam, 6, 

prathame ^nuvdke ^a§thah khaiujlah, 

I. 7. I. td etd astdu devatdh, etdvad idam sarvam. te [ ] 

karoti. a. sa ndi ^su lokesu pdpmane bhrdtrvydyd 'vakdpam 
kurydt. manasdi 'nam nirbhajet, ». tad etad red ^bhyanucyate, 
catvdri vdk parimitd paddni 

tdni vidur brdhmand ye inanlsinah : 
guhd trini nihitd^ ne* ^ngayanti* 

turiyam vdco ma?nisyd vadantl 
Hi, 4. tad ydni tdni guhd tr'ini nihitd* ne^ ''ngayantl [Vl] '*ma 

one in this immortality, a. Further ^^^tvayani said : " ' Thus 
through the midst of him,' who knows that r Truly when he either 
calls upon these waters round about, or when upon the wind, he 
then parts the rays for him." 3. Further Ulukya Jana9ruteya 
said : " Truly, where this one burns thus, there is this immor- 
tality. If one obtains this, he thereupon separates himself from 
death, from evil. 4. Who knows that which is beyond the sun, 
beneath this abodeless atmosphere ? ft. And just this is immor- 
tality. This you will cause me to obtain. This I do not despise." 

6. = i. 1. Jr. 

I. 7. 1. These are these eight divinities. So great is the 
universe. They [ ] does. a. He should not give an op- 
portunity in these worlds to his hateful rival. He should exclude 
him with his mind. s. That same is referred to in a re : " Speech 
is four measured quarters ; Brahmans who are wise know these ; 
three, deposited in secret, do not stir ; one quarter of speech men 
speak." 4. Now these ' three [quarters] deposited in secret which 



6. ^vd^yarh, *A.B. tady ; C. ta. 'C. sydi, *C. atho. •€. om. 
• ^vdca (/) lUukyo A.C. ; uhucyo B. ' B. yat, * B. paron-, » A.,anvilay-. 
*• "ta ; A. prdpip-, *^ -yata. 

7. * B. -tdm. ' A. no ; C. om. ' C. gayanti, * C. -tdni, • C. om. 



Jaimimya- Upanisad- Brahmana, 87 

eva te lokdh, ft. twnyaih vaco manusyd vadantl Hi. caturbhdgo 
ha vdi turlyam vdcah. sarvayd ^sya vdcd sarvdir ehhir lokdis 
tarvend ^sya krtatn b/mvati ya evam veda. «. sa yatkd ^pndfKtm 

dkharunn rtvd* lostho^ mdhvanaata evam" eva sa vidhvansate* 

• • • • 

ya evam vidvdnsam upavadati, 7, 
prathame *nuvdke saptamah khaiicfah, prathamo ^nuvdkaa aamdptah, 

I. 8. I. prajdpatir vd idam trayena vedend ^ jay ad yad asye 
^daiii jitam tat. a. sa diksate Htham ced vd anye devd anena 
vedena^ yaksyanta imdrh vdva te jithh jesyanti ye ^yam mama. 
s. hante '*mam trayarh vedam* pUaydnl Hi. 4. sa iinam trayam 
vedam. aptlayat. tasya pllayann ekam evd ^ksaram nd "^^aknot* 
pUayitum, om iti yad etat. t. esa u ha vdva sarasah. saraad ha 
vd evamvidas trayl vidyd bhavati. e. sa imam rasam p'dayitvd 
^panidhdyo '^''rdhvo ^dravat. 7. tarn dravantam* catvdro devdndm 
anvapagyann indra^ candro rudras samxidrah. tasmdd ete 
^resthd devdndm,. ete^ hy^ enanC anvapapjan. 8. sa yo 'yam 
rasa ds'U tad eva tapo 'bhavat. 9. ta imam rasam devd anvdlk- 
santa.* te ^bhyapa^yant* j?a*" tapo vd abhud iti. lo. iynam u vdi 

do not stir,' they are these worlds, s. * One quarter of speech men 
spcak.^ A fourth part indeed is this quarter of speech. Of him 
who knows thus it (?) is done by all speech, by all these worlds, by 
the all. 6. As a clod of earth colliding with a stone as target 
breaks to pieces, even so he breaks to pieces who speaks ill of 
one knowing thus. 

I. 8. i-a = I. 1. i-a. s. Come now, 1 will press this threefold 
knowledge (Veda)." 4. He pressed this threefold knowledge 
(Veda). Pressing, he could not press one syllable of it, viz. om. 
ft. And that, indeed, is full of sap. Full of sap is the threefold 
knowledge of him who knows thus. a. He, having pressed this 
sap, putting it aside, ran upward. 7. Him running four of the 
gods looked after, Indra, Candra, Rudra, Samudra. Therefore 
these are the best of the gods. For they looked after him. 8. 
What this sap was, that became penance (tapas). 9. These gods 
looked after this sap. They became aware : " Verily this [sap] 
hath become penance." lo. They, feeling this threefold knowl- 
edge (Veda) all over, found in it that same unpressed syllable, 
viz. om. II. And that, indeed, is full of sap. They mixed it 

7. • C, krtvd. ' loffto. * A.C. om. evam vidhvahsate. • B. adds 

(LfiO. 7**'S) sa eso upavadati. 

8. *A. -ne. * A. -da; B. -da. 'A.B. '■kno. *dravaih. *B. hy ete. 
*A. om. '• A. senam. ^ -an ; B. -dich-. ^ iebhyalypor. "C. -fyatfw fa-. 



88 H. Oertel, 

tray am vedam marlmr^itva ta^minn etad evd ^ksaram apUitam*^ 
avmda7m om iti yad etat. n. esa u ha vava^* sarasah. tendi 
^nam prdynvan,^'^ yathd madkund Idjdn prayuydd^* evam. la. te 
^hhyatapyanta, tesdm tapyamdndndm dpydyata vedah. te 'nena^* 
ca tapasd ''^plneria ca vedena tdfn u eva jitim ajayan^* ydm pra- 
jdpatlr ajayat.^'' fa ete sarva eva jyrdjdpatimdtrd aydSm^^ ayaSm^* 
iti, 18. tasiiidt tapyaradnasya bhuyasi k'trtir hJiavati bhuyo 
ya<;aJi, sa ya etad evani reddi ^varn evd ^''plnena vedena yajate,^* 
yado ydjayaly evam evd ^''plncfia^" vedena** ydjayati, u. ta^a 
hdi Hasya 7idi '/.'« kd caiid ^''rtir astP* ya evarh veda. sa ya evdi 
\iam tipavadati'^ sa drthn rcchati." 8. 

dvitiye 'nuvake prathamah khatji/xiJjfr. 

I. 9. 1. tad dhur yad ocd^ ova' iti glyate kvd ''tra rg^ hhavati 
kva same Hi. a. otn iti vdi sdma vdg ity rk, om iti mano vdg 
iti vdk. om iti prdno vdg ity eva vdk, om iti ''ndro vdg iti sarve 
devdh. tad etad indram eva sarve devd anuyanti, 3. om ity 
etad evd "ksaram, etena vdi sammive parasye ^ndram vriljlta,* 
etena ha vdi tad bako ddlbhya djake^indm^ indram vavarja,* 

with that, just so as one might mix beans with honey. 12. They 
brooded over [it] (did penance). Of them brooding over [it] 
knowledge (the \ eda) was filled up. And by means of this heat 
(penance) and the filled up Veda they conquered that conquest 
which Prajapati [had] conquered. All these are just commen- 
surate with Prajapati, [of whom one may doubt :] " Is it this 
one ? Is it this one ?" is. Therefore greater becomes the renown, 
greater the glory of one who does penance. He who knows this 
thus sacrifices for himself by means of the fiUed-up Veda ; and 
when he sacrifices for anyone else he thus sacrifices for him by 
means of the filled-up Veda. u. For him who knows thus there 
is no misfortune at all. He who speaks ill of him, he meets with 
misfortune. 

I. 9. 1. This they say : "If one sings ovd ovd, what becomes 
of the /•<*, what of the sdman,^^'' a. Oin is the sdman, speech is 
the re : om is ihe mind, speech is speech ; om is breath, speech is 
just speech ; om is Indra, speech is all the gods. Thus all the 
gods go after Indra. 3. (hn is this syllable ; by it at a simultane- 
ous sorna-sacrifice one would force Indra awav from his rival. 

8. ^^C. pllitam: B. -td. '-C. I'd. ^^prfuj-. ^* -yaydd, ^^C.te^io; B. 
te ena; A. tendina, '*C. -yat. '' A.B. -yan. ^"^cUiydm. ^'C. cm. yajate 

yado vedena, *"A.B. eva dpi-. "^^A, asi. --A. upadati; C. uva- 

datu *^ A, acJicati : B.C. ar-. 

9. *B. evd. *A. ovdta {=ovdS f), ^fO* * avjUj-, *A.B. -ftn- ; C. 
-fin-. • vavraja. 



> 



Jaiirhiniya- Upanisad-Brdhmana. 89 

otn ity etendi 'va ^^nindya.'' 4. tuny etdny astdu. astdksard gdyatrl, 
gdyatram sdma brahma u gdyatrl, tad u hrahmd ^bhisampad- 
ycUe, astd^phdh pa^avas teno papavyam. 6. tasydi Hani nd- 
tndm ^ndrah karma ^ksitir^ amrtaih vyomdnto vdcah, hahur^ 
bhiiyas sarvam sarvasnidd lUtaram jyotih, rtarh sntyam vijhd- 
nam}* vivdcanam aprativdcyam,^^ purvam sarvarh sarvd vdk, 
sarvam idam apt dhenuh pinvate pardg arvdk. 9, 

dvittye *nuvdke dvitiyah kJiarujiah, 

L 10. I. 8d^ prthaksalilayn kdmadughdksiti prdnasamhitam 
caksup^rotram* vdkprabhutam manasd vydptam hrdaydgram* 
brdhmanabhaktam^ anna^ubham varsapavitrarh gobhagam 
prthivyuparam tapaManu varunapariyatanam^ indra^restham 
Bahasrdksaram ayutadhdram amrtam duhdnd* sarvdn imdn 
lokdn dbhivikmrat'i Vi/ a. tad etat satyam. aksaram yad om iti. 
tasminn dpah pratisthitd apsti* prthivl 2>r^^i^ydfn ime lokdh. 
». yathd su^^d pald^ni sarhtrnndni syur evam eteyid ^ksarene 
'me lokds sarhtrnndh, 4. tad idam imdn^ atividhya da^adhd 

Truly by means of it Baka Dalbhya forced Indra away from the 
Ajake9in9 ; just by means of this om he led [him] to himself. 
4 = I. 1. 6. 6. These are its names : Indra, action, imperishable- 
ness, the immortal, end of the firmament of speech (?); the mani- 
fold, the numerous, the all, the light higher than the all ; right- 
eousness, truth, distinction, decision which is not to be contra- 
dicted ; the ancient all, all speech. This all also, [like] a cow, 
fattens thitherward, hitherward. 

I. 10. 1. She that milks immortality possessing individual 
oceans (?), possessing wish-granting imperishableness, connected 
with breath, possessing sight and hearing, superior by speech, 
permeated by the mind, having the heart as its point, apportioned 
to the Brahmans, pleasant through food, having the rain as means 
of purification (?), cow-protecting, higher than the earth, having 
penance as a body, having Yaruna as an enclosure, having Indra 
as leader, possessing a thousand syllables, possessing ten thousand 
streams, flows in all directions unto all these worlds, a. Om is this 
same true syllable. In it the waters are firmly set, in the waters 
the earth, in the earth these worlds, s. As leaves might be stuck 
toeether with a pin, so these worlds are stuck together by this 
syllable. 4. That same having pierced them flows tenfold, hun- 

i. ' 'w nimofa. • -t ; C. 'kfiti. • -/* ir. ^^ vijijfia'. " C. -a?i. 

10. *«X. ^-kfugrotr-, ^-dayoar-, * A, bhraktram; B. bhratram; C. 
bhftram. ^paryyat-. *-dJ. ''C. om. iW. *A.B. -jMuiSi. 'A-B. dm; C. 
leaves space between idam and dagcuihd, 

VOL. XVI. 18 




\ 



90 H. OerUl, 

ksarati ^atadha aahasradM ^yutadhd pray%U(Adhd Iniyutadhat] 
^rbududhd nyarbudadhd^^ nikharvadhd^^ padmam aksitir vyo^ 
mdntah, 5. yathdii ^gho visyandamdnah^^ para h-parov arty an 
bhavaty evam evdi ^tad aksarani pnrah-parovartyo^* bhavati. 
«. te hdi He^* lokd urdhvd eva pritdh. ima evam trayodapamdsah. 
7. sa ya evam vidvdn udgdyati sa evam evdi Hdn lokdn ativahati. 
om ity etend ^ksarend ^tnion ddityam mukha ddhatte, esa ha vd 
etad aksaram, s. tasya^* sarvam dptam bhavati sarvam jitaih 
na hd ^sya ka^ cana^* kdmo ^ndpto bhavati ya evam veda. t. 
tad dha prthur vdinyo^'' divydn vrdtydn papraccha 
sthUmuh divastambhanlm suryam dhur 

antarikse sHrwih prthivlpratisthah : 
apsu bhumlp^^ pi^yire^* bhuribhdrdh 

kim 8vin rnahlr adhitisthanty dpa 
iti, 10. te ha pratyuctiB 

sthUndm eva divastambhamm sHryam dhur 

antarikse axiryah prthivlpratisthah : 
apsu bhumlfi^^ p/pytrc" bhuribhdrds 

satyam mahtr adhitisthanty^^ dpa 
iti, n. om ity etad evd ^ksaram satyam. tad etad dpo 'dhitis- 
thanti. 10, 

dvitiye 'nuvdke tftiyah khau(}ah, dvitiyo *nuvdka8 samdptal^, 

dredfold, thousandfold, ten thousandfold, hundred thousandfold^ 
millionfold, ten inillionfold, hundred million fold, billionfold, ten 
billionfold, hundred billionfold, thousand billionfold. ». As a 
flood flowing in different directions [proceeding] farther and far- 
ther becomes broader, even so this syllable [proceeding] farther 
ard farther becomes broader. 6. These same worlds are lying 
[piled] upward [one above the other]. They thus are of thirteen 
months. 7. He who knowing thus sings tlje udg'Uhai he carries 
[the sacrificerj beyond these w^orlds. Bv means of this syllable 
om. he places yonder sun in his mouth. Eerily it (the sun) is this 
syllable. e. Whoso knows thus, by him all is obtained, all con- 
quered, of him no desire whatsoever is unfulfllled. ». Now Prthu 
Vfunya asked the divine mendicants : " They call the sun (surya) 
a sky-supporting post ; in the atmosphere is the sun having the 
earth as a support ; in the waters the much-bearing earths lie; on 
what, pray, do the great waters rest ?" 10. They answered : 
"They do call the sun a sky-supporting post ; in the atmosphere 
is the sun having the earth as a support ; in the waters the much- 
bearing earths lie ; on truth the great waters rest." 11. Thia 
syllable om is truth. Thereon, then, the waters rest. 

10. ^'A.B. nirbu-, "A.B. nikharvdca; C. nikharvaddca, "C. -n&n, 
»»C. om. parah,-paro, '*toi. "A.B. tasi, ''A. kanva, "A. v&i, 
^•-miQ. '•fi^re. "A. athit-. 



> 



Jdi^niniyor Upanisad-Brdhma/na. 91 

I. 11. I. prajdpatih prajd asrfata, td enam srstd annakdpinlr 
abhitas samantain pari/avipan. a. td abrav'U kimJcdmds sthe 7t. 
annddyakdmd ity abruvan, z, so ^bravld ekam vdV vedam 
annddyam asrksi sdmdt* ^va, tad vah prayacchdnl* Ui. tan 
nah prayaeche* Vy abrtivan, a. so *bravld imdn vdi pa^Qn 
bhUyistham upajlvd?nah, ebhyah prathamma praddsydml V«. 
». tebhyo hinkdram prdyacchat, tasuidt pa^a'oo hinkarikrato* 
vijijfldsamdnd iva caranti, •. prastdvam maiiusy ebhyah, tas- 
uidd u te stuvata ive* \Ia771 me bhavisyaty ado vie bhavisyatl 
Vi. 7. ddim vayobhyah, (asmdt tdny ddaddndny updpapdtam 
iaa caranti. 8. udg'Uhani devebhyo 'mrtani. tasmdt te *mrtdh, 
9, pratihdram dranyebhyah pa^ubhyah, tasmdt te pratihrtds* 
tantasyamdna' iva caranti, IL 

trtiye 'nuvdke prathamdh khatufaJj,, 

L 12. I. upadravam gandharvdpsarobhyah\ tasmdt ta upa- 
dravarh grhnanta iva caratiti. a. fiidhanatn pitrbhyah. tasmdd 
u te nidhanasamsthdh, s. tad yad ebhyas tat sdma prdyacchad 
etam evdi ^bhyas tad ddityam prdyacchat, 4. sa yad anuditas 
sa hinkdro WdhodiUth* prastdva dsamgavam ddir* mddh- 

L 11. I. Prajapati created creatures. They being created be- 
leaguered him completely on all sideH, yearning for food (?). s. 
He said to them : " What is your desire ?" " We are desirous of 
food-eating," they said. s. He said : " Truly, one Veda have I 
created for food-eating, viz. the sdman ; that I will furnish to 
you." The}' said : " Furnish that to us." 4. He said : " We live 
mostly on these domestic animals. To them I will give first." 
f. He gave them the hinkdra. Therefore domestic animals go 
about continually uttering hlm^ desirous of knowing [each other], 
as it were. «. The prastdva [he gave] to men. And therefore 
they praise themselves (y^.f^w), as it were, [saying] : " This will 
be mine, that will be mine." 7. The ddi [he gave] to the birds. 
Therefore they move about taking themselves (y/dd-\-d)y %ing 
up and down, as it were. 8. The udy'Uha [he g&vel to the gods, 
being immortal. Therefore they are immortal. ». The pratihdra 

the gave] to the beasts of the forest. Therefore they, being 
:ept back, move shaking (?) as it were. 

I. 12. I. The upadrava [he gave] to the Gandharvas and Ap- 
sarases. Therefore they move taking hold as it were of the 
upadrava (?). a. The nidhana [ho gave] to the Fathers. And 
therefore they are resting on the nidhana, a. In that he gave 
them this sdman, thereby he gave them this sun. 4. When it is 

II. *wd. "C. ffim-. *pTya', ^-kjio. ^ B,C, stuvateva. *pratihaida. 
^A.B. tdtr{?)s{l)yamdnd ; C. tatdsyamdnd, 

18. *C. -dpsardth-. *C. arthodit-. *ddityal^. 



92 U. Oertel, 

yayidina udgitho *pardhnah pratiharo yad upoBtaynayam lohi- 
tayati sa upadravo ^stamita eva nidhanam. «. sa esa sarvair 
lokdis samah. tad yad esa sarvair lokdis samas taamdd esa eva 
sdma, sa ha vdi sdmavit sa sdma veda* ya evarh veda, e. te 
*bnivan dure vd idam. asmaL tatre ^dam kuru yatro "^pqjlvdme 
V/.* 7. tad rtfni ahhyatyanayat, sa vasantam eva hinkdram 
aJcarod^ grlsniam prastdvam varsdtn udgUham paradani* pra- 
tihdram henmntam Jiidhanam, mdsdrdhamdsdv eva saptatndv 
akarot. s. te *bruvan nedlyo nvdvai ^tarhi, tatrdi 'ra kuru 
yatro ^pajlvdme '*ti,* 9. tat parjanyam ahhyatyanayat, sa pu- 
rovdtam eva hinkdrani akarot. 12, 

tftiye *nuvdke dvittyah khai}4^li, 

I. 13. 1. jlmutdn prastdvam^ stanayitnum udgUham vidyu- 
tarn pratihdram vrstirh* nidhanam, yad vrstdt prajdp cdu 
hadhaya^ ca jdyante te saptamydv* akarot, «. te ^hruvan 
nedlyo nvdvdi Harhi. tatrdi 'ra kuru yatro ^pajlvdme ^ti,* ». 
tad yajnam ahhyatyanayat. sa yctji^hsy eva hinkdram akarod 
rcah prastdvam sdmdny udgltham stomam pratihdram chando 

not yet risen it is the hiiikdra ; when half risen it is the pra- 
stdva ; at the time when the cows are driven together it is the 
ddi ; noon is the udy'itha ; the afternoon is the pratihdra; when 
it turns red toward sunset it is the upadrava ; having gone to set- 
ting it is the nklhana. t. This (sun) is the same (sama) with all the 
worlds, therefore it is the sdman. Truly he is «a wan-knowing, 
he knows the sdman, who knows thus. 6. They said : " Verily, 
this is far away from us ; make it there where we may live on 
[it]." 7. Then he transferred it to the seasons. He made the 
spring the hinkdra, the summer the 2}rastdva, the rainy season the 
udgltha, the fall the pratihara, the winter the nidhana. Both 
months and half-months he made as sixth and seventh, s. They 
said : " Verily, it is nearer now ; [but] make it there where we 
may live on [it]." 9. Then he transferred it to Parjanya. He 
made the preceding wind the hinkdra, — 

I. 13. I. The thunder-clouds the prastdva, the thunder the 
ndglthay the lightning the pratihdra, the rain the nidhana; 
what creatures and herbs are born from rain, those he made as 
sixth and seventh, a. They said : " Verily, it is nearer now, [but] 
make it there where we may live on [it]." s. Then he transferred 
it to the sacrifice. He made the yaju^es the hinkara, the rc^s the 
prastdva, the sdmatis the udgltha, the stoma the pratihik'O, the 

12. *C. repeats sa sdtna veda. ^-ma iti. *kar-, "^ prastdva^^, var^ 
udglthafjL; B.C. garat pratihdraJI^ ; A. cm. garadam pratihdram. 
Id. ^ A. prastdtrdi'vam. *-ftr. *A. sapatam-. * -ma iti. 




Jdiminlyor Upcmisad-BrdhmaTia, 93 

nidhanani, svdhdkdravdsatkdrdv eva aaptamdv akarot, 4. te 
^hruvan nediyo nvdvdi ^tarhL tatrdi ^va kuru yatro ^pajlvdme Ui.* 
6. tat purusani ctbhyatyanayat,* sa rnana eva hinkdram akarod 
vdcam prastdvam prdnam ^idg'itharh caksuh pratihdram pro- 
tram nidhanam, retap cdi 'va prajdm ca saptanidv akarot, 6. 
te ^bruvann atra vd encU tad akar yatro '*pajtvisydma iti\ 7. aa 
vidydd aham eva sdrnd ^smi mayy etd devatd iti, IS, 

trtiye *nuvdke tj^iyali kkan^l^, 

I. 14. I. na ha duredevatas^ sydt, ydvad dha vd dtmand 
devdn update tdvad asjndi devd bhavanti. 9. atha ya etad evam 
vedd ^harn eva sdmd ^smi niayy etas sarva' devatd ity evam* 
hd ^sminn etd^ sarvd devatd bhavanti, s. tad etad devapritt 
sdma, sarvd ha vdi devatdp prnvanty evamvidam punydya sd- 
dhave, td enam puny am eva sddhu kdrayanti, 4. sa ha smd ^^ha 
sucittap pdilano* yo yajnakdmo mdm eva sa vrnltdm. tata evdi 
^nath yajiia upanarhsyati, evamvidam hy udgdyantath sarvd 
devatd anitsamtrpyanti, td asmdi trptds tathd karisyanti yathdi 
'nam yajiia upanamsyatl Hi. H, 

trtiye *nuvdke caturthah khan(faJ^, iftlyo *nuvdkas samdptah. 

chandas the nidhana ; the exclamations sodhd and vasat he 
made as sixth and seventh. 4. They said : " Verily, it is nearer 
now, [but] make it there where we may live on [it]." d. He trans- 
ferred it to man. He made the mind the hinkdra, speech the 
j>rastdva^ breath the ndgUha^ sight the pratihdra, hearing the 
nidhana; seed and offspring he made as sixth and seventh. 0. 
They said : " Now thou hast made it here, where we shall live 
on [it]". 7. He should know : ** I am the sdma7i, in me are these 
divinities." 

1. 14. I. Fie should not be one having the divinities far away. 
Truly to what extent he worships the gods with the self, to that 
extent the gods exist for him. 3. And who knows this thus : ^' I 
am the sdman^ in me are all these divinities," truly thus in him 
all these divinities exist, a. That is the devaprut sdma?i; for all 
the divinities give ear to one knowing thus for what is pure, for 
what is good. They make him do what is pure, what is good. 
4. Now Sucitta 9^il&Q& used to say : " Whoso wisheth to sacri- 
fice, let him choose me ; then the sacrifice will become his. 
For with one who knowing thus singeth the udgltha all the divin- 
ities are pleased together. They being pleased will so act for 
him that the sacrifice shall become his." 



18. *A. abhyatyatyan,', 

14. 'A.B. devata, 'A. om. "B. esma, * A. deva^rnit ; B. deva- 
^rUt; C. eva^rHt. *B. -naih. 



94 H. Oertel, 



I. 15. 1. deva vdi svargam lokam dipsan. tarn na ^ydnA nd 
^^Hnd* na tisthanto* na dhdvanto ndi 'wa kena cana karmiand ^^pnu- 
van, a. te devdh prajdpatim upddhdvan* svargam vdi lokam 
dipaisma, tarn na ^ydnd ud ^^aind na tisthanto na dhdvanto ndi 
'«a kena cana karmand ^^pdma. tathd no ^nu^ddhi ycUhd svar- 
gam lokam dpniit/dtne* Hi. a. tdn abrav'U sdmnd ^nrcena svar- 
gam lokam pragdte* Hi. te sdmnd ^nrcena svargam lokam prd- 
yan,^ 4. pra vd ime sdmnd '*gur iti, tasmdt prasdina tasmdd u 
prasdmy annam atti.^ 5. devd vdi svargam lokam dyan.* ta etdny 
rkpaddni parirdni dhunvanta dyan, te* svargam lokam ajayan.^* 
%, tdny d divah praklrndny aperan. athe ^mdni prajdpatir rkpa- 
ddni ^rlrdni samcityd ^hhyarcat. yad^* ahhyarcat td^^ eva rco 
'bhavan. 15, 

caturthe *nuvdke prathamah khan(jiaJjr. 

I. 16. I. sdi 'va rg abhavad iyam eva ^rih. ato devd abhavan. 
«. athdi ^sdm imdm asurd^^ priyafn avindanta. tad evd ^^swram 

I. 15. 1. The gods desired to obtain the heavenly world. 
Neither lying nor sitting nor standing nor running nor by any 
[other] action whatsoever did they obtain it. «. These gods ran 
unto Prajiipati [saying] : " We have desired to obtain the heav- 
enly world. Neither lying nor sitting nor standing nor running 
nor by any [other] action whatsoever have we obtained it. In- 
struct us so that we may ol)tain the heavenly world." i. He 
said to them : " Approach the heavenly world by means of a re- 
less sdman.'*^ They approached the heavenly world by means of a 
rc-less sdman, 4. " Truly, these have gone forth (pra) by means 
of the sdman.'*'* Hence [the word] prewdma, and hence one eats 
food imperfectly (? jyrasd)ni). 6. Verily, the gods went to the 
heavenly world. They kept shaking off their bodies, the re- 
parts. They conquered the heavenly world. «. These [bodies] 
lay strewn up to the sky. Then Prajapati, collecting these bodies, 
the rc-parts, honored {^rc) them. Because he honored them, 
they became rc*s. 

1. 16. 1. That one became the re, this one [became] fortune. 
Thence the gods prevailed, a. Now the Asuras acquired for 

• 

15. * A. "pin-. • A. -ntyo. ' A. updya-. * C. praydme. * A. pra- 
ydte ; B. pradhdme ; C. praydme. *lokammaprdyat. '' After this tnere 
is confusion and repetition in the MSS. Beiore 5, all insert : ta etdny 
jrhpaddni ^rirdr^i dhunvanta dyan (A. rtthayan). te svargail^ lokam 
a^ayan (A. -at), athe *mdni prajdpatir . . . . <d eva rco *bfuivan. "A. 
yat * MSS. om. te svargath ajayan ; inserted here from repeti- 
tion above 7. '®C. om. yad " A.B. om. td eva 

16. 'B. <U-. 




Jdiminlyar Upanisad-Brdhviaiia, 95 

abhavat, 3. te^ devd* abruvan yd vai nap ^Ir abhud avi- 
danta* tdm asurdh, katham nv esdm imam ^iyam punar eva* 
jayeme ^ti, 4. te ^bruvann rcy eva sdma gdydme HL te punah 
pratyddrutya* rci sdind ^gdyan, tend ^smdl lokdd asurdn ami- 
danta. •. tad vdi tnddhyandine ca savane trtlyasavane' ca na 
rco ^parddho" ^sCi, sa yat te rci' gdyati tend ^smdl lokdd dvi- 
santam bhrdtrvyam nudate, atha yad amrie^^ devatdau prdtas- 
savanam gdyati tena svargam lokam eti, «. prajdpatir vdi 
sdmne ^mdm jitim ajayad yd ^sye ''yam jilis tdm,^^ sa svargam 
lokam drohat,^* 7. te devdh prajdpatim tipetyd ^bruvann as- 
mabhyam apt ''dam sdma prayacche Hi, tathe Hi, tad ebhyas 
sdma prdyacchat. 8. tad endn idam sdma svargam lokam na 
^kdmayata^* vodhum. «. te devdh prqfdpatim, tipetyd ^bruvan 
yad vdi nas sdma prddd idam vdi nas tat svargam lokam na 
kdmayate^* vodhum iti, lo. tad vdi pdpmand sarhsrjate ^ti. ko 
^sya pdpme ^ti. rg iti, tad red samasrjan, ii. tad idam prqjd- 
pater garhayamdnam atisthad idam vdi md tat pdpmand sam- 
aardksur^* iti, so 'bravld yas tvdi Hena vydvartaydd vy eva sa 

themselves this fortnne of theirs. Thereupon the cause of the 
Asuras prevailed, s. These gods said : " Truly, what hath been 
our fortune, that the Asuras have acquired for themselves. How 
then may we win back this fortune of theirs ?" 4. They said : 
'* Let us sing the sdman in the re." They in turn, running up 
toward [the Asuras], sang the sdman in the re. Thereby they 
pushed the Asuras from this world. 0. Thus indeed at the noon- 
libation and at the evening-libation there is no offense from the 
re. He who sings these two [libationsj in the re thereby pushes 
his hostile rival away from this world. Moreover, in that he 
sings the [chant of the] morning-libation in immortality, in the 
divinities, thereby he goes to the heavenly world. •. v erily by 
means of the sdman Prajfipati conquered this conquest, viz. what 
conquest there is of him. lie ascended to the heavenly world. 7. 
These gods coming unto Prajfipati said : " Furnish this sdman to 
us also." [Saying] "Yes," he furnished this sdman to them. 
8. This same sdman did not wish to carry them to the heavenly 
world. «. These gods coming unto Prajfipati said : "Verily, that 
sdman which thou hast given to us, that does not wish to carry 
us to the heavenly world." 10. "Mix it with evil." " What is its 
evil?" "There." They mixed it with there. 11. That same 
[«(fma?i] stood upbraiding Prajfipati : " Verily, they thus have 
mixed me with evil." He (P.) said : " Whoso shall separate thee 



16. »A.B. tad, »A.B. evd, *vindanta, 'A. ava, 'B. -drucyatya, 
Urit', "A. 'paratho, *rci, ^^anrte, "C. tarn, '•C. ar-, "A.B. na 
him/\yate : C. na kdmayate, ^*A, kdindy-; B. s6>vMiy, '*9arh9r-. 



96 //. OeiM, 

papmand vartatd iti. la. sa ya etad red prdtassavane vydvar- 
tayati vy evarh^* sa papmand vartate. 16. 

caturthe 'nuvdke dvitiydfy khan^fy. 

I. 17. 1. tad dhur yad ova ovd iti giyate kvd Hra rg hhavati 
kva sdfne Hi, a. prastuvann evd ^stdbhir aksardih praatdutu 
astdksard ydyatri, aksaram-aksaram tryaksaram, tac caturvin- 
patis sampadyante, caturvin^atyaksard gdyatri, i. tdni etdm 
prastdvena* ream dptvd yd ^rlr yd ^paeitir ya^ »vargo* loko yad 
ya^o yad annddyam tdny dgdyamdna dste. 17. 

caturthe ^nuvdke trtiyai, khamjlah. 

I. 18. 1. prajdpatir devdn asTJata, tdn^ tnrtyvh pdpmd ^nva- 
srjyata, a. te dsvd prqjdpatim upetyd ^brutyan ka^mdd* u no 
^srsthd* mrtyum een nah pdpmdnam anvavasraksyann* dsithe 
Hi. s. tdn abravle ehanddnsi sambharata. tdni yathdyatanam 
praoi^a* tato mrtyund pdpmand vydvartsyathe* Hi. 4. vasavo 
gdyatrim samabharan. tdm te prdvi^n. tdn sd ^cchddayat. •. 
rudrds tristubham samabharan. tdm te prdvipan. tdn sd ^cchdda- 
yat.^ 9. ddityd jagatlm satnahharan. tdm te prdvi^an, tdn sd 

from this [evil], he shall separate himself from evil." la. He who 
at the morning-libation separates it from the re, he thns separates 
himself from evil. 

I. 17. I. This they say : **If there be sungova ovdy what be- 
comes of the rCy what of the sdman.^^ a. When he sings the 
prastdva, he sings the prastdva with eight syllables. Of eight 
svllables is the gdyatrl ; each syllable is a triple syllable. Thus 
they amount to twenty-four. The gdyatrl, has twenty-four sylla- 
bles, s. Having obtained this same re by means of the prastdva, 
he sits singing into his possession what fortune [there is], what 
reverence, what heavenly world, what glory, what food-eating. 

I. 18. I. Prajfipati created the gods. After them death, evil 
was created, a. These gods coming unto Prajapati said : " Why, 
pray, hast thou created us, if thou wast going to create death, 
evil, after us ?" s. He said to them : " Bring together the metres; 
enter these each one at his proper place, then you will be sepa- 
rated from death, evil. 4. The Vasus brought the gdyatrl to- 
gether. They entered it. It concealed them. 5. The Rudras 
brought the tristubh together. They entered it. It concealed 

16. " A., eva. 

17. ^ K. jprastdveprastavena. 'A. -rga. 

18. » A.B. W ; C. fd/i. *ka9m&. 'C. -?{d. ^-^rk^nn. »-^n. *A.B. 
'Vaksy- ; C. -vatsy-. ' A cchM-. 



Jdiminlya^ TJpcuiiisdd-BrdhTnaTia, 97 

^cchddaf/cU, i, vipve devd anustuhham samabharaii. tdm te prd- 
vi^n, tan sd ^cchddayat. e. tan asj/dm rcy asvardydnC inrtyur 
nirajdndd yathd mandu manisutram paripa^yed* evam, 9. te 
avaram prdvi^an, tan svare sato na* nirajdndt, svarasya tu 
ghosend ^nvdit. 10. ta om ity etad evd ^ksaram samdrohan. etad 
evd ^ksararh trayl vidyd, yad ado^" hnrtam tajyati tat prapadya^^ 
tato mrtyund pdpmand vydvartanta. 11. evani evdi^vam vidvdn 
om ity etad evd ^ksaram samdnthya yad ado^* ^mrtam tapati tat 
prapadya tato mrtyund pdpmand xrydvartate Hho yasydi ^vam 
vidvdn udgdyati, 18, 

caturthe 'nuvdke caturthaJf> khar^fjI^JIjL. caturtho ^nuvdkas samdptah, 

I. 19. I. athdi ^tad ekavinQam sdma, 2. tasya trayy^ eva 
vidyd hinkdrah, agnir vdyur^ asdv dditya esa prastdvah. ima 
eva lokd ddih. tesu* hi ^dam lokesu aarvam dhitam, praddhd 
yajHo* daksind esa udglthah, dipo ^vdntaradi^a dkd^a esa pra- 
tihdrah. dpah prajd osadhaya esa upadravah, candramd naksa- 
trdni pitara etan nidhanam. s. tad etad ekavin^am sdma. sa 
ya evam etad ekavin^aih sdma veddi Hena hd ^sya sarveno ^dgl- 

them. «. The Adityas brought thejagatl together. They entered 
it. It concealed them. 7. All the gods brought the anustuhh 
together. They entered it. It concealed them. 8. Death be- 
came awaro of them in this tone-(tune-)less rCy just as one 
might discover the jewel-string within a jewel, o. Ihey entered 
tone. Them, being in tone, he did not become aware of. But 
he went after them by the noise of tone. 10. They climbed to- 
gether upon that syllable o?/i. That same syllable is the three- 
fold knowledge (Veda). Presorting unto that immortality which 
burns yonder, they then separated themselves from death, evil. 
11. Even so one knowing thus, climbing upon that syllable om, 
resorting unto that immortality which burns yonder, then 
separates himself from deatli, evil, and likewise he for whom 
one knowing thus sings the udg'itha, 

I. 19. I. Now this is the twenty-onefold sdmafi. a. Of it the 
threefold knowledge is the hiUkdra ; Agni, Vayu, yonder sun, 
those are the praatdva ; these worlds the ddi — for this all is 
placed (^dhd-\-d) in those worlds; faith, sacrifice, sacriiicial 
gifts, those are the udg'itha ; the quarters, the intermediate 
quarters, space, those are the pratihdra ; the waters, creatures, 
herbs, those are the upadrava ; the moon, the asterisms, the 
Fathers, those are the nidhana. s. This is the twenty-onefold 
idman. He who thus knows this twenty-onefold sdman^ of him 

18. 'A.B. -ydm. ^ X,B. -yaid, »A.C. om. '©C. o. ^^ A. ped-, "A.B, 
edo; C. o. 

19. *A. frdi. *B,v&vdyur, 'yefu, *C, -jfld. 

VOL. XVI. 14 



98 H. Oertel, 

tarn hhavaty etasmdd v eva* sarvasmdd dvr^cf/ate* ya evarh vid- 
vdnaam upavadati. 19. 

paflcamo 'nuvdkas samdptah, 

L 20. 1. idarn eve ^dam agre hitariksam^ dsU. tad v evd ^py 
etarhi. 3. tad yad etad antariksam^ ' ya evd* ^yani^ pavata etad 
evd ^ntariksam,^ esa ha vd antariksandma,^ * t, esa u evdi ^sa 

• • • • • 

vitatah. tad yathd kdsthena palace viskahdhe aydtdm aksena vd 

cakrdv evam* etene' '*mdu lokdu viskabdhdu, 4. tasminn idam 

aarvam antah. tad' yad asminn idam sarvam antas tastndd an- 

taryaksam. antaryaksarh* ha vdi ndmdi ^tat, tad antariksam^ 

iti paroksam dcaksate. 5. tad yathd mutdh prahaddhdh}^ pra- 

lamberann evam hdi Hasmin sarve lokdh prahaddhdh pralata- 

bante. «. tasydi Hasya sdmnas^^ tiara dgds^' <^W dg'ddni sad 

vibhiitayaf catasrah pratisthd dapa pragds sapta savisthd dvdu 

stobhdv ekarh rupam?* 7. tad yds tiara dgd ima eva te^* lokdh. 

8. atha ydni \triny'] dgitdny agnir vdyitr asdv dditya etdny 

dgttdni, na ha vdi kdm cana priyam aparddhnoti ya evarh 

veda. 20, 

i^a^the *nuvdke prathamaJi khafujlaf^, 

the udgitha is suDg by this all ; and from this same universe he 
is cut off who speaks ill of one knowing thus. 

I. 20. I. This [all] in the beginning was this atmosphere here ; 
and that is so even now. a. As for this atmosphere — he who 
cleanses here is this atmosphere. For he is atmosphere by 
name. s. That same is stretched apart. As two leaves might 
be propped apart by means of a peg, or two wheels by means 
of an axle, so these [two] worlds are propped apart by means 
of this [atmosphere]. 4. This all is within it. Because this all 
is within (antas) it, therefore [it is called] antaryaksa, Anta- 
ryaksa verily is its name. It is called atftariksa in an occult 
way. 5. As baskets bound [to one another] would hang down, 
80 in it all the worlds bound [to one another] hang down. 
6. Of this same sdman there are three dgdSy three dgitas, six 
vibhiftis, four pratisthds, ten pragds, seven sathsthdSy two 
stobhas, one form. 7. Now the three dgds, they are these 
worlds. 8. Further, the [three] dgltas, Agni (fire), Vayu (wind), 
yonder sun are these dgitas. He misses no fortune whatever 
who knows thus. 



19. *A.B. -08. *C.dvicyote, 

20. ^C-rlkf'. *C. inBertae^havAantarik^am, *C. evam. *C. cm. 

•-fc^nd-. •B. navam. 'A. etehna. 'A. cm. tad antas, *C, 

cm. '''B. -band'. " B. -naiha, "B. a^famdJ^, "A. ekaraipam; B.C. 
ekarupam. '*A.B. to. 



Jdiminvyor Upanisad-Brdhmuna, 99 

I. 21. I. atha yds sad vibhutaya rtavas te. a. at ha yap cata- 
srah jyratisthd imd eva td^ catasro dipah. a. atha ye dapa pragd 
iina eva te da^a j?rdndh, 4. atha yds sapta^ samsthd yd evdi 
'//?«* saptd* ^hordtrdh prdclr va^atkurvanti* td eva tdh. 5. atha 
ydn dvdu stobhdv ahordtre eva te. «. atha yad* eJcam rupam* 
karmdi 'wa tat, karmand hi ^dam sarvarh vikriyate. 7, tasydi 
'tiisya admno devd djim dyan, sa prajdpatir harasd* hinkdram 
ndajayad agnia tejasd pra^tdvani' rupena brhaspatir tidgithaih 
svadhayd pitarah'* pratihdram vlryene ^ndro nidhanam. 8. athe 
^tare devd antaritd ivd ^^san. ta indram abruvan tava vdi vayath 
smo *y/M na etaamm sdiaann dbhaje ^tL ». tebhyas svaram* prd- 
yacchat tarn prajdimtir abrav'tt kathe ^ttham akah, sarvarh \u'i 
ebhyns sdma prdddh, etdvad vdva sdma ydvdii svarah. rg vO 
em rte svardd bhavntl Hi. 10. so ^hravlt punar vd a ham esdm^'' 
etam rasatn dddsya iti. tan abravld upd rnd gdyata. ahhi md 
svarate Hi, tathe Hi, 11. tarn tipdgdyan. tani abhyasvaran. tesdui 
puna rasam ddatta.^^ ^21. 

sa^fhe *nuvdke dvitiyalf, khamjl^fy. 



I. *21. 1. Further, the bix vibhutiSy they are the seasons. 3. 
Farther, the four pratisthds^ they are these four quarters, s. 
Further, the ten j/ragds, they are these ten breaths. 4. Further, 
tlie seven samsthds, they are those seven successive (?) days and 
nights that they utter vasat (?). b. ITurther, the two stobhas, 
they are day and night. «. Further, the one form, that is action. 
For by action this all is developed. 7. About this same sdmaii 
the gods ran a race. Prajapati by a grasp conquered the hinkdra^ 
Agni by splendor the prastdva, by form Brhaspati the udgltha, 
by the svadhd the Fathers the pratihdram by heroism Indra the 
nidhajia. 8. Now the other gods were excluded, as it were. 
They said to Indra : "Verily, thine we are ; let us also have a 
share in this sdmany a. He gave them the tone. Prajapati said 
to him : " Why hast thou acted thus? Verily, the whole sdman 
thou hast given to them. Truly, as great as the tone is, so great 
is the sdman. Verily, without tone it becomes re. 10. He (I.) 
said : " I will take back again this sap of them." He said to 
them : "Join in my song, intone with me !" "Yes." 11. They 
joined in the song, they intoned with him. Of them he took the 
sap back again. 



81. * A. cm. sapta etas. * A.B. -d. *C. var^a-. * A.B. vad, 

• A. raipifh. • C. -sath. ' B. tdvava. * A. -rama, • A. savar-. '<* B. 
«fo; C. e^om. "-^W, 



I 
i 






100 n. Oertel, 

I. 22. I. sa yatha 'inadhudhane^ madhundtlbhir madhv uHficdd 
evam eva tat saman puna rasaui dsiilcat, 2. tasmdd u ha no 
^pagdyet, indra esa yad udgdtd, sa yathd ^sdv amlsdm^ rasatn 
ddatta evam esa tesCuh ra^am ddatte. s. kdmarh ha tu yc^amdna 
upagdyed yajanidnasya hi tad hhavaiy atho hrahniacdry dcd- 
ryoktah. a. tad n vd dhur updi 'ya gdyet. di^o hy updgdyan* 
dipdi/i* evam salokatdih jayatl Hi, 5. te ya eve* ^me^ niukhydh 
prdnd eta evo \igdtdra^ co ''pagdtdraQ ca. ime ha tray a udgdtdru 
ifna u catvdra ujtagdtdrah. 6. tasmdd u catura evo ^pagdtfn' 
kurvlta. tasmdd u ho ^pagdtf-n* pratyahhiinr^d di^as stha pro- 
tram fne md hinsiste Hi, i. sa yas sa rasa dsld ya evd ^yam 
pavata esa eva sa rasah, s. sa yathd madhvdlopam adydd iti 
ha smd ^^ha sucitta^ pdilana evam etasya rasasyd ^Hmdnam 
purayeta, sa evo ^dgdtd ^Hmdnam ca yajamdnam cd ^ mrtatvam 
gamayatl Hi, 22, 

^a§the ^nuvdke tftlydfy khaiyiah, ^a^tho *nuvakas samdptal},, 

I. 2.<. I. ayam eve Hlam agra dkdpa dslt, sa n evd ^py etarhi. 
a. sa ya^ sa dkdpo vdg eva sd, tasmdd dkd^dd vdg vadati, 

I. 22. I. As one might pour honey into a honey- vessel by 
means of the honey-cells, even so he then poured the sap again 
into the sdman, s. And therefore one should not join in the song 
[of the vdgdtar]. This udgdtar is Indra. As he then took the 
sap of those, even so he now takes the sap of these. «. But 
the sacrificer may join in the song [of the udgdtar^ at will — for 
that is the sacriticer's — and also a v edic student directed by the 
teacher. 4. Verily, they also say this : " One should join in the 
song. For the quarters joined in the song. He thus wins the 
same world with the quarters." 5. These breaths in the mouth, 
they are the udgdtars and upagdtars. For these three are the 
udgdtars and these four are the upagdtars. e. And therefore 
one should appoint four upagdtars. And therefore he should 
touch the upagdtars respectively [saying] : "Ye are the quarters, 
do not injure my hearing." 7. As to what this sap was, he who 
cleanses here, he is that sap. 8. " As one might eat a bite of 
honey," Sucitta ^^il&na used to say, "so one should till himself 
with this sap. This same udgdtar causeth himself and the sac- 
rificer to attain immortality." 

I. 28. 1. This [universe] in the be&;inning was this space here, 
and that is so even now. 3. What this space is, that is speech. 

22. * B.C. -dhuvane, * insert sa, ' A.B. -yat, * C. -fawi. • ev>di, ' C. 
va, ' 'dgd' ; A.B. -^pi. • -fpi. 



Jdiminlyor Upanisad-Brdhmana. : - 101 

«. tdm etdrh} vdcmn prajdpatir abhyapUayat, tasyd abhipUitiR^di 
rasah* prdnedat.* ta eve ^7}ie loka abhavan, a. sa* hndn 'li)kan 
tihhyapHayi9t. tesdm abhipUitdnnih rasah prdnedat. td evdi'Hd 
devoid abhavann agnir vdt/ur asdv dditya* iti, 5. sa efd devatd 
abhyapUayat. tdsdm abhipllltdndm rasah prdnedat, sd trayl 
vidyd ^bhavat. c. sa* traylm vidydm abhyap'dayat, tasyd abhi- 
pHUdydi rasah jwdriedaU td evdi Va vydhrtayo ^bhavan bhur 
hhuvoA svar iti, 7. sa etd vydhrtlr abhyapUayat. tdsdm. abhipUitd- 
ndm rasah prdnedat. tad etad aksaram abhavad om iti yad etad, 
s. sa etad aksaram abhyapUayat. tasyd ^bhipUitasyd' rasah prd- 
nedat. 23. 

saptame *nuvdke prathamah khantjUih. 

I. 24. I. tad aksarad eva. yad aksarad eva tasmdd aksaram. 
a. yad v evd^ ^ksararh nd ^kslyata tasmdd aksayani. aksayaih ha 
vdindmdiHat. tad aksaram iti paroksam dcaksate. s. tad dhdi 
^tad eka om iti gdyanti. tat tathd na gdyet. Ipvaro hdi ^nad 
etetia rasend ^ ntardhdtoh^ . atho^ dve* ivdi ^vam. bhavata oin. iti. 
o ity u hdi ^ke gdyanti, tad u ha* tan na* gltam, ndi ^va^ tathd 
gdyet. orh* ity eva gdyet. tad enad ete?ia rasenft samdadhdti. 

Therefore speech speaks from space, s. This same speech Praja- 
pati pressed. Of it being pressed the sap streamed forth. That 
became these worlds. 4. He pressed these worlds. Of them 
being pressed the sap streamed forth. That became these divin- 
ities : Agni, Vayu, yonder siin. 5. He pressed these divinities. 
Of them being pressed the sap streamed forth. Tliat became 
the threefold knowledge. 6. He pressed the threefold knowledge. 
Of it being pressed the sap streamed forth. That became these 
sacred utterances : bhiJuSy bhuvasy svar, i. He pressed these 
sacred utterances. Of them being pressed the sap streamed 
forth. That became that syllable, viz. om. s. He pressed that 
syllable. Of it being pressed the sap streamed forth. 

I. 24. I. That flowed. Because it flowed (aksarat), therefore 
it is aksara (syllable), a. And because, being aksara, it was not 
exhausted (^ksi), therefore it is aksaya. Verily, aksaya is its 
name. It is called aksara in an occult way. s. Now some sing 
this as om. Ijet one not sing it thus. He is liable to hide it by 
this sap. So also there come to be two, as it were, viz. o-m. 
And some sing o. And that is also not sung thus. Let him not 
sing it thus either. Let him sing om. Thus he combines it with 

28. 1 A. etd vd, * C. rasam. ' C. inserts vs. 6 sa trayim rasam 

{I) prdi^edat. ^A.B. om. ^A.B. -d. *C. om. sa traylm prd- 

y^/eaai. ^ -d. 

24. 'A.B. 'Vd, «C. yd'. 'B.C. -the. ^C. ddMi; A.B. dvdi. »C. 
om. *A.B. nir. ''A.B. nehxi. 'o. 



. -• •.• 



,• •_ 



102 .-.;:: ' H. OerH, 

• " . 

4,.'tfid^eta7h rasarh tarpayati, rasas trpto 'ksaram tarpayatL 

Mlpsaram* trptnth vyCihrtls tarpayati, vydhrtayas trptd veddns 

tmrpayantL vedds trptd devatds tarpayanti, devatds trptd hkdns 

'•-, tarpayanti. lokds trptd aksararh tarpayanti. aksaraih trptam 

. '* vdcam tarpayati,^^ vdk^^ trptd ^^kdpam tarpayati. dkdfas trptah 

prajd^ tarpayati. trpyati prajayd pa^ubhir ya etad evam vedd 

Hho ya^ydi '*vam vidvdn tidgdyati.^^ 2Jf,. 

saptaine *nuvdke dvitiyah khan4a?f>. saptamo ^nuv&kas samaptcUi. 

I. 26. 1. ay am eve ^dam^ agra dkd^a dsU sa u evd ^py etarhi, 
•J. sa yas sa dkd^a dditya eva sa, etas m in [hy] udite* sarvam 
idam dkd^ate. s. ta^ya inartydmrtayor vdi* tirdni* samudra eva, 
tad yat samudrena parigrhltam* tan nirtyor dptam atha yat 
param tad amrtam, a. sa yo ha sa samudro ya evd '^yam jmvata 
esa eva sa samudraK etam hi samdravantam* sarvdni hhrudny 
anusamdravanti' . b, tasya* dydvdprthivl eva rodhas'i, atha ya- 
thd nadydm* hinsdnV^ vd prahtndnV^ syus sardmi vdi ^vam 
asyd ^yam pdrthivas^^ samudrah. 6. sa esa pdra eva samudra- 

that sap. 4. He thus causes this sap to rejoice. The sap, rejoiced, 
causes the syllable to rejoice. The syllable, rejoiced, causes the 
sacred utterances to rejoice. The sacred utterances, rejoiced, 
cause the Vedas to rejoice. The Vedas, rejoiced, cause the divin- 
ities to rejoice. The divinities, rejoiced, cause the worlds to 
rejoice. The worlds, rejoiced, cause the syllable to rejoice. 
The syllable, rejoiced, causes speech to rejoice. Speech, rejoiced, 
causes space to rejoice. Space, rejoiced, causes the creatures to 
rejoice. He rejoices in offspring and cattle who knows this thus, 
and also he for whom one knowing thus sings the udgltha. 

I. 25. 1. This [universe] was in the beginning this space here ; 
and that is so even now. a. What this space is, that is the sun. 
For when he has risen this all is visible, s. Verily its limits of 
the mortal and immortal are the ocean. What is encompassed by 
the ocean, that is obtained by death, and what is beyond, that is 
immortal. 4. As for this ocean — he who cleanses here is this 
ocean. For after him running together {y/dru+sam) all created 
beings run together. 5. Heaven and earth are its two banks. 
As beakers or pails abandoned in a river would be, so is this 
earthly ocean of his. •. This one rises at the shore of the ocean. 




24. 'A. cm. ak^araih vdcarh tarpayati. »•» B.C. -yaniu " A.B. 

vdrkcu. "C. gdyati, 

35. *A.B. dav(!). ^ stidite, *B. vdirva. *tarant. *A.B. -grrv^-* 
•B. -dre-. ''C, anudr-. "B.C. -yd. *-ydm. ^'^kasdiii. ^^ prahij^ahini, 
" A.B. insert sas ; C, sa. 



Jdvminlyar Upaiiisad-BrdhmaTia. 103 

91/0 ''deti. sa udyann eva vdyoh prstha dJcramate, so ^nirtdd evo 
'*deti. amrtam anusamcarati. amrte pratisthitah?^ 7. tasydi '*tat 
irivrd rupam mrtyor andptam ^uklarh krsnani purusah, 8. tad 
yac chukliim tad vdco ritpam rco ^gner mrtyoh, sd yd sd vdg^^ 
rk^* sd, cUha yo 'gnir mrtyits sah, 9. atha yat krsnam tad apdm 
rupam annasya^* matiaso yajusah, tad^'' yds td dpo ^nnam tat, 
atha yan rnano yajus tat, 10. atha yah purusas sa prdnas tat 
sdnia tad brahnia tad amrtam, sa yah prdnas tat sdma, atha 
yad hrahma tad amrtam, 25. 

a^iame ^nuvake prathamafy khaii^afy. 

I. 26. 1. athd ^dhydtmam, idam eva caksns trivrc chuklarh 
krsnam purusah, a. tad yac chuklam tad vdco rupam rco ^gner 
mrtyoh. sd yd sd vdg rk^ sd,^ atha yo ^gnir mrtyus sah, z, atha 
yat krsnam tad apdm rupam annasya manuso yajusah,* tad yds 
td dpo *nnam tat, atha yan mano yajus tat, 4. atha yah* jru- 
rusas sa prdnas tat sdma tad brahma tad amrtam, sa yah prdnas 
tat sdma, atha yad hrahma tad amrtam, 5. sdi ^so Hkrdntir 
hrahmanah. athd '*tah pardkrdntih. e. sd yd sd* ^^krdntir vi- 
dynd eva sd, sa yad eva vidyuto vidyotamdndydi ^yetam* rupam 
bhavati tad vdco rupam rco ^gner mrtyoh, 7. yad v eva vidyu- 

Rising he ascends on the back of the wind. He rises from the 
immortal. He goes about after the immortal. He stands firm 
in the immortal. 7. That threefold form of him which is not 
obtained by death is white, black, person. 8. What is white, 
that is the form of speech, of the re, of Agni (fire), of death. 
What this speech is, that is the re ; and what Agni is, that is 
death. ». Further, what is black, that is the form ol the waters, 
of food, of mind, of the yajus. What these waters are, that is 
food ; and what the mind is, that is the yajus, 10. Further, what 
this person is, that is breath, that is the sdman^ that is the brah- 
man , that is the immortal. What breath is, that is the sdman ; 
and what the brahman is, that is the immortal. 

I. 26. I. Now with regard to the self. This eye here is three- 
fold : white, black, person, a-4 = I. 25. s-io. 5. This is the up- 
going of the brahman. And from there is the on-going (?). 
t. This ascending is the lightning. The reddish-white form 
which is of the lightning as it lightens, that is the form of 
epeech, of the re, of Agni (fire), of death. 7. And the dark-blue 



25. "A.B. pratiti^thatalf., " A.B. vdkg; C. vdgg. "C. r^, ^*annam 
atya, " C. om. tad ydh yaJf, purusas, 

26. ' C. grt' * A.B. add 'ksa, » -90, « (!). * C. -t, * A. om. « gcdiiaih. 




104 H. Oertel, 

tas samdravantydi nUafk' rupam bhavcUi tad apdm riipam 
annast/a manaso yajmahJ' a. ya evdi '*« vidyuti purusas sa 
jjrdnas tat sCima tad hrahma tad amrtam, sa yaJh prdnas tat 
sdrau* alha yad brahma tad atnrtam, 26. 

a^tame ^nuvdke dvitlyah khanijiali. 

I. 27. I. sa hdi ''so hnrteiia parivrdko inrtuum adhydste ^nnai'n 
krtvd, 2. alhdi \^a eoa pnruso yo ^yai'u caksusV ya dditye* so 
Hipurusah. yo cidynti sa paramapnrusah, 3. ete ha vdva tra- 
yah puntsdh,* d hd ^sydl Ve jdyante. a. sa yo *yam caksusy eso 
^nurujto ndma. an van* hy^ esa sarvdni rupdni, tarn anurupa 
ity updsita. anvanci^ hdi hiaiW sarvdni rupdni bhavanti. 5. ya 
dditye sa pratirupah, pratyan hy esa sarvdrti rupdni, tamj/ra- 
tirupa Ity upds'Ua. pratyailci" hdi ^nani sarvdni rupdni bhavanti. 

6. yo vidyuti sa sarvarujfah. sarvdni* hy etasmin rupdni. tam^'^ 
sarvarupa ity updsita. sarvdni hd ^smin rUpdnP'' bhavanti, 7. 
ete ha vdva trayah purusdh. d hd ^sydi Vc jdyante ya etad evam 
vedd ^tho yasydi ^vam vidvdn udydyati. 27. 

as{ame *nuvdke tfttyafi khanxjiah. astavio 'nuvdkas samdptafy. 

form which is of the lightning as it runs together, that is the 
form of the waters, of food, of mind, of the yajus. 8. And that 
person which is in the lightning, that is breath, that is the sdman, 
that is the brahman^ that is the immortal. NVhat breath is, that 
is the sdtnan ; and what the brahman is, that is the immortal. 

I. 27. 1. This same one, fortified by the immortal, having made 
food, sits upon death, a. Now he is this person who is in the eye 
here. He who is in the sun is the superior-person. He who is 
in the lightning is the supreme-person. ». These are the three 
persons ; to him indeed they are born. 4. He who is here in the 
eye is conformable (anurujta) by name. For he follows after all 
forms. One should worship him as conformable. Verily all 
forms [will] follow after him. 5. He who is in the sun is of cor- 
responding form (pratirupa). For he is corresponding to all 
forms. One should worship him as of corresponding form. 
Verily all forms [will] correspond to him. 6. He who is in the 
lightning is of all forms. For all forms .are in him. One should 
worship him as of all forms. Verily all forms [will] be in him. 

7. Verily these are the three persons. They are born to him 
who knows this thus, and to him for whom one knowing thus, 
sings the tidyttha. 

26. M-. 8-^. •A.B. -a. 

07. *-»i. »A.B. -yo. 'A. -jo; B. -jd (sec m.); C. -^a. *A. -vc^. 

* A. hv. • A. 'Varici ; B. -vaflvi ; C. -varh. ^ B.C. hy enam. » C. pratyark. 

* C. inserts rupdni; C. cm. tath rUpdVLX. 



Jmminlyor UpanlscidrBrdhmana. 105 

I. 28. I. at/am eve ^dam agra akn^a dsU. sa u eva ^jyy etarhL 
». sa yas sa dkapa indra eva sah. sa yas sa indra esa eva sa ya 
esa eva^ tapati, sa esa saptara^mir vrsabhas tuvismdn, s. tasya 
vdnmayo rapmih prdn praththitak, sd yd sd vdg agiiis sah, sa 
d<i^adhd hhavaii ^atadhd sahasradhd ''rjutadhd i^rayutadhd 
niyutadhd '*rbudadhd* nyarbudadhd nikharvadhd^ padmani 
aksitir* vyomdntah^ 4. sa esa etasya rapnir vug bhutvd sar- 
vdsv dsu prajdsu pratyavaMhitah. sa yah ka^ ca vadaty"^ eiasydi 
'«?</ rapnind vadatL'' t. atha* manomayo daksind^ pratisthitah, 
tad yat tan manag^^ candrainds sah, sa dapadhd bhavati, 
«. sa esa etasya ra^mir niano bhutvd sarvdsv dsu prajdsu 
pratyavasthitah. sa yah kag ca manuta etasydi 'ya rapmind 
manute, i, atha caksurmaya/y^ pratya^V^ pratisthita?i,^' tad yat 
t<ic*^ caksur ddityas sah, sa dagadhd bhavati, 8. sa esa etasya 
ra^mi^ caksur hhutvu sarvdsv dsu prajdsu pratyavasthitah, sa 
yah kaQ ca papjaty etasydi ^va ragmind papyati, 9, atha pro- 
tramaya udan pratisthitah,^^ tad yat tac chrotraih dipas tdh. sa 
dapadhd bhavati. lo. sa esa etasya rapmip protrani bhutvd 
sarvdsv dsu prajdsu jjratyavasthita/i, sa yah kap ca prnoty 
etasydi 'ya rapmind prnoti, 28, 

navame 'nuvdke prathumaJi khandafy, 

I. 2S, 1. This [universe] here in the beginning was H})ace, and 
that is so even now. a. This space is Indra. What this Indra 
i«, that is he who burns here. That same one is seven-rayed, 
virile, powerful, s. Of him the ray consisting of speech stands 
firm in front (east). That speech is Agni (fire). It becomes ten- 
fold, hundredfold, thousandfold, ten thousandfold, hundred thou- 
sandfold, millionfold, ten millionfold, hundred millionfold, billion- 
fold, ten billionfold, a hundred billionfold, a thousand billionfold. 
4. This ray of him becoming speech is located respectively in all 
these creatures. Whosoever speaks, he speaks by the ray of him. 
fl. Now [the ray] consisting of mind stands firm at the right 
(south). That mind is the moon. That becomes tenfold. 6. 
That i"ay of him becoming mind is located respectively in all 
ihesc creatures. Whosoever thinks, he thinks by the ray of 
him. 7. Now [the ray] consisting of sight stands firm in the 
rear (west). That sight is the sun. That becomes tenfold. 8. 
That ray of him becoming sight is located respectively in 
all these creatures. Whosoever sees, he sees by the ray of 
him. 9. Now [the ray] consisting of hearing stands firm upward 
(north). That hearing is the quarters. That becomes tenfold. 
10. That ray of him becoming hearing is located respectively in all 
these creatures. Whosoever hears, he hears by the ray of him. 

28. * A. om. •A.B. ar-. * A.B. nikharvdcaih, *A.B. -ft. *-to; B. 
ssovy-. *B. pag^uati, 'B.Cpa^ati, 'Com. ^daksatj^, '®A.B. man- 
vac, " A.B. caksumor, '*C. -ya, "C. vasthitdfy, "A.B. to; C. om. 
'• C. pratyavasthitalj,, 

VOL. XVI. 15 



106 H. Oertd, 

I. 29. 1. athxi pranamaya Urdhvah pratisthitah,^ sa t/as sa 
prdno vdyiia sah, sa* da^adhd bhavati, «. sa esa etasya ra^mih 
prdno bhutvd sarvdsv d^u prajdsu pratyavctsthitah. sa yah kap 
oa prdnity etasydi ^va rapmind prdniti, ». athd ^sumayas tir- 
yan pratisthitah, sa ha sa^ Ipdno ndma. sa dapadhd bhavati.* 
4. sa esa eta^ya rapmir asur bhutvd sarvdsv d»u prajdsu pra- 
tyavasthitah. sa yah kap cd ^sumdn etasydi 'va rapmind ^sumdn. 
ft. athd ^nnamayo ^rvdn pratisthitah. tad yai^ tad annam* dpas 
tdhJ' sa dapadhd bhavati patadhd sahasradhd ^yutadhd prayuta- 
dhd niyutadhd ^rbudadhd nyarbudadhd nikharvadhd* padmam 
aksitir vyomdntah,^ 6. sa esa etasya rapmir annam bhutvd 
sarvdsv^^ dsu prajdsu pratyavasthitah. sa yah kap cd ^pndty 
etasydi ^va rapmind ^pndti, 7. sa esa saptarapmir vrsabhas 
tuvismdn. tad^^ etad red ^bhyanucyate 

yas saptarapmir vrsabhas tuvismdn 

avdsTJat sartave sapta sindhtin : 

yo rduhinam^^ asphurad vajrabdhur^* 

dydm drohantam^* sa jandsa indra 
iti. 8. yas saptarapmir iti. sapta hy eta ddityasya rapmayah, 

I. 29. 1. NowTthe ray] consisting of breath stands firm aloft. 
That breath is Vayu (wind). It becomes tenfold, a. That ray 
of him becoming breath is located respectively in all these crea- 
tures. Whosoever breathes, he breathes by the ray of him. i. 
Now [the ray] consisting of the vital spirit stands firm crosswise. 
That same is Lord by name. That becomes tenfold. 4. That 
ray of him becoming the vital spirit is located respectively in all 
these creatures. Whosoever possesses the vital spirit, he pos- 
sesses the vital spirit by the ray of him. o. Now [the ray] con- 
sisting of food stands firm hitherward. That food is the waters. 
That becomes tenfold, hundredfold, thousandfold, ten thousand- 
fold, hundred thousandfold, millionfold, ten million fold, hundred 
millionfold, billionfold, ten billionfold, a hundred billionfold, a 
thousand billionfold. 6. That ray of him becoming food is lo- 
cated respectively in all these creatures. Whosoever eats, he 
eats by the ray of him. 7. That same one is seven-rayed, 
virile, powerful. That same is spoken of in a re : " Who seven- 
rayed, virile, powerful, let loose to run the seven streams ; who 
with the thunderbolt in his arm smote Rauhina ascending 
the sky — he, ye people, is Indra." s. *Who seven-rayed,' for these 



29. * C-. -^th'. * C. cm. ■ C. space for sa t. * A. -vanti, * C. after 

yat reads tat trudaih ndma, omitting tad annam sa. ^ A. aH- 

dantiam. "^A. tadd; B. sta. ^A.B. nikharvdcam; C. nikharvadhdca, 
* A. voma-. *^ B. sdmdsv. " C. om. tad etad , . . . . Vf^abhtis tuvismdn, 
"A. roh'. >«-^M. "-to. 



Jdiminlyor Upcmisad-Brdh mana, 107 

vrsabha iti. esa hy evd ^^suyn prajdndm rsahhah, tuvismdn iti. 
mahlydV^ ^vd ^sydi '««. ». avdsrjat sartave sapta aindhun iti. 
sapta hy ete sindhavah. tdir idam sarvarh sitam, tad yad etdir 
idam sarvarh sitam tasmdt sindhavah. lo. yo rduhinam asphti- 
rod vajrabdhiir iti. esa [hi] rduhinam a^phurad vajrabdhuh. 
11. dydm drohantaiW* sa jandsa indra iti. esa hi ^ndrah. 29. 

navame *nuvdke dvitiyaJ!f> khamfal},. 

I. 30. I. tad yathd girim panthdnas samudiyur iti ha smd 
^^ha ^dtydyanir evam eta ddityasya ra^maya etatn^ ddityaih 
sarvato ^piyanti.* sa hdi ^vam vidvdn om ity ddaddna etdir 
etasya rapnihhir etam ddityam sarvato ^pyeti. «. tad etcU sar- 
vatodvdram anisedhatW sdma. any atodv dram hdi* ^nad* eka* 
ctvi' ^hhramgam* updsate. ato^ ^nyathd vidyuh.^^ s. atha ya etad 
evam veda sa evdi Hat sarv atodv dram, anisedham sdm,a veda. 

m 

4. sd esd vidyut, [yad] etan rnandalam samantam paripatati tat 
sdma. athu yat param atibhdti sa punyakrtydydi rasah. tarn 
abhyatimncyate. 6. tad etad abhrdtrvyam^" sdma. na ha vd 
indrah kaih cana bhrdtrvyam pa^yate. sa yaihe '*ndro na kam 

rays of the sun are seven. * Virile,' for he is the bull of these 
creatures. * Powerful,' that is his exaltation. ». ' Let loose to 
run the seven streams,' for these streams are seven ; by them 
this all is bound. Because by them the all is bound {^si)^ there- 
fore they are [called] streams (sindhu). lo. * Who with the 
thunderbolt in his arm smote Rauhina,' for he with the thunder- 
bolt in his arm did smite Rauhina. ii. ^Ascending the sky, he, 
ye people, is Indra,' for he is Indra. 

I. 30. 1. "As paths might lead together up a mountain," ^^i^y^' 
yani used to sav, " even so these rays of the sun go from all sides 
to that sun." verily one knowing thus who starts with om ap- 
proaches this sun from all sides by means of these rays of him. 
t. That same is the unobstructed (a^iisedha) sdman having doors 
on all sides. Some, indeed, worship it as having doors on both 
sides, cloud-going. Let them know differently from that. s. And 
he who knows it thus, he knows the unobstructed sdman 
having doors on all sides. 4. That same is this lightning. What 
flies around this whole disk, that is the sdman; and what 
ibines across, beyond, that is the sap of good action. Unto that 
he is released, ft. That same is the rivalless sdman. For Indra 

29. *^mahaydi. '*C. s^ce for "han-; B. -hatiafh. 

90. 'B.C. evam, ^ B. *tiprativiyanti. ■ant*^. *A.C. om. ^B.nata; 
A.C. ta. • om. "* A..B. etdva ; C. etd. •(^. gam ; leaves space for about 
four syllables. *eto. '"ridtt/i. "A.B. -tTvirh. 



108 H, Oertel, 

cana bhrdtrvya^n pa^yata evam eva na kam cafia bhrdtrvyafn 
pa^yate ya etad evam vedd ^tho yasydi hmih vidvdn udgd- 
yati. 30. 

iiavame 'nuvdke ti'tiyah khan(jkih, navamo ^nwvdkas aamdptdfy. 

I. 31. I. ayam eve ^dnm agra dkd^a dsTU. sa u evd ^py etarhi. 
aa yas sa dkdga indra eva sa/i. sa yas sa indras sdmdi ^va tat. 
3. tdsydi Hasya sdmna iyam eva prdcl dig^ ghinkdra iyam 
prastdva iyam ddir iyam, udgltho ^sdu pratihdro hitariksam* 
upadrava iyam eva 7iidhanam. s. tad etat^ saptavidham sdma. 
sa ya evam etat saptavidhaik sdma veda yat kim ca prdcydm 
dipi yd* devatd ye manusyd ye pagavo yad annddyajh tat 
sarvaviJ' hinkdrend ^^pnoti.'* 4, at/iO' yad daksindyaih dipi tai 
sarvam prastdvend ^^p)ioti, 6. atha yaV pratlcydni di^i tat 
sarvam. ddind ^^pfioti. o. atha yad ud'icydih di^i tat sarvam 
udgtthend ^^pnoti. 7. atha yad^ amusydm digi tat sarvam 
pratihdrend ^^pnoti. 8. atha yad antarikse^ tat sarvam upa- 
dravend ^^p?ioti. 9. atha yad asydrh di^i yd devatd ye manii- 
syd ye papavo yad annddyaih tat sarvam nidhanend ^^pnoti. 

indeed sees no rival whatever. As Indra sees no rival whatever, 
even so he sees no rival whatever who knows this thus and like- 
wise he for whom one knowing thus sings the udg'Uha. 

I. 31. 1. This [all] here was in the beginning space. And that 
is so even now. What this space is, that is Indra. What this 
Indra is, that is the sdman. a. Of this same sdman this eastern 
quarter is the hinkdray this (i. e. the southern quarter) the pra- 
stdva, this (i. e. the western quarter) the ddi, this (i. e. the north- 
ern quarter) the tidglt/ui, yonder [quarter] the pratihdra, the at- 
mosphere the upadrava, this [quarter] the nidhana. 8. That is 
the sevenfold sdman. He who knows this thus sevenfold sdma)iy 
whatever there is in the eastern quarter, what divinities, what 
men, what domestic animals, what food, all that he obtains by 
means of the hinkdra. 4. And what there is in the southern 
quarter, all that he obtains by means of the prastdva. a. And 
what there is in the western quarter, all that he obtains by means 
of the ddi. 6. And what there is in the northern quarter, all 
that he obtains by means of the udg'Uha. i. And what there is 
in yonder quarter, all that he obtains by means of the pratihdra. 
8. And what there is in the atmosphere, all that he obtains by 
means of the upadrava. 9. And what there is in this quarter, 
what divinities, what men, what domestic animals, what food, all 

81. ^A.B. dlr. 'C. -xk^-. 'A. et. * insert manuka. *A.B. -vd. 
•B.C. insert here vs. 4, with pratihdrena for prastdvejia. ' B. inserts 
avydt. • A. inserts dak^ndydm digi^ struck out in red. 




Jaimmh/a- Vpani^ad-Brahmana. 109 

10, aaroam kAi '«« 'ayci "plum bhnvati sarvam Jttam )}a hd 'gpa 
kap cnna kiimo 'niipto bhavati ya evamveda. ii. aa yad dha 
kim ct kim cHi 'vam oidvan esit lokesu kurute soasj/a hui 'ua tat 
snntaA kiirute. tad etad red 'bhyanvcynte. SI. 

dagame 'nuvoke prathamafy Mtaij^af). 

I. 32, 1, yaddyaea indra te patam patam' bhUm'trutasyuh: 

na tva vajrint sahaararh eHrytV anu nn'jatam aata rodasi 
iti. ». yml dyava indra le patam patam bhUmir uta Byur iti. yac 
chatcnh dyttnas syup patam hk&myae Idbhya esa evd "kilpo Jyd- 
y'ln.' B, na tvd vajrint atihasram auryii anv iti. na hy etam 
sa/iOiram cana siiryii <mu. 4. na* jiitam aata rodaal iti. wo Ay 
etftm j'ltam rod/tnti. ime ha w<(w<« rodaal tdbhydm esa evd ^^kupo 
Jyayiin. etasmln hy mfii He antah. », aa yaa aa dkdpa indra 
ei'a a'th. aa* yaa aa indra esa evn aa ya eaa tapati. a. aa eso 
'hhriiny' atimiicyamana' eti. tad yathdi 'so 'bhrdny' atimucya- 
tniina e(i/ evam era sa aarvaamdt papmano 'timucyamdna eti ya 
evijih eedii ^tko yaayai 'varh vidvdn udgdyati. 32. 

da^me 'nuvdke dviflyak khay4ah. da^mo 'nuvakaa aamaptaln. 

that he obtains by means of the nidhana. lo. Verily everything 
is obtained of him, everything conquered, no wish whatever iB 
iinfullilled of him who knows thus. it. Wliatever one knowing 
thus does in these worlds, that is his, he does it by himself. 
That same is referred to by a re : 

I. 32. L. "If, O Indra, there were a hundred skies and a hun- 
dred earths for thee, not a thousand suns, O thou possessing the 
tbtinderbolt, unto thee when born, attained, nor Rodasl." *. 'If, 
O Indra, there were a hundred skies and a hundred earths for 
thee,' what hundred skies there might be and hundred earths, 
this space is superior to them. a. 'Not a thousand suns, O thou 
possessing the thunderbolt, unto thee,' for not at all [do] a thou- 
sand suns [attain! unto him. *, 'When born attained, nor 
RodasI,' for they do not bewail (y^riid) him when bom. Verily 
as to these two worlds (rodaei), this space is superior to them 
both. For both are within it. ». What this space is, that is 
Indra ; what this Indra is, that is he who burns here. 6. He keeps 
liberating himself from the clouds. As he keeps liberating him- 
•elf from the clouds, even so does he keep liberating himself from 
all evil who knows thus, and he for whom one knowing thu8 
flings the tidgltha. 



. M. 



1 



110 H. Oertel, 

I. 33. I. trivrt sdma catuspat, brahma trtiyam^ indras trtlt/am* 
prajdpatis trtlyarn} annam eva caturthah pddah, a. tad yad vdi 
brahma aa prdno Hha ya indras sd vdg atha yah prajdpcUis 
tan mano ^nnam eva caturthah pddah. ». mana eva hinkdro 
vdk prastdvah prdna udgitho ^nnam eva caturthah pddah. 
4. karoty eva vdcd nay at i prdnena gamayati nianasd. tad etan 
niruddham yan manah. tena yatra kdmayate tad dtmdnam ca 
yajamdnam ca dadhdti. t, athd ^dhiddivatam.^ candramd eva 
hinkdro ^gnih prastdva dditya udgltha dpa eva caturthah^ pd- 
dah.* tad dhi pratyaksam annam. «. td vd* etd devatd amdvds- 
yam rdtrirh sarhyanti. candramd amdvdsydm rdtrim ddityam 
pravi^ty ddityo ^gnirn. i. tad yat Bamyanti* tasmdt sdma. sa 
ha vdi sdmavit sa sdma veda ya evarh veda. e. tdsdrh vd etdsdjh 
devatd7idm ekdi ^kdi 'ua devatd sdma bhavati. ». esa evd ^^dityas 
trivrc catuspdd rapmayo mandalam purusah. ra^maya eva hin- 
kdrah. tasmdt te prathamata evo ^dyatas tdyante. mandalam pra- 
stdvah purusa udgitho yd* etd dpo ^ntas sa eva caturthah pddah. 
10. evam eva candramaso rapmayo mandalam purusah. rapmaya 
eva hinkdro mandalam jyrastdvah purusa udgitho yd etd dpo 

I. 33. 1. Threefold is the sdman, fourfooted. The brahman is 
a third, Indra is a third, Prajapati is a third, food is the fourth 
foot (quarter), a. What the brahma7i is, that is breath ; and 
what Indra is, that is speech ; and what Prajapati is, that is 
mind; food is the fourth foot (quarter), s. Mind is the hinkdra^ 
speech is the prastdvay breath is the udgitha^ food is the fourth 
foot (quarter). 4. One acts with speech, one leads with breath, 
one causes to go with the mind. That same is shut up,^yiz. the 
mind. By means of it he thus places himself and the sacrificer 
where he wishes. 5. Now regarding the divinities. The moon 
is the hinkdra^ Agni is the prastdva^ the sun is the udgitha^ the 
waters are the fourth foot (quarter). For they are manifestly 
food. 6. These same divinities come together on the night of the 
new moon. The moon, on the night of the new moon, enters the 
sun, the sun [enters] Agni. 7. Because they come together 
{^i-\-sam), hence [the word] sdman. He is ^aman-knowing, 
he knows the sdman^ who knows thus. s. Of these same divini- 
ties each one divinity is a sdman, ». This sun is threefold, four- 
footed : rays, disk, person. The rays are the hinkdra. There- 
fore they are extended when it first rises. The disk is the 2^''''<'^' 
stdva. The person is the udgltha. The waters within are the 
fourth foot (quarter). lo. Likewise of the moonTthere are] rays, 
disk, person. The rays are the hinkdra. The disk is the 
prastdva. The person is the udgltha. The waters within are 

88. ^trit: "A. -devat', *A. -am. *C. -A. * A. say-. 




Jdimvnlyor Upanisad-Brdhmana, 111 

^ntas^ sa eva caturthah pddah, ii. catvdry anydni calvary 
anydnL tdny astdu*, astdksard gdyortrl. gdyatram sdma hrahma 
ti* gdyatri^ tad u brahmd '^bhisampadyate, astd^aphdh papavas 
teno papavyam. 33. 

ekddage ^nuvake prathamaJj, khan(}ah, 

I. 34. I. athd ^dhydtnmni. idatn eva caksus trivrc catuspdc 
chtddaih krsnam purusah, ^uklam eva hiiikdrah krsnam pra- 
stdvah purusa ndgltho yd imd di>o hitas sa eva caturthah pddah, 
J. idam ddityasyd ^yanam idam candramasah, catvdrl ^mdni 
catvdri ^nidni, tdny astdit, astdksard gdyatrl. gdyatram sdma 
brahuia u gdyatrl, tad u brahmd ^bhisampadyate,^ astdpaphdh 
papavas teno papavyam. ». sa yo ^yam pavate sa^ esa eva^ 
prqjdpatih. tad v eva sdma. tasyd '*yam devo yo ^yarh caksusi 
jmrusah. sa esa dhutim atimatyo Hkrdntah. 4. atha ydv etdu 
candramdp cd ^dityap ca ydv etdv apsu drpjete* etdv* etayor 
devdu. 6. yad dha vd idam dhur devdndm devd ity ete ha te, ta 
eta dhtUini atimatyo Hkrdntdh. e. tad dha prthur vdiftyo divydn 
vrdtydn* pajyraccha 

yebhir* vdta isitah pravdti 

ye dadante pafica dipas^ samicih : 

ya dhutlr^ atyatnanyanta* devd 

apdrh^^ netdrah katame ta dsann 

the fourth foot (quarter), ii. Four are the one, four the others. 

= 1. 1. 8. 

I. 34. I. Now with regard to the self, l^his eye is threefold, 
fourfooted : white, black, person. The white is the hinkdra^ 
the black is the prastdvay the person is the udgltha, the waters 
within are the fourth foot (quarter), a. This is the course of 
the sun, this [the course] of the moon. Four are these, four 
these. = I. 1. 8. s. He who cleanses here, that same one is 
Prajapati. That is also the sdman. Its god is this person in the 
eye. That same, contemning the offering, [has | gone up (?). 4. 
And these two, moon and sun, which are seen here in the waters, 
these two are the gods of these two. a. Truly when they say 
"the gods of the gods," it is these [that they mean]. These 
same, contemning the offering, [have] gone up (?). 6. Now Pythu 
Vittiiya asked the divine mendicants thus : " Tne gods by whom 
impelled the wind blows forth, who give the five converging 
quarters, who contemned the offerings, the leaders of the waters 

88. 'A. -aifc. 'C. cm. •B. ud. 'A. -M; B.C. -fraifi. 
84. 1 A. B. -pdd- »A. cm. *-yate. ^etdu. *A. Wn. •ebhir, 'A.B. 
dagtu ; C. dafa, •€. -Ir. *C. ifyam-. "B.C. pard*. 



112 n. Oertel, 

UL 7. te ha pratydcur 

imam esdm prthivlm vasta eko 

^ntariksam>^ pary eko hahhuva : 

divam eko dadate yo vidhart(V* 

vipvd d^dh pratiraksanty anya^* 
iti, 8. imdm esdm, prthivhh vasta eka ity agnir ha aah, 9. an- 
tariksam^^ pary eko babhuve Hi vdyur ha sah. lo. divam eko 
dadate yo vidharte^* Hy ddityo ha sah. n. vipvd dpdh pratira- 
ksanty anya iti. etd ha vdi devatd vi^vd dpdh pratiraksanii 
candramd naksatrdiil Hi, td etds sdmdi ^va satyo vyudho anna- 
dydya. S4, 

ekdda^ ^nuvdke dvitiyah khaui/^ify, ekdda^o *nuvdkas aamdptaJ}. 

I. 35. 1. athdi Hat sdma. tad dhua sariivatsara eva sdme Hi, 
3. taaya vaaanta eva hinkdrah. tasmdt pa^avo vaaantd hinka- 
rikratas^ aamuddyanti. n. grismah prastdvah. aniriikto vdi 
praatdvo ^nirukta rtundrh grismah, 4. varsd udglthah, ud iva 
vdi varsam gdyati, b, parat pratihdraJi, Qaradi ha khalu vdi 
bhuyisthd osadhayah pacyante, «. hemanto nidhanam. nidhi- 
nakrtd iva vdi heman prajd bhavanti, 7. tdv etdv afitdu sam- 

— which are they ?" 7. They answered : " One of them dons 
this earth here, one hath encompassed the atmosphere, one, who 
is the disposer, gives the sky, others severally protect all regions." 
8. * One dons this earth here,' that is Agni. 9. * One hath en- 
compassed the atmosphere,' that is Vayu. lo. 'One, who is the 
disposer, gives the sky,' that is the sun. ii. 'Others severally 
protect all regions,' these divinities indeed severally protect all 
regions, viz. moon and asterisms. These are true, extended 
kindness (?) for food-eating. 

L 35. I. Now this is the sdman. This they say : The adman 
is in the year. a. Of it spring is the hinkdra. Therefore ani- 
mals come together in the spring, continually uttering him, t. 
The summer is the prastdva. The praatdva is indistinct; the 
summer is indistinct among the seasons. 4. The rainy season 

ivarsdh) is the udgltha. One sings the udgltha through the year 
varsa), as it were. a. The autumn is the pratihdra. Verily in 
the autumn most herbs ripen. 6. The winter is the nidhana. 
In the winter creatures are put to an end {nidhana Art a) ^ as it were. 
7. These two ends combine together ; consequently the year is 



84. »»C. -iJk?-. ^^'dhatta. >»C. awy. ^^ A,B, vidliartte ; C. vidhaite, 
" A.B. ann-; C. 'nn- : all MSS. -ydyd, 
8.5. ' A.B. -karirkutaa; C. -karikjrtfia* 



Jdiminlyar Vpani^ad-Brdhmana, 113 

dhaUah. etad anv!* anantas* sarhvatsarah.* tasydi Hdv antdu yad 
dhenianta^ ca vasantap ca, etad anu grdmasyd '*ntdu sametah, 
etad anu niska^yd ^ntdu sametah, etad anv ahir bhogdn paryd- 
hrtya paye. s. tad yathd ha vdi niskas saniantayh yrlvd^ abhi- 
paryakta* evam anantam sdma. sa ya evam etad anantarh sdma 
vedd ^nantcUdm'' eva jayati, 35, 

dvddage *nuvdke prathamah khantJAil}, 

I. 36. I. athdi ^tat parjanye sdnia, tasya purovdta eva hin- 
kdrah, atha yad abhrdni sampldvayati sa prastdvah, atha yat 
stanayati sa udgltha/i. atha yad vidyotate sa pratihdrah, atha 
yad varsati tan nidhanam, a. tad etat parjanye sdma. sa ya 
evam etat parjanye sdtna veda varsuko* hd ^smdi parjanyo bha- 
vati, 3. athdi Hat puruse^ sdma. tasyd 'y«m eva hinkdro ^yam 
prastdvo *yam udgltho ^yam pratihdra idam nidhanam. 4. tad 
etat puruse sdma, sa ya evam etat puruse sdma vedo ^^rdhva eva 
prajayd* pa^ubhir drohann eti. 5. ya u enat* pratyag veda ye 
pratyafico lokds tdn jayati. tasyd ^yam eva hinkdro ^yam pra- 
stdvo ^yapn* ndgttho* ^yam pratihdra idam nidhanam. ye pra- 
tyailco lokds tdfi jayati. «. ya u enat* tiryag veda ye tiryanco^ 

endle§8. Its two ends are winter and spring. In accordance 
with this the two ends of a village join together. In accordance 
with this the two ends of a necklace join together. In accor- 
dance with this a snake lies taking its coils about it. 8. Truly, 
as a necklace bent all around the neck, so is the endless sdman. 
He who knows this endless sdf7ian thus conquers endlessness. 

I. 36. I. Now this is the sdman in Parjanya. The wind which 
precedes is its hinkdra ; when it causes the clouds to float 
together, that is the prastdv a ; when it thunders, that is the 
udgltha ; when it lightens, that is the pratihdra ; when it rains, 
that is the nidhana. 3. That, is the sdman in Parjanya. He 
who thus knows the sdman in Parjanya, truly to him Parjanya 
sends rain. t. Now this is the sdman in man. Of it this is the 
hinkdraj this the prastdva^ this the udg'itha^ this the pratihdrOy 
this the nidhana. 4. That is the sdman in man. He who thus 
knows the sdman in man, he keeps ascending upward by progeny 
and by cattle. 6. And he who knows it in reversed direction 
conquers those worlds which are reversed. Of it this is the hi?!- 
kdray this the prastdva, this the udgltha^ this the pratihdra^ this 
the nidhana. The worlds which are reversed, those he conquers. 
•. And he who knows it crosswise conquers those worlds which 

85. >C. cm. »A.B. -tat. *A.B. savat-. *frt-. '^A.-yattah. ^C. 
^nant&m. 

86. • C. '9ak', •-^o. *prajd. *-naifi. *C. om. •A.B. ena ; C. enaih. 
^ A.B. -yunC' ; A.B. insert ma. 

VOL. XVI. 16 



114 //. OerM, 

lokds^ tan jayatL tasya lomdi ^tm hiftkCtras tvak prastavo nian- 
sam udgltho ^sthi pratiharo inajjd nidhanam, i, ta^ya triny 
iivir gdyati prastCivain pratihdram^ nidha^iam. tasniat punisa- 
sya tr'iny asthiny dvir dantdg ca dvaydQ ca nakhdh, ye tiryanco 
lokda tdH jayatL 8. ya u enat samyag veda ye aamyanco lokds 
tdi% jayatL tctsya yuana eva hinkdro vdk prastdvah prdna udgl- 
tha^ cakstfh pi'aiihdrap ^.rotram nidhanam, ye sarayaflco lokd^s 
tdiijayati, ». athdi Had devatdsu sdnia, tasya tHiyur etm hinkdro 
^gnih praatdva adit y a udgUha^ candramd pratihdro di^a eva 
nidhanam, lo. tad etad devatdsu sdfiia, sa ya evam etad deva- 
tdmi sdma oeda devatdndm eva salokatdm jayatL S6, 

dvddage ^nuvake dvitiyali khaiujiaJi, 

I. 37. J. tasydi Hd^ tiara dgd dgneyy ekdV ^^ndry^ ekd vdipva- 
devy ekd. a. sd yd mandrd sd* ^^gfieyV tayd jyrdtassavanasyo 
^dgeyam. dgneyaih vdi prdtassavanani dgneyo ^yath lokah, 
svayd ^^gayd prdtassavanasyo ^dgdyaty rdhnotl ^mar/i lokam, 
3. atha^ yd ghosiny tipabdimatl* sdi "wc^n. tayd rnddhyandina- 
sya'' savanasyo '^dgeyam, dindram vdi inddhyandinam savanam 

are crosswise. Of it the hair of the head is the hinkdra, the 
skin the prastdva, the flesh the udgltha, the bone the pratihdra, 
the marrow the nidhana. 7. Of it he sings three openly, viz. the 
prastdva, the pratihdra, tlie nidhana. Therefore three bones of 
man lie open, viz. the teeth and the two kinds of nails. The 
worlds which are crosswise, those he conquers, e. And he who 
knows it converging conquers those worlds which are converg- 
ing. Of it mind is the hiiikdra, speech the prastdva, breath the 
udgltha, sight the pratihdra, hearing the nidhana. The worlds 
which are converging, those he conquers, lo. And this is the 
sdman in the divinities. Of it Vayu is the hinkdra, Agni the 
prastdva^ the sun the udgltha^ the moon the pratihdra, the 
quarters the nidhana, n. That is the sdman in the divinities. 
He who knows thus this sdman in the divinities, he conquers a 
share in the same world with the divinities. 

I. 37. 1. Of it there are these three dgds: one belonging to 
Agni, one belonging to Indra, one belonging to all the gods. 
2. That which is low, that belongs to Agni. With it the udgUha 
of the morning-libation should be sung. Verily the morning- 
libation belongs to Agni, this world belongs to Agni. He [then] 
sings the udgltha of the morning-libation with his (Agni's) own 
dgd, he enjoys this world. 3. And that which is loud [and] 
noisy, that belongs to Indra. With it the udgltha of the noon- 

36. « A. W*-. » C. hirhkaraih, 

87. ^C. dik-, » A.B. ''ndr, »C. cm. sa 'd. * B. mannadht, * A. 

cm. atha lokam, • C. space for -abdi-, ' C. -ndina. 




Jdimimya- TTjutn isaih Br ah mami, 115 

aindro ^sftu lokah, svat/d "^^gciyd 7nddhyandinasya savanasyo 
'^df/di/aty rdhnoty cumnft^ loJcani, 4. atha yam* mnklmyann iva 
prat/iayann iva ydyati sd lu'n^vadetH, tayd trtlyasavanasyo 
''dyeyiim, vdi^vadevaih vdl trtlyasavanam vdi^vadevo ^yam an- 
tnrdlokah, svayd '*^yayd trtlyasacaiiasyo ^dgdyaty^^ rd/moti 'mam 
ant4ird1okain, 5. atho need khalv dhur ekaydl '/v7. '*'*gayo ^dyeyarh 
yad efu'i \'*ya tnadhyam vdca UL tad yayd vdi vdcd vydyaccha- 
mdna xidgdyati tad evd \^ya inadhyam vdcaJi, tayd^^ vd etayd 
vdcd sarvd vdca tipagacchatL avydaiktdm ekasthdm griyain 
rdhnoti ya evaui veda. e. atha yd krduncd ad hdrhaspatyd, sa 
yo brahmovffrcasakdmas sydt sa^'* tayo ^dgdyet, tad hrahina vdi 
brhasjxUih. tad vdi hr a hmav arcana m rdhnoti, tathd ha lyrahma- 
varcasl hhavati, 7. atha ha. cdikitdneya ekasydi 'wa ndmna 
dgdrh gdyati gdyatrasydi 'va. tad anavdnarh geyam,^^ tat^* 
sdmna evd pratihdrdd anavdnarh geyam. tat prdno vdi gdya- 
tram, tad vdi prdaam rdhnoti, tathd ha sarvam dyur eti. SI, 

dvddaqe *nuvdke dvitlyah khatujiaJ;^, 

libation should be sung. Verily the noon-libation belongs to 
Indra, yonder world belongs to Indra. He [then] sings the udgttha 
of the noon-libation with his (Indra's) own dgd, he enjoys yonder 
world. 4. And [the dgd^ which he sings shaking, as it were 
(tremolo), spreading it, as it were, that belongs to all the gods. 
With it the udg'Uha of the evening-libation should be sung. 
Verily the evening-libation belongs to all the gods, this inter- 
mediate world belongs to all the gods. He [then] sings the 
udgltha of the evening-libation with their own dgd, he enjoys 
this intermediate world. 6. Now above (?) they say : " The 
lulgltha should be sung with one dgd: only, viz. [with that] 
which is the middle (mean) of his voice." The voice with which 
be sings the udg'tth/x expanding it apart, that is the middle (mean) 
of his voice. By means of this same voice he attains unto all 
voices. He who knows thus enjoys fortune not poured out in 
different directions [but] closely united. 6. And that which is 
plover-like belongs to Brhaspati. He who may be desirous of 
prominence in sacred lore should sing the udgttha with it. 
Verily this brahman is Brhaspati. He thus enjoys prominence 
in sacred lore. He thus becomes prominent in sacred lore. 
7. Now Caikitaneya sings the dgd of one sdman only, viz. of the 
gdyatray'mmaii\. That should be sung without taking breath. 
That [part] of the mman unto the pratihdra should be sung 
without taking breath. Thus breath is the gdyatra\-sdinan\ 
Verily he thus enjoys breath. He thus attains complete life. 

87. * -ft 'maife. ^ yd ; K, inserts gho^inyu, ^^-yanti, ^^tdyd. **B. 
8 ; C. cm. '3 insert vdi gdyatram from below. ^* B. inserts admnas. 



116 ff. Oertd, 

• 

I. 38. 1. atha ha brahmadcUtam^ caikitaneyam udgdyarUam 

kiirava upodttr ujjahihi* aCima ddlbhye Hi. a. aa ho ^podyaniano 

nitarOm jagan, tarn ho "ci/A ki7n upodyamdno nitardm agdstr 

iti, 3. sa ho ^vdce ^darh vdi lome* Hy etad evdi UcU prcUyupaprn- 

mah,* tasmdd u ye na etad updvddisur* loma^dnl 'va tesdm 

^ma^dnnni bhavitdrah. atha vayam ud eva gatdras* sma Ui. 

4. atha ha rdjd jdivalir galdnaaarn' drksdkdyanam ^tntUch 

parndbhydm utthitam papraccha red ^^gdtd'^ ^dldvatydS sdmndS 

iti 6. ndi 'va rdjann roe '^» ho ^vdca na sdmne Hi, tad yUyam 

tarhi aarva eva pandyyd* bhavisyatha ya evarh vidvdnao ^ gay ate 

Hi. <i. atha yad dhd: \mksyad red ca admnd cd ^^gdvie^^ Hi dh'UetKi 

vdi tad ydtaydmnd ^maldkdnde^id '*'*gdte Hi hdi ^ndns tad avak- 

syat. tad dha tad uvdca atmrena cdi 't?a hinkdrena cd ^^gdnie 

Hi. 38. 

dvddage 'nuvdke tiilyafy khaiy^l).. 

I. 39. I. at?ui ha aatyddhivdka^ cditrarathia satyayajfiam 
pdulusitam uvdca prdclnayoge Hi mama^ ced vdi tvam adma 
vidvdn admnd '^Wtvijyam karisyaai fidi 'ra tarhi punar dlksdm 
abhidhydtdal Hi. muhurdlksV hy daa.' %. aa ho ^vdca yo vdi 

I. 38. 1. Now the Kurus reproached Brahmadatta CsHkitaneya 
when he was singing the udgUha, (saying) : ** Stop the adman, 
O Dillbhya." a. He being reproached sang so much the more(?). 
They said to him : " Why hast thou, being reproached, sung so 
much the more ?" ». He said : " Verily this is the hair-(/owia-) 
\adma)i] ; thus we make answer. And therefore the funeral- 
places of those who have thus reproached us will be hairy 
(loma^a), as it were. Now we shajl only sing the udg'Uha,^'* 
4. Now king Jaivali asked Gal&nasa Arksrikayana^ who had stood 
up with a woolen shirt (?) and a leaf : " O ^i^^iivatya, wilt thou 
sing with the re [or] with the adman .'" 6. " Not with the /-c," 
he said, "nor with the «a;;ia/i." "Thus then all of you will 
become renowned, who sang knowing thus." «. Now if he had 
said : " Let us sing both with the re and with the adman,'*^ truly 
he would have told them : " Sing with a sucked-out, used-up 
branch of the ama^z-plant." Therefore he spoke thus : " Let us 
sing both with tone and with the hinkdra.^^ 

I. 39. 1. Now Satyadhivaka Caitrarathi said to Satyayajna 
Paulusita: " O Pracinayoga, if thou, knowing the adman, shalt 
perform the priestly office for me with the admayi, then thou 
wilt not think of a second consecration." For he was one who 
repeatedly consecrated, a. He said: "He who knowing the for- 



dS. ^ta^. *vjjihi. *807ne. *-ttpdf-. ' A.B. -^/. *'tdra. • A.B. 
gaiUnaaam ; C. guiinaaam. »-to. *pandryyd. ^'*cadgame. 



89. 'wwc. *'kfi. »d. 




JdvminlyO' Upanisad-Brdhmcma, 117 

sdmna^ ^rlyam vidvdn sarnnd '*^rtmjyam karoti ^rhndn eva bha- 
pati, mano vdva sdnina^ ^1r iti. s. yo vdi sdinnah pratisthdrh 
vidvdn sdmnd ^^rttfiji/am karoti jyraly eva tisthati, vdg vdva 
sdnmah pratisthe Vj. 4. yo vdi sdmnas suvarnarh vidvdn sdmnd 
^rtvijyam karoty adhy asya grhe^ suvarnarh gamyate, prdno 
vdva sdmnas suvarnam iti. 5. yo vdi sdmno ^pacitim vidvdn 
sdmnd ''Wtvijyam karoty apacitimdn eva bhavati, caksur vdva 
sdmno *pacitir iti. «. yo vdi sdmna^ ^ndim vidvdn sd^nnd 
^^rtvijyam karoti prutimdn eva bhavati, ^rotram vdva sdmnap 
^rutir iti. 39. 

dvdda^ *nuvdke caturthah khan(fafi. dvddaQO 'nuvdkas samdptah. 

I. 40. I. catvdri vdk parimitd paddni 

tdni vidur brdhmand ye nianlsinah : 
guhd^ tr'mi nihitd^ ne^ ^ngayanti 

turlyam vdco manusi/d vadantl 
^ti. «. vdg eva sdma, vdcd hi sdma gdyati. vdg evo ^ktham.* 
vdcd hy uktharh* ^amsati. vdg eva yajuh. vdcd* hi yajur anuvar- 
tate. ». tad yat kim cd \vdclnam brahmanas tad vdg eva 
sarvam. atha yad anyatra brahmo ^padi^yate. ndi* 'wa hi tend 
^^rtrijyam karoti. paroksendi 'va tu'' krtam bhavati. a, tasyd 

tune of the adman performs the priestly office with the sdman, 
he l)ecome8 fortunate. Verily mind is the fortune of the sdman. 
t. He who knowing the firm stand of the sdman performs the 
priestly office with the sdman^ he stands firm. Verily speech is 
the firm stand of the sdman. a. He who knowing the gold of 
the sdman performs the priestly office with the sdman^ in his 
house gold is found. Verily breath is the gold of the sdman. 
6. He who knowing the reverence of the sdman performs the 
jiriestly office with the sdmauy he becomes revered. Verily sight 
18 tlie reverence of the sdman. e. He who knowing the renown 
of the sdman performs the priestly office with the sdman, he 
becomes renowned. Verily hearing is the renown of the sdtnan. 

I. 40. 1. = I. 7. ». 3. Speech is tlie sdman; for with speech one 
sings the sdman. Speech is the uktha; for with speech one 
chants the uktha. Speech is the yajus; for with speech he 
follows out (recites) the yajus. 3. Whatsoever is this side of the 
brahman, all that is speech; and what is elsewhere is taught [to 
be] brahman. For not at all does one perform with it the 
pnestly office, but it is performed in an occult manner. 4. Of 

89. «C. 'ho. 

40. > B.C. -Mni. ^C.'hit&ni. 'Corn. *-fcf-. »A.B. vdcaifc. ^ne. 
^ A. cm. 



118 n, Oertel, 

etasydl *)dco manaJi pddag caksuN' pdda^ ^otram pddo vdg eva 
caturthah pddah!^ 6. tad yad vdi inanasd dhydyati tad vara va- 
datL yctc caksusd pa^yati tad vdcd vadati. ya-c chrotrena ^rnotV 
tad vdcd vadati, 6. tad yad etat sarvam vdcam evd ^bhisamayatV^ 
ta^mdd vdg eva sdina. sa ha vdi sdniavit sa sdma veda ya evam 
veda, 7. tasyd etasydl vdcah prand^* evd ^suh, esu hi \iam 
sarvam asute^^ ^ti. ^0, 

trayodage *nuvdke prathamah kfiaiujial^, 

I. 41. 1. te?u( hdiUetid '^sund devd fivantV pitaro jlvanti nia- 
nusyd jlrauti jnt^avo jlvanti gafidharvdpsaraso jlvanti sarvam 
idath jlvati, a. tad dhur yad^ asune* ^dam sarvam* jlvati kas 
sdnino *sifr iti, jwdriu iti l/ruydt, prdno ha vdva sdmno ^stih, 
8. sa esa prdno vdci pratisthlto vdg u prdne prcUisthitd. tdv 
etdv evain anyo^ *'nya^ynin pratisthitdu. pratitisthatV ya evam 
veda, 4. tad etad red "^hhyanucyate 

^ditlr dydur aditir antariksarrC • 

aditir^ mdtd sa 79/^a sa putrah : 

vi^ve devd aditih pafica^^ jand 

aditir jdtam aditir janitvam 

this same speech mind is a quarter, sight is a quarter, hearing is 
a quarter, speech itself is the fourth quarter. 6. What he thinks 
with the mind, that he speaks with speech. What he sees with 
sight, that he speaks with speech. What he hears with hearing, 
that he speaks with speech. 6. In that this all thus unites 
i^i + sam) into speech, therefore speech is the sdman. Yerily 
he is «<7man-knowing, he knows the sdman, who knows thus. 
7. The breaths of this same speech are the vital air (asu). For 
in them this all was born {^sO), 

I. 41. 1. By this same vital air the gods live, the Fathers live, 
men live, beasts live, Gandharvas and Apsarases live, this all 
lives, a. This they say: "If this all lives by the vital air, what 
is the vital air of the sdman f^ Let him say: " Breath." Verily 
breath is ohe vital air of the sdman. a. This breath stands firm 
in speech, and speech stands firm in breath. Thus these two 
stand firm in each other. He stands firm who knows thus. 
4. This same is spoken of in a re : " Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is 
the atmosphere, Aditi is the mother, she is the father, she is the 
son ; Aditi is all the .gods, the five races ; Aditi is what is born, 



40. ®C, inserts caturthah, »A. svdd. ^^'grunoti. ^^'htsam-, ^*-na, 
^^asUte; after this all MSS. insert: e?u hi 'darii sarvarh sfUe *ti(A, 6m, 
'ti). 

41. *A.B. 'fiti Hi. *B,yad&, ^B.yene. ^ C. inserts Mtofii. ^-ffe, 
•A.B. many as-, ''C. prati0hitah. ^C-rlks-, •A. om. aditir mdtd, 
aditir antarik^m in o. *° B. -^Mii, 




Jdintinlya- UjMdtfsad'Brahmana. 119 



,-:ii 



UL 6. aditir dyaur aditir antariksam* iti, esd^^ vai dyonr em 
"^ntariksam, 9. aditir tndtd sa pitd sa 2>'u(ra iti, esd vdV' 'in did I 
^sd pitdi ^sd putrah. 7. vi^^ve devd aditih panca jand iti. ye devd 
asurebhydh purve 2^cif^c(^ jand dsan ya evd ^sdv dditye puruso 
yap cafidramasi yo vidyuti yo 'psu yo ^yam aksann^^ antar em 
eva te. tad esdi 'ua. s. aditir jdtam aditir^* janitvatn iti. em hy 
eva jatfita esd janitvaiH. J^l. 

trayodage ^numke dvitiyah khttndah. trayodago ^nuvcikas samdptah. 

I. 42. 1. drunir ha vdsistham cdikltdneyam J/rahmacaryam. 
upeydya. tain ho ^vdcd '^^jdndsV sdumya gdutama yad ida^h 
vayaih^ cdikitdyieyds sdmdi 'wo ^pdsmahe.^ kdm tvam devatdm 
updssa* iti. sdmdi 'va hhagavanta^ iti ho ^vdca. a. tarn* ha 
ptipraccha yad agndu tad vetthdS iti. jyotir vd etat tasya sdmno 
yad vayaih sdnio '^pdmnaha iti.'' s. yat jyrthii'iydih tad vetthdS 
iti. jfratisthd vd esd tasya sdiymo yad vayam sdmo ^pdsmaJui iti. 
4. yad apsti tad vetthdS iti. pdntir vd em tasya* sdmno yad 
vayiim sdmo ^pdsiaaha iti. 8. yad^ antarikse tad vetthdS iti. 

Aditi 18 what is to be born." 6. * Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is the 
atmosphere;' verily she is the heaveu, she is the atmosphere. 
•• 'Aditi is the mother, she is the father, she is the son;' verily 
she is the mother, she is the father, she is the son. 7. ^ Aditi is 
all the gods, the five races ;' the gods who were before the 
Asuras — five races — yonder person whicli is in the sun, in the 
moon, in lightning, in the water, within the eye here, that is 
they, that is she. a. * Aditi is what is born, Aditi is what is to 
be born;' verily she is wliat is born, she is what is to be born. 

L 42. I. Aruni went to Vftsistha Cfiikitaneya to serve his 
studentship. He (V.) said to him (A.) : "Thou knowest, my 
dear Gautama, that we Caikitaneyas worship this sdman. 
What divinity dost thou worship ?" " The sdman^ reverend 
sirs," be (A.) said. a. He (A.) asked him (V.): "Dost thou 
know that which is in the fire ?" '* That is the brightness of that 
sdman which we worship." z. " Dost thou know that which is in 
the earth ?" "That is the firm standing of that sdman which 
we worship." 4. " Dost thou know that which is in the waters ?" 
"That is the tranquillity of that sdman which we worship." 
». " Dost thou know that which is in the atmosphere ?" " That 



41. " C. -fo. " A. v&ir. '» C. -?aw. »* A.B. itir ; C. iti. 

43. ' i^vdcd) aja. * C. yarh. ' -md/ia ; after this insert iti. * C. leaves 
space for -sa. * -vata. * td. '* B. inserts here, in margin, 5. * etasya. 
* C. om. yad iti. (end of 5). 



120 H, Oeriel, 

Ovinia vd esa tasya sdmno yad vayam sdmo ^pdstnctha iti, 
«. yad vdydu tad vetthdS iti, ^rtr vd esd tasya sdmno ycul vayam 
sdmo ^2)dsmaha iti, 7. yad diksu tad vetthdS iti. vydptir vd esa 
tasya sdmno^" yad vayam sdmo '^pasynaha^ iti, 8. yad divi 
tad vetthdS iti, vihhutir vd esd^^ tasya sdmno yad vayam sdmo 
'*pdsm.aha^^ iti. ^2, 

caturdagc *nuvdke prathanicUj khan(}afy, 

I. 43. 1. yad dditye tad vetthdS iti, tejo vd etat tasya^ sdmno 
yad vayam sdmo ^pdsmaha iti. a. yac candramasi tad vetthdS 
iti. hhd vd esd^ tasya sdmno yad vayam sdm.0 '^pdsm>aha iti, 
3. ya7i naksatresH tad t^etthdS iti, prajfid^ vd esd tasya^ sdmno yad 
vayam sdm>o ^pdsNiaha iti, 4. yad anne tad vetthdS iti, veto vd 
etat* tasya^ sdmno yad vayam sdmo ^pdsmaha iti, 5. yat* papusu 
tad vetthdS iti. yapo vd etat^ tasya sdmno yad vayam sdmo ^pd^ 
smaha iti, 6. yad rci tad vetthdS* iti. stomo* vd esa tasya^ sdmno 
yad vayam sdmo ^pdsmaha iti. i. yad yajusi tad vetthdS iti. 
karma vd etat tasya^ sdmno yad vayam sdmo ^pdsmaha iti. 
8. atha kim ttpdssa'' iti. aksaram iti. katamat tad aksaram. iti. yat 
ksaran nd "^kslyate Hi, katamat tat* ksaran* 7id ^kslyate Hi. indra 

is the self of that sdman which we worship." e. " Dost thou know 
that which is in the wind ?" "That is the fortune of that sdman 
which we worship." 7. " Dost thou know that which is in the 
quarters?" "That is the pervasion of that sdman which we 
worship." 8. " Dost thou know that which is in the sky ?" " That 
is the display of that sdman which we worship." 

I. 43. I. " Dost thou know that which is in the sun ?" " That 
is the splendor of that sdman which we w^orship." «. " Dost 
thou know that which is in the moon ?" " That is the light of 
that sdman which we worship." a. " Dost thou know that 
which is in the asterisms ?" " That is the understanding of that 
sdman which we worship." 4. '* Dost thou know that which is 
in food ?" " That is the seed of that sdtnan which we worship." 
6. "Dost thou know that which is in the domestic animals?" 
" That is the glory of that sdman which we worship." e. " Dost 
thou know that which is in the re >^" " That is the praise of that 
sdman which we worship." 7. " Dost thou know that which is 
in the yaj^is ?" " That is the action of that sdman which we 
worship." 8. " Now what dost thou worship ?" " The syllable." 
** Which is that syllable ?" " [That] which flowing {^ksar) was 

42. '* A.B. om. sdmno .... '|xi. " -hd, '* A.B. cm. i}a . . . . -smaha. 

48. * A.B. om. rest of quotation. 'C. prajd. »A.B. om. tat of etat, 

*C. om. *vo. 'A.B. sfe-. ' C. leaves space for -««a. *-ct. *ak§arah. 



Jdiminlya- Upanisad-Brdhmana, 121 

Hi. ». katanias sa indra itL yo ^ksan^° ramata^^ iti. katamas 5a" 
yo" ^ksan ramata iti. iyam devate Hi ho ^vCica. lo. yo ^yai'n ca- 
ksusV* purusa em indra esa prajapatih. \s(i\ samahprthivyd sama 
iikd^ena samo diva samas sarvena bhiitena. em paro divo dlp- 
yate.^* esa eve ^darh sarvam ity npdsitavyah,^^ ii. sa ya etad evarh 
vedti jyotismdn pratisthdvdfi chdutimdii dtniavafi chrlmdn vyd- 
ptihidn vibhfitimdhs tejasvV^ bhdvdn prajiidvdn retasin ya^asvi 
stomavdfi^" karmavdn aksaravdn indriyavd?i sCnnanvl hhavati. 
n. tad w" etud red ^bhyanHcyate. 4S, 

caturdagame 'nuvdke dvitiyaJi khaiidah. 

I. 44. I. rupam-rfipara pratirupo babhuva 

tad aaya rdpayn praticaksandya : 
indro mdydbhih pitrurupa^ lyate* 

yuktd hy asya haraya^ patd da^ 
Hi. a. rupam-riiparn pratirupo babhUve Vi. rupam-rupajh hy esa 
pratirupo babhuva, a. tad asya rtlpam praticaksandye Hi, pra- 
ticaksandya* hd ^sydiHad rffpam, 4. indro mdydbhih pururiXpa*^ 
lyala^ iti. mdydbhir hy esa etat pururupa^ \yate* 6. yuktd hy 

not exhausted (^ksi)^ "Which is that which flowing was not 
exhausted?" "Indra." ». "Who is this Indra?" "He who 
rests in the eye." " Who is he who rests in the eye ?" " This 
divinity," he said. lo. That person which is in the eye, that is 
Indra, that is Prajfipati. [He is] the same with the earth, the 
same with space, the same with the sky, the same with all exist- 
ence. He shines beyond the sky. He it is who must be wor- 
shiped as 'this all.' ii. He who know^s this thus becomes bright, 
having a firm stand, tranquil, self-possessed, fortunate, pervading, 
displayefl, possessing splendor, possessing light, possessing under- 
standing, possessing seed, glorious, possessing praise, active, pos- 
sessing the syllable, possessing Indra's pow^er, possessing the sd- 
man. la. And this is also spoken of in a re: 

I. 44. I. "He became corresponding in form to every form; 
such is his form to look upon ; Indra through magic moves about 
in many forms, for his ten hundred bay steeds are yoked." 
4. * He became corresponding in form to every form,' for he 
became corresponding in form to every form. s. * Such is his 
form to look upon,' verily to look upon his form is such. 
t. * Indra through magic moves about in many forms,' for 
through magic he thus moves about in many forms. ft. *For 

48. •« A.B. k^a. ^' A.B. indramata. '« C. so. "C. om. '*A.B. -I. 
'*C. diry-. ^^ -sitacyaih. *' -ri. ^^ X.B. stomdn. "tid. 

44. ^ A.B. punira ipa ; C pururupam. ^C.ratnyate. ^-ija. *C.'pam. 
*C.'pam. *^C. nnniyate. 

VOL. XVI. 17 



122 H. Oertel, 

asya haraya^' ^atd da^e Hi. sahasram hdi Ha dditycisya ra^ma- 
yah, te ^sya ]p.iktds tdir idam sarvam harati, tad yad etdir 
idarh sarvam harati tasmdd dharayah. 
«. ruparh-rupam^ niaghavd bobhavUi 

nidydh krnvdnah pari tanvam svdm : 
trir yad divah pari muhurtam* dgdt 

svdir mafUrdir anrtupd rtdi^e 
Hi. 1. rripam-rupani maghavd bobhavUl Vi." rupam-ruparh^^ hy 
esa maghavd bohhavlti. 8. nidydh krnvdnah^* pari tanvam 
svdni iti. mdydbhir^^ hy^* esa^^ etat svdih tanum gopdyati. 9. trir 
yad divah pari inuhHrtam dgdd iti,^* trir ha vd esa etasya mu- 
hdrtasye ^mdm prthivirh samantah paryeti ^mdh prajds saThca- 
ksdnah. lo. svdir mantrdir anrtupd" Have Hi. anrtupd hy esa 
etad rtdvd.^* j^. 

caturdagk *nuvdke tftiydfy kha7j4ah» 

I. 46. I. tad dha prthur vdinyo divydn vrdtydn papracche 
^ndrafn^ uktham ream udgUham dhur 

brahma sdma prdnarh vydnam : 
mano* vd caksur apdnam dhu^ 

^rotram p*otriyd bahudhd vadantl 
Hi. 3. te pratyucur 

his ten hundred bay steeds are yoked,' verily these are the 
thousand rays of the sun ; they are yoked for him, with them 
he takes this all. In that he takes l^hr) with them this all, 
therefore they are called bay (hari). e. "Into every form the 
bounteous one often changes, exercising magic around his own 
body, when thrice in a moment he hath come from the sky, through 
his own incantations drinking out of season, the holy one." 
7. * Into every form the bounteous one often changes,' for into 
every form this bounteous one does often change, a. * Exercis- 
ing magic around his own body,' for through magic he thus 
protects his own body. 9. ' When he thrice m a moment hath 
come from the sky,' for thrice in this moment he goes com- 
pletely around this earth surveying these people, lo. * Through 
his own incantations drinking out of season, the holy one,' for 
he is thus drinking out of season, the holy one. 

1. 45. 1. Now Prthu Vainya inquired this of the divine men- 
dicants: "They call Indra ukthoy re , udgitha^ brahmany sdman, 
breath, vydna, or they call [him] mind, eye, apdna, ear; the learned 
speak [of him] in many ways." 2. They answered: "These hymn- 

44. ■• C. om. harayag tp- 'sya. * A.B. insert ma. » murh-. 

*"C. om. iti. " repeats rupam-rHpaiii -vUi 'ti (!). " A. krcvd. 

^*A.-bhi. "A. iw. *«A. om. "a«, »»C. nf^. '«C. r^d. 

46. ' C. 'idam. ' C. no. 



Jmmmlyor TJpanisddrBrahmana, 123 

rsaya ete mantrakrtah purdjah 

punar djdyante veddndm guptydi kam : 

te vdi vidvdnso vdinya tad vadanti 

samdnam purusani hahudhd nivistam 
iti. 8. imdm ha vd tad devatdm tray yam* vidydydm imdrh* 
samdndm^ ahhy* eka dpayanti ndi 'Are. yo ha vdvdi Had evam 
veda sa evdf Hdm devatdm samprati veda, a, sa esa iiidra 
tidg'Uhah, sa yaddi^ ^sa indra udgltha dgacchati ndi 'vo '^dgd- 
tu^ CO ^pagdtfndth* ca vijfidyate,^^ ita evo ^"^rdhvas^^ avar^* udeti, 
sa upari murdhno leldyati. a. sa vidydd dgamad indro n^ ^ha 
ka^ carta pdpmd nyahgah pari^eksyata^^ iti. tasmin ha na ka^ 
carta pdprrtd nyaiigah pari^isyate. e. tad etad abhrdtrvyam 
sdrna. na ha vd indrah kam cana bhrdtrvyatn pa^yate. sa yathe 
^ndro na kam cana bhrdtrvyam pa^yata evayn eva na kam cana 
bhrdtrvyam pa^yate ya etad evam vedd Hho yasydi 'warn vid- 
Viln udgdyaii. J^S. 

caturdage *nuvdke caturthaJ^ kha»4ah- caturdago ^nuvdkas sanidptaJf,. 

I. 46. 1. /prajdpfitir vd veda agra dsU, so ^kdmayata bahus 
^ydh* j»rajdyeya bhuindnam gnccheyam iti. 2. sa soda^adhd 
^Hntdnam vyukuruta hhadram ca samdpti^ cd ^'^bhUti^ ca^ sam- 

composing sages of old are born hither again for the keeping 
of the Vedas ; verily they knowing [it], O Vainya, say this, that 
one and the same person is entered into many places." s. So 
fiome cause the attainment in the threefold knowledge of this 
divinity, this same one, others do not. 4. Verily he who knows 
this thus, he thoroughly knows this divinity. 5. That same Indra 
is the udgltha. When this same Indra comes as udgltha, he is 
not distinguished both of the udgdtar and the upagdtars. He 
rises upward from here to heaven ; he twinkles above the head. 
«. lie should know : " Indra hath come ; no evil whatever, [not 
aj trace, will be left here;" truly in him no evil whatever, [not 
a] trace, is left. i. That is the rivalless sdntan. Verily Indra 
Hees no rival whatever. As Indra sees no rival whatever, so he 
also sees no rival whatever who knows this thus, and also he for 
whom one knowing thus sings the udgltha. 

I. 46. I. Prajapati in the beginning was the Veda. He de- 
sired : " May I be many, may I beget progeny, may I attain 
inaDifoldness." 3. He divided himself into sixteen parts : bliss 



45. • A. traryyd ; B. trryyd. *A.B. imdifi. '^-nd, •€. ny. "* A.B. ha 
vdi. *ya vai. "A-B. -tjrn-. '<> insert ti. ^^rdhva. ^*8vara. '"joartje-. 

46. » C. ce. 



124 H. Oertel 

bhuti^ ra hhutarh ca sarvarli ca rupam cd ''jtarimitarh ca 

^rl^ ca ifn*;ag C(t ndma cd ''(jram ca sajdid^ ca paya^ ca 

ma/ih/d* ca rasa^ ca. 3. tad j/ad bhadram hrdnyara ast/a tat, 

tatas samvijUsarmii asrjata. tad asya sar/ivatsaro ^Nt'ipatisthate.* 

4. saindptih karmd ^sya tat. karin<ind hi samdpnotl. tata rtuii 

asrjata. tad asya rtaiw ^nupatisfhante. 6. dbkutir an nam asya* 

tat." [tac] catxirdhd^ hhavati, tato mdsdn ardhaindsdii ahord- 

trdny iisaso ^srjffta. tad asya mdsd ardbamdsd ahordtrdny asaso 

^ndpatisthante. «. sambhntV veto* ^sya tad. retaso hi sambha- 

rati. Jfi. 

paiicadd^'e 'nuvdke prathamafj khatiduh. 

I. 47. I. tata^ camlrainaaani asrjata. tad asya candramd anu- 
jHitisthate. tasmdt sa retasah pratirdpah. -i. bhdtani^ prdnd* 
K^ya sah. tato vdywn asrjata. tad asya rdyur andpatisthate. 
8. sarcaiii apdno ^sya sah. tatah pa^iXn asrjata. tad asya jni^avo* 
^ndjKitisthante. \. rdpam vydno ^sya sah. tatah prajd asrjata. 
tad asya prajd andpatisthante. tasmdd dsu prajdsn rdpdny 
adhiyamyantc.^ ft. apnHn}itam mano ^sya tat. tato^ di^o ^srjata. 

an<l attainmont and energy and growth and existence and the 
all and form and the infinite and fortune and glory and name 
and the summit and the fellows and milk and exaltation and 
sap. a. What bliss is, that is his heart. Thence he created the 
year. That of him the year attends upon. 4. Attainment, that is 
his action. For bv action one attiiins. Thence he created the sea- 
sons. That of him the seasons attend upon. 6. Energy, that is 
his food ; that becomes four-fold. Thence he created months, 
half-months, nic^hts and days, <lawns. That of him months, half- 
months, nights and <iays, dawns attend upon. 6. Growth, that 
is his see<l. For from seed one grows. 

I. 47. I. Thence he created the moon. That of him the moon 
attends upon. Therefore one correspon«ls to the seed. a. Kxist- 
ence, that is his breath. Thence he created the wind. That of 
him the wind attends upon. s. The all, that is his apdna. 
Thence he created the domestic animals. That of him the 
domestic animals attend upon. 4. Form, that is his vydjia. 
Thence he created offspring. That of him offspring attends 
upon. Therefore among this offspring fonns are foun<T. ft. The 
infinite, that is his mind. Thence he created the quarters. That 



46. ^-ydh. 'A.B. -ante. * X.B. insert /a. ^A.B. tad : Com. * A.B. 
aneardhd ; C. ardha. ' -ti. A.B. -<<i ; C. -ta. 

47. ^ 'ta. *-wcT. * A.B. rupa^ro. *-yate. -C. om. tato tas- 

mat. 




Jdimin lya- Upan isad- Br ah m ana . 125 

tad as»/a di^o *'n apatisthante. tasinnt ta aparimitOh. aparimi- 
tarn ira hi manah. 6. ^rir vag a^iya sO. tatas samudrani asrjata- 
tad asya samudro ^nupatisthat^, 7. ya^as tapo ^sya tat, tato 
^f/fiim asrjata. tad^ asyiV ^gnir an upaththate. tasmdt sa mathi- 
tad" iva samtaptdd iva jdyate. s. nania cakmr asya tat. 47'. 

paiicadage 'nuvdke dvitlyah khanduh, 

I. 48. I. tata ddityam asrjata. tad asyd '*\lityo hirtpatisthate. 
«. ay ram rnurdhd ^sya sah. tato divam asrjata. tad asya dydur 
anupaththate. s. sajCitd anydny^ asya tdnV angdir^ hi saha 
jdyate. tato vanaspatm asrjata. tad asya vanaspatayo ^fiUpatis- 
thante. 4. payo^ lotndny asya tdni. tata osadhlr <fsrjata. tad 
asydu^mdhayo^nupatisthaiite. 5. malnyd^ mdmdny asya tdni. 
indnsdir hi saha* mahlyate. tato raydnsy asrjata. tad asya va- 
ydnsy andpatisthante. tasmdt tdni praj)atisnutti. prapatisnunl 
'r(7 mahdmdnsdni.^ «. raso majjd'* \tya sah. tatah 2)rthivlm asr- 
jata. tad asya jfrthii^y ant'fjfatisthate.^ 7. sa hdi ^vani soda^adhd 

of him the quarters attend upon. Therefore they are infinite; 
for infinite, as it were, is mind. 6. Fortune, that is his speech. 
Thence he created the ocean. That of him the ocean attends 
npon. 7. Glory, that is his heat (penance). Thence he created 
fire. That of him the fire attends upon. Therefore it is born 
from the churned, as it were, from the tlioroughly heated, as it 
were. a. Name, that is his eye. 

I. 48. I. Thence he created the sun. That of him the sun 
attends upon. a. The summit, that is his head. Thence he 
created the sky. That of him the sky attends upon. s. The 
fellows, those are his limbs. For with his limbs one is born. 
Thence he created the forest-trees. That of him the forest-trees 
attend upon. 4. Milk, that is the hair of his body. Thence he 
created the herbs. That of him the herbs attend upon. s. Ex- 
altation, that is his flesh. For witli the flesh one is exalted (?). 
Tlience he created the birds. That of him the birds attend 
upon. Therefore they fl}' forth. Forth-flying (elastic?) as it 
were are the large [pieces of] flesh (?). e. The sap, that is his 
marrow. Thence he created the earth. That of him the earth 
attends upon. 7. He thus having divided himself into sixteen 
parts came together. Because he came together (y^Z-f ^am), 



47. •C om. 'C. tasyd, •A.B. mathitdmid ; C. mathititdd. 

48. > A. aihg&ny; B. afhgathhdny; C. aihgaikhy. *A. id. 'A. adir. 
* A. om. payo .... anHpatifthante in 5. • B. mahhlyd; C. mamyu. 
'b.ta. '• mahlm-. * A.B. majjyd. * A.B. -nte. 



126 /r. OerUl, 

^Hmanam vikrff/a sdrdhath samdit. tad yat sdrdham samditaf* 
tat sdmnas sdmatvani. s. sa evdi \^a hiranmayah jmrum nd- 
atisfhat prajdndm janitd,^^ JfS, 

pailcada^e 'tiuvCike tj^lyaJi khandoJ,^' 

I. 49. I. devdsurd itupardhanta. te devdh prajdpatim upadJid- 
vail jayd)nd '^siirdii ilL a. so ^hrav'm 7ia vdi nidm yUyam vittha^ 
nd ^surdh, yad vdi mum ydyain vldydta^ tato vdi yuyam eva 
sydta pard '^surd'hhaveyiir iti, 3. tad vdi bruhl* Hy abruvan. so 
^bravlt purnsah prajdpatis sdms Hi mo ^pdddhvam. tato vdi yu- 
yam eva hhavisyafJia pard ^surd hhavisyantl Hi, a. tatn puru- 
sah prajdpatis mme Hy tipdsata. tato vdi devd ahJuivan pard 
''surd/i. sa yo hdi ^vam vidvdn purusah prajdpatis sdnie Hy updste 
bhavaty dt}nand j^ard ^sya dvistui bhrdtrvyo bhavati, Jff9. 
paiicadaqe 'nuvdke caiurthah khayifaJ^. paHcadago 'tiuvdkas samdptafy, 

I. 50. I. dend vdi vijigydnd^ abnivan dvitlyam karavdmahdi, 
md \lvitlyd bhume Hi. te ''bruvan sdmdi ^va'' dvitlyam karavd- 
mahdi. sdrndi ^va no dvitlyam astv iti. 2, ta ime dydvdprthim 
abruvan sametam sdma prajanayatam iti. a. so* ^sdv asyd abi- 
bhatsata.* so^ ^brarld bahu rd eta^ydm kith ca kim ra kurvarUy 

that ia the reason why the sdman is called ao. ». That same 
one arose, a golden person, a generator of offspring. 

I. 40. I. The goda and tlie Asuras contended. These gods 
ran unto Prajfipati [for help, saying]: "Let us overcome the 
Asuras." a. He said; ** Verily you do not know me, neither do 
tlie Asuras. Verily if you sliould know, then you would prevail, 
the Asuras would perish." 3. "Tell that," they said. He said: 
"Worship me [saying]: 'Purusa, Prajapati, Saman.' Verily 
you will then prevail, the Asuras will perish." 4. They wor- 
shiped him [saying] : " Purusa, Prajfipati, Saraan." Thereupon 
the gods verily prevailed, the Asuras perished. He who know- 
ing thus worships [saying] : " Purusa, Prajapati, Saman," pre- 
vails himself, his hostile rival perishes. 

I. 50. 1. The gods, having completely conquered, said: "Let 
us make a second; let us not be without a second." They said: 
" Let us make the saman the second ; let the sdynan be our 
second." a. They said to this sky and earth: "Unite, brin^ 
forth the sdman.^^ Yonder [sky] strongly abhorred this [earth]. 

48. *'C. samdit ; A.B. aft«r tills repeat: tad yat sardhaih samaitat (!). 
^^jayitn. 

49. ' B. ^attha. ^ -ydta. » A.B. -hi. 

50. ^ A. vijijiidnd. ^ A.B. vd. ^sd. *ahihat-. 



Jdiminiija- ZTpamsad- Brdh m ana, 1 27 

adhisthlvantf/^ adhicaraiitt/ adhyasate. ^>?r/u^a )iv enani aputa 
Vi'i iti, 4. te gdthdni abmvan tvayd piaidme ^ti. Jchh tat as sydd 
iti. ^tasanis* syd iti. tathe Hi. te gdthayd ''punan, tasmdd nta 
gdthwjd ^atafa sunoti. 5. te kumbydni abruvaii tvayd pinidme 
Hi. kim tatas sydd iti. patasanis syd iti. tathe Hi. te kumbyayd'' 
^punan. tasmdd iita kuiahyayd^ ^atam sunoti.'' 6. te^ ndrd^an- 
s'lm ahruvan tvayd pundme Hi. kiih tatas sydd iti. ^atasa7iis^^ 
syd iti. tathe Hi. te ndrd^ansyd '^jninaa. tastndd ata ndrd^ahsyd 
pat*ym sunoti. 7. te rdihhlm}^ abruvan tvayd pundme Hi. kivi 
tatas^* sydd iti. ^atasanis^^ syd iti. tathe Hi. te rdibhyd '^jmnan. 
tasmdd uta rdibhyd gatam sunoti. 8. se \i/am putd. athd ^mtun 
abravld bahu vdi kim ca kim ca pumdii^ carat i. tvarn^^ anupu- 
jujtve Hi. 50. 

HCHJkige *nuvdke prathamah kharuji^h. 

I. 51. I. sa dilabend^ ^putiita. putdni ha vd asya sdtndni putd 
rcah patdni yajUrisi jyfitam anUktam putam sarvam* bhavati ya 

He said: "Verily they do much on her of this kind and of that, 
they spit on her, they go about on her, they sit on her. Cleanse 
her now ; verily she is unclean." s. They said to the gdthd : 
"With thee we will cleanse [her]." " What would be the conse- 
quence ?" " Thou wouldst be gainer of a hundred." " Very well." 
'^Fhey cleansed [her] with the gdthd. And therefore one obtains 
a hundred with the gdthd. a. They said to the kumbyd : "With 
thee w^e will cleanse [her]." " What would be the consequence 
of it?" " Thou wouldst be gainer of a hundred." " Very well." 
They cleansed [her] with the kumbyd. And therefore one ob- 
tains a hundred with the kumbyd. b. They said to the ndrd- 
^ansl: "With thee we will cleanse [her]." "What would be 
the consequence of it." " Thou wouldst be gainer of a hundred." 
"Very well." They cleansed [her] with the ndrdgaim. And 
therefore one obtains a hundred with the ndrd^ansl. e. They 
said to the rdibhl: "With thee we will cleanse [her]." "What 
would be the consequence of it?" "Thou wouldst be gainer of 
a hundred." "Very well." They cleansed [her] with the rdibhl. 
And therefore one obtains a hundred with the rdibhl. 7. This 
[earth] here [was] cleansed. Then she said to yonder [sky]: 
** Verily much does a man practice of this sort and of that; cleanse 
thyself also." 

I. 51. J. He cleansed himself with noise (?). Verily the 
sdmatis are cleansed, the rr*s are cleansed, tlie yajuses are 



50. ^'^thlV'. *-ni; C. -ni, and so all MSS. in 5, 6, and 7. ^ C. -hhy-. 
'A.B. repeat 5. * Ciena. '"C. fatont. "-/>/ilw. ^^C.ta. "'/am. 

51. ' 'lav- ; B. CiUavdUidrh. '^ -vdm. 




128 //. Oertel, 

evam veda, a. te sainetya sdma projanayatam.^ tad yat sametya 
sdma prOjanayatdm tat sdmnas* samatvam, s. tad idani sdma 
srstarn ada utkranii/u lelduad atisthat. tasya narve devd mama- 
tvina dsan mama mame^ Vi. 4. te ^bruvan vl ^dam* hhajdmahd 
UL tarsya luhhdye na samapddnyan, tan prajdpatir abravid 
apeta. mama tul etat. ahum era vo vibhaksydmV ^ti, 6. so ^gnim 
abraiut tvam vdi me jyesthah pxitrdridm asi. team jtrathamo 
vrriisve V/. 6. so ^bravhi mandram sdmno x'^rne ''nndduaitt.^ UL 
sa ya etad gdydd^ amidda^'^ eoa so ^aan mdm a sa d^vdndm 
rcchdd ya evam vidvdnsam etad (fdyantam upavaddd iti, 
7. at/ie** \idram^^ abramt tvam anuvrnlsve Hi. e, so *bravid 

• • • 

ugram^* sdtnno t^rne priyam^* iti. sa^* ya etad gdyd&* chrimdn 
eva so ^san mdm u sa devdndm rcchdd ya evam vidvdnsam etad 
gdyantam upavaddd iti. 9. atha somam abratnt tvam anuvrnl- 
sve Hi. 10. so ^bravuV^ ralgu sdmno vrne priyam iti. sa ya etad 
gdydt priya eva sa Icirteh priya^ caksusah priyam sarvesdm 
asan mdm usa devdndm rcchdd ya evani vidvdnsam etad gdyan- 
tam upavaddd iti. ii. atha brhaspatirn a?>raiHt tvam^'' a?uivrm- 
sve^^ Hi. 13. so ^brav'it krdxtncam sdmno vrn4i brahmavarcasam iti. 

• • • 

cleansed, the anffkta is cleansed, the all is cleansed of him who 
knows thus. a. These two havin^^ united generated the sdman. 
Because they having united (^i-{-sam) generated the sdmariy 
therefore the sdman is called so. 3. This same sdman, having 
been created, coming up there stood twinkling. All the gods 
were desirous of possessing it [saying]: *'[It is] mine, [it is] 
mine." 4. They said : ** Let us share it out among ourselves." 
They did not agree in its division. Prajfipati said to them: "Go 
away ! Verily, this is mine. 1 will share it out among you." 
6. He said to Agni : ** Verily, thou art the eldest of my sons; 
choose thou first." 6. He (A.) said: " T choose the soft (piano) 
of the sdman, i. e. the food-eating. Whosoever shall sing this, 
may he be a food-eater; and may he encounter me of the gods who 
speaketh ill of one who knoweth thus, who singeth this." 7. Then 
he (P.) said to Indra: "Choose thou after [him]." 8. He (I.) said: 
"I choose the strong of the sdman, i. e. fortune. Whosoever shall 
sing this, may he be fortunate ; and may he encounter me of the 
gods who speaketh ill of one who knoweth thus, who singeth this. 
9. Then he said to Soma: "Choose thou after [him]." lo. He (S.) 
said: " I choose the pleasant of the sdman, i. e. the dear. Who- 
soever shall sing this, may he be dear to fame, dear to sight, 
dear to all, and may he encounter me of the gods who speaketh ill 
of one who knoweth thus, who singeth this. ii. Then he (P.) said 

51. 'A.B. prrfj-. ^-at. ^ A. me. *• Cleaves space for viUlam : A.B. 
viddfh. "^ B.C. bhavisy-. ^ B.C. {Tiyam. ^ B.C. gdyatrac. ^*^ B.C. chri- 
mdn. ^^ B.C. atha. ^* B.C. somam. ^* B.C. valgu. ^* B.C. priyani. "A. 
om. aaya . . . . so *bravld in 9. '• B.C. gdyatrac. ' " A. om. '* A. nttrf-. 



^ 



Jdimtyuyd' Uj)a7iisa^I- Brdhmana. 1 29 

sa ya etnd gdydd hrahmavarcasy eva so ^san mdm u sa devdnmn 
rcchdd ya evam vidvdnsam etad gdyantam upavaddd iti, 51, 

^^Qe *nuv6ke dvitiydfy khav^jdh, 

I. 52. I. (Uhn vi^vdn deiuln abravtd yuyam anuvrrildhvam iti, 
a. te ^brui'nm vdi^vadevam sdmno vrnlmahe prajananam iti, sa 
ya etad gdydt prajdvdn eva so ^sad* asmdn u^ deodndin rcchdd 
ya evam vidvdnsam etad gdyantatn upavaddd iti. a. atha pa^un 
ahravld yCiyatn anuvrmdhvam Iti, 4. te ^bruvan vdyur vd asrnd- 
kam ipe, sa eva no varisyata* iti, te vdyu^ ca pa^ava^ cd ^bru- 
van niruktam* sdmno vrnlma/ie pa^avyam iti, sa ya etad gdydt 
pa^umdn eva so *sad asmdn u ca sa vdyurh* ca devdndm^ rcchdd 
ya evam vidvdfisam, etad gdyantam upavaddd iti, 6. atha pra- 
jdpatir ahravld aham anuvarisya itiJ* «. so ^bravld aniruktam 
sdmno vrne svargyam^ iti, sa ya etad gdydt svargaloka eva so 
^san* mdm u sa devdndm* rcchdd ya evam vidvdnsam etad gdyan- 
tam upavaddd iti, i, atha varunam abravU tvam anuvmisve 
7/. 8. so ^bravid yad vo na ka^ cand ^vrta tad aham pariha- 

to Brhaspati : ** Choose thou after [him]." He (B.) said : " I 
choose the plover-like of the sdman^ i. e. excellence in sacred 
lore. Whosoever shall sing this, may he be excellent in sacred 
lore ; and may he encounter me of the gods who speaketh ill of 
one who knoweth thus, who singeth this." 

I. 62. I. Then he said to all the gods : " Choose ye after 

EhimJ." a. They said: " We choose that of the sdman which 
lelongs to all the gods, i. e. generation. Whosoever shall sing 
this, may he be rich in generation, and may he encounter us of the 
gods who speaketh ill of one who knoweth thus, who singeth this." 

3. Then he said to the domestic animals : " Choose ye after 
[them]." They said : " Vayu is our lord; he will choose for us." 

4. They, Vayu and the domestic animals, said: " We choose the 
distinct [part] of the sdman^ i. e. that which belongs to the domes- 
tic animals. Whosoever shall sing this, may he be rich in do- 
mestic animals ; and may he encounter us and Vayu of the gods 
who speaketh ill of one who knoweth thus, who singeth this." 
». Then Prajapati said : "I will choose after [them]." 6. lie said : 
" I choose the indistinct [part] of the sdmany i. e. that which be- 
longs to heaven. Whosoever shall sing this, may he be in posses- 
Bion of the heavenly world, and may he encounter me of the gods 
who speaketh ill of one who knoweth thus, who singeth this. 
7. HuBD he saidto Yaruna: " Choose thou after [me]." s. He said: 

52. 'B. inserts ma. * insert from Y>e\ow ca sa vdyurh, 'C. vari^tha, 
*anir-. *B. -yu^. * A.B. omit the rest, to i^i. ^A.B. ft. "A.B. «ixzr- 
gant. *B. samut. 

VOL. XVL 18 



130 //. Oerteh 

risya^^ iti, kirn iti, apadhvdntam^* samno vrne ^pa^vyam iti. 
»a ya etad gdydd apa^ur^^ eva 80 ^aan mdm u sa devdndm 
rcchdd^* ya etad gdydd iti, 9. tdui vd etdny astdu gltdgitdni 
sdmnah. imdny u ha vdi sapta gUdni, athe** ^yam eva vdruny 
dgd ^gltd, lo. sa ydrh ha kdm^^ cdi ^vam vidfHln etdsdm saptd- 
7idni dgdndm gdyati gltam evd ^sya bhavaty etdn u kdtndn^* 
rddhnotV^ ya etdsu kdnidh, athe hndni eva vdrunlni dgdm na 
gdyet. 52, 

soipxge ^nuvdke tctlyah khaiitjUili, tiOifago 'nuvdkas samdptali. 

I. 53. 1. dvaya?h vdve \la7n agra dslt sac cdi ^vd ^sac ca, 
a. tayor yat sat tat sdrna tan manas sa prdnah, atha yad asat 
sa rk^ sd vdk so ^pdnah, 3. tad yan mavia^ ca prdna^ ca tat 
samdnani, atha yd vdk cd ^pd7ia^ ca tat sanidnant. idam dyata- 
nam mana^ ca prdna^ ce ^dam dyatanarh^ vdk cd ^pdna^ ca, 
ta^mdt pumdn daksinato yosdrn upafete.* a, se ^yam rg asfnln 
sdman* tnithunam dicchata, tdm aprcchat kd tvarn asl Hi. sd 
^harii asml 7y abravlt, atha vd aha^n anio ^stnt Hi. 6. tad yat sd 

" What no one of you hath chosen, with that I will gird myself (?)." 
" What is it ?" " I choose the ill-sounding [part] of the soman, 
i. e. that which does not belong to the dcunestic animals. W^ho- 
soever shall sing this, may he be without domestic animals, and 
may he encounter me of the gods who singeth this." ». These 
same then are eight [^^^(/^l of the sdman, sung and unsung ; and 
verily these seven are sung, but this dgd belonging to Varuua 
is not sung. 10. Whichever of these seven dgds any one know- 
ing thus sings, of him [the sdman .^] is sung, and he accomplishes 
those wishes which are in these [a^^«]. And this dgd belonging 
to Varuna one should not sing. 

I. 53. 1. Verily, this [all] was twofold in the beginning : the 
existent and the non-existent. 2. Of these two the existent, that 
is the sdman, the mind, breath ; and the non-existent, that is the 
I'Cy speech, exhalation. That which is mind and breath, that is 
the same; and that which is speech and exhalation, that is the 
same. This resting-place is mind and breath; this resting-place 
is speech and exhalation. Therefore a man lies by a woman at 
the right side. 4. This re desired intercourse with this sdman. 
He (the sdman) asked her (the re) : " Who art thou ?" She 
answered: "I am she («a)." "Verily, then, I am he (ama)." 
6. What was she {sd) and he {ama), that became the sdmari; that 



52. " A.B. 'hr^-; A.B. -^yata. ^* A.B. apaddhamdtam ; C. apadhmd- 
tarn. ** C. pa^-. " A. prim. m. pidhdd. " B. -tha ; C. hatha. ** A. -f. 
"A.B. kdmd, " C. ntTrudhn-; A.B. nirrdhnoti. 

53. * B. myak : after this A.B. insert a^my adadya bhavite Hi ; C. a9ty 
(space) bliaviteHi (a misplaced gloss?). --»d. 'C. upavagete, ^-ma. 



Jdiminiyor Vpanisad-Brahirhana, 131 

ca ^ma^ ca tat sdmd ^hhavat tat sdmnas sdmatvam, «. tdu vdi 
sambhavdve Ui, ne Vy abravlt svasd vdi mama tvam asy anyatra 
mithunam, icchasve Hi, 7. sd ^fn'avm na vdi tarn vinddmi yena 
aarnbhaveyafn^ tvaydi ^va sambhavdnl Hi, sd vdi 2^umsve Hy 
af/ravlt. aputd vd asl Hi,* a. sd ^punlta yad idam viprd^ vadanti 
tejia, sd ^hravlt kve* \lam hhavisyaU Hi, pratyuhe Hy"* abravlt, 
dlilr vd esd, prajdndm j'tvanam vd etad bhavisyatl Hi, tathe Hi, 
tat pratyduJiat, tasnidd esd dhlr eva prajdndm jlvanata eva, 
9. puriisve Hy abravlt, sd ^pumta gdthayd sd ^punlta knmbyayd^* 
sd ^pujilta ndrd^ansyd sd ^pitnita jyurdnetihdsefia sd ^punlta yad 
idam** dddya nd** '*''gdyanti tena, lo. sd ^bravU kve^dam bhavis- 
yatl Hi, pratyt'ihe Hy abravlt, dhlr vd esd, prajdndm jlvanam 
vd etad bhavisyatl Hi, tathe '*ti, tat pratyduhat, tasmdd esd dhlr 
r eva prajdndm jlvanam v eva, w, punlsvdi ^ve Hy abravlt, 58, 

saptadage ^nuvdke prathamah khandah, 

I. 54. I. sd madhund ''punlta,* tasmdd uta bra hmacdri madhu 
ud ''pilydd vedasya paldva^ iti, kdmam ha tv dcdryadattam 
apilydt, 3. atha rk sdmd Htravld bahu vdi kim ca kim ca 

is the reason why the sdman is called so. «. " Let us two here 
have intercourse." " No," he said, " verily thou art ray sister ; 
desire intercourse elsewhere." 7. She said: "Verily, 1 find no 
one with whom I might have intercourse ; let me have inter- 
course with thee." " Then cleanse thyself," he said ; " verily 
thou art unclean." a. She cleansed herself with that which the 
inspired bards say. She said : " What is to become of this ?" 
" Cast it back," he said ; " verily this is device ; it will become the 
living of people." " Yes." She cast it back. Therefore is this 
device the living of people. ». ** Cleanse thyself," he said. She 
cleansed herself with the gdthdj she cleansed herself with the 
kumbydj she cleansed herself with the ndrd^ans\ she cleansed 
herself with the purdna and itihdsa, she cleansed herself with 
that which they do not sing here when starting (?). lo. She said: 
" What is to become of it ?" " Cast it back," he said ; " verily 
this is device. It will become the living of people." "Yes." 
She cast it back. Therefore this is both device and the living 
of people. II. "Cleanse thyself," he said. 

I. 54. I. She cleansed herself with honey. And therefore a 
Vedic student should not eat honey [saying]: " [It is] the husk 
of the Veda." But he may eat at pleasure what his teacher gives 
him. «. Now the re said to the sdman : " Verily much does a 

58. ^sambhnvet, yam, 'inserted. '^A.B. prd; C, riprd, 'A.B. tve, 
•A.B. tyat, ^^C-mbh-; B.C. insert vd, "C. imam, " A.B. widdd- 
yand; C. dddyand. 

54. ' repeat whole clause. ' C. leaves space for first two syllables, 
third syllable sa ; for kdmam all MSS. read -md. 



132 H. Oertel, 

pumdnf carati. tvam anupunlsve ^ti, sa bharanddkemend* ^pu- 
n'Ua, putdni ha vd asya sdmdni pHtd rcah putdni yajunsi putam 
anuktani putam sarvam hhavati ya evarh veda. s. tdhhydrh 
sado mithundya parya^ayan,* tamndd upavasathtydm* rdtrim 
sadasi^ na ^ayltaJ' atra hy etdv rksdme upavtisathlydrh^ rdtrim 
sadasi samhhavatah, sa yafhd ^reyasa vpadrastai ^vam hi ^^vad* 
l^varo ^nulahdhah pardbhavitoh, 4. atho dhur iidgdtur mukhe 
saynbhavatah, udgdtnr eva wukham W6** ''^ksete Hi. a. tad u vd 
dhuh kdiaain evo ^dydtur nmkhani Ikseta. upavasathlydm evdi 
"^tdih rdtriih sndam na ^aytta. atra hy evdi Hdv rksdme upavasa- 
th'tydm^^ rdtrim sadasi sambhavata iti, e. tdm sambhamsyann 
dhd^^ ^mo 'ham asmi sd tvam sd tvam asy amo 'hain, sd mdm 
anuvratd^* bhutvd prajdh prajanaydvahdi. ehi sambhavdvahd^* 
iti, 7. tdrh sambhavann atyaricyata.^* so 'brainn na vdi t^d 
hitibhavdmi. virdd bhutvd prajanaydi^e Hi, tathe ^ti, 8. tdu 
virdd bhutvd prdjanayatdm. hinkdra^ cd ^^hdva^" ca prastdva^ 
ca prcUhamd co ^dgltha^ ca madhyamd ca pratihdra^ co Htamd 
ca nidhanam ca vctsatkdrap cdi '«am"* virdd bhutvd prdjana- 

man practice of one sort and another; cleanse thyself also." He 

cleansed himself with = I. 6 1 . i. s. They enclosed the 

sada^ for their intercourse. Therefore in the night of the fast- 
day one should not lie in the sadas; for there, in the sadas^ these 
two, re and sdman^ have intercourse in the night of the fast-day. 
For, as one who spies upon a superior, even so he, apprehended, 
is altogether likely to perish. 4. Now they say: " In the mouth 
of the iidgdtar they have intercourse ; one should not look at 
the mouth of the udydtar.^^ a. But they also say this: "He may 
look at pleasure at the mouth of the udgdtar. Only in this 
night of the fast-day he should not lie in the sadas; for there, 
in the sadas, these two, re and sd)nan, have intercourse in the 
night of the fast-day." «. When he was about to have inter- 
course with her, he said: "I am he, thou art she; thou art 
she, I am he; becoming obedient to me (my wife), let us gener- 
ate offspring. Come! let us have intercourse." 7. When he had 
intercourse with her, he exceeded. He said : " Verily, I am not 
adapted to thee. Having become the virdj let us two generate." 
" Yes." 8. They, having become the virdj^ generated. [As] 
hinkdra and dhdva and prastdva and first [<i,<7<*.^] and udgltha 
and middle \dgd?^ and pratihdra and last [dgdfl and nidhana 



54. 'A. harun(jl<^ke^end ; B. bhararyjla- (second a corr. fromii); C. 
hharundakok^nend, * A. -van, * A. -dhlydm ; B. -^ydm, • -t, ' A. 
ytta; B.C.yeta, 'A.B. -dk-. * A, ccad, *" A.B. minulava^; C. anu- 
ntduv-, "CTna. *»A.B. -thl-, "B.C. insert ra/ia. '*A. -pr-. ^^sarh- 
hhavata, ^* dtyaricyate. '^C. M-, 



Jdiminlyor Upanisad-Brahmana. 133 

yatani,^* te amum ajanayatdm yo ^adu tapati, te vyadrava- 
tfnnr r^, 

saptada^e *nuvdke dmtlyah khanijxih. 

I. 55. 1. niadadhy ahhuSnynadadhy abhnSd iti, taamdd dkur 
mnd/iuputra* iti. a. taamdd nta striyo mad/iu iid ''^nanti putrd- 
ndm idam vratam cardma iti vadantVi, i. tad ayam trco ^nvda- 
^rayata, iyanC eva ydyatry antariksam^ tristuh asdu jagatl, 
tasydi ^(at trcah. a. sa iiparistdt sdmd ''dhydhltaih tapati, so 
""dhruva ird ''^sld (deldyad iva. sa no ''Wdhvo* Hapat, a. sa devdn 
abravld nn md gdyate ^ti. kirn tatas sydd iti. priyarh vah pra- 
yaceheyatn, rndm iha driihete^ Hi. 6. tathe Hi, tarn udagdyan,* 
tarn etad atrd ^drnhan,'' tehhya^ ^riyam prdyaechat, sdi ^sd 
devdn dih ^rVi, «. tata etad drdhvas tapati. sa nd Wvdn atapat.* 
7. sa rsln abravld anu md gdyate Hi. kim tatas sydd iti, ^riyam 
vah prayaccheyam, mdm iha dnihete^ Hi, e. tathe Hi, tarn 
anvagdyan. tarn etad atrd ^drnhafi, tebhya^ ^riyam prdyaechat, 
sdi \yi rslndm grVi, 9, tata etad arvdii tapati, sa na tiryan^ 

and vasalkdra — thus having become the virdj they brought 
forth. They generated him who bums yonder. They ran apart — 

I. 55. 1. — [saying]: "Hath he originated from me (mad adhy 
abhut) ? Hath he originated from me ?" Therefore they say 
" honey-son " (madhupiitra). And therefore women do not eat 
honey, saying: " We perform this vow of sons." -i. Then this 
triplet rose up in consequence : this [earth] the gdyatrl ; the 
atmosphere the tristuhh / yonder [sky] the jagatl. That is its 
triplet. 3. He (yonder sun) burns on high, a sdman set above. 
He was unstable, as it were ; he twinkled, as it were. He did 
not bum upward. 4. He said to the gods: "Sing me the ?/c?^I- 
^A</." " What would be the result ?" " I would bestow fortune 
upon you. Make me firm here." 6. " Very well." They sang 
him the udg'itha. They thus made him firm there. He bestowed 
fortune upon them. That is that fortune of the gods. e. Hence 
he thus burns upwards. He did not burn hitherward. 7. He 
said to the sages (rsi) : " Sing, after me." " What would be the 
result of it ?" " 1 would bestow fortune upon you. Make me 
firm here." e. ** Very well." They sang after him. They thus 
made him firm there. He bestowed fortune upon them. That 
IB that fortune of the sages. 9. Hence he thus burns hitherward. 



54. ** ca. evam. ^^prdj-, " A. vyadfptdm ; B. bhyadrvdtdm ; C. vya- 
drpatdm (?). 

55. »A.B. -a. »B.C. iViam. »C. -ifc?-. * A,B. ddh- ; C, dh-. ^durhhete. 
*udagdt, ''B.C. -hat. ^tap-. * B.C, tiyyaihd. 



134 IL OerUh 

atapat, lo. sa (jandharvapsaraso ^bravld a mil gay ate '*ti. kith 
tat<is^° sydd itt, ^riyam vah prayacchtyaju, mfim iha drnfiete* '<i. 
n. tathe ^ti, tarn dgCiyan, tarn etad atrd ''drhhan, tehhyap friyam 
pray ace/tat, ml '.sa gandharvdpsarasdm ^rlh, la. tata etai 
tiryaJ'i}^ tapati i». tdnl vd etdni trlni sduma udg'itarn anugltam 
dgttam, tad yathe \lavi vayam. dgdyd"^ ^dgdydma etad udgUam," 
atha yad yathdgttam tad anng'ttaui, atha yat khh re Hi sdmnas 
tad dgltam. etdni hy eva trlni sdtnnah. o5, 

8aptada<^e *nuvdke txtiyah kfuiii4a1,i. saptadago *nuvdka8 samdptaJj. 

I. 56. I. dpo vd idam agre ma/uit satikim ami. sa urmir 
drmitn askandat? tato hiramnaydu kuksydn* samabhavatdm 
te eva^ rksdme,* a. 8e \i/am rg idam sdmd ^bhyaplavata.* tdm 
aprcchat kd tvam asl Hi. sd Wiam asmt Hy abrav'U, atha vd aham 
amo ^8im Hi, tad yat sd cd ^rna^ ca tat sdmnas sdmatvam. ». tdu 
vdi samhhavdve Hi, ne '*ty ahramt svasd vdi mama tvam, asi, 
anyatra mithu?u(m, icchasve Hi, a. sd pardplavata^ mitkufuun 
icchamdnd, sd. sanids sahasram saptatih paryaplavata. 5. tad 
esa ^lokas 

He did not burn crosswise, lo. He said to the Gandharvas and 
Apsarases: " Sing unto me." " What would be the result of it ?" 
"I would bestow fortune upon you. Make me firm here." 
II. "Very well." They sang unto him. They thus made him 
firm there. He bestowed fortune upon them. That is that for- 
tune of the Gandharvas and Apsarases. la. Hence he thus burns 
crosswise, is. Verily these are the three of the sdman [viz.J : 
what is sung as udg'Uha, what is sung after {annglta)^ woat is 
sung unto (dglta). As we here having sung unto sing the udg'Uhay 
that is what is sung as udgltha; and what is sung like the dgita, 
that is that which is sung after ; and anything of the sdman 

"that is sung], that is sung unto.* For there are just these three 

parts] of the sdman, 

I. 56. 1. This all was at first Ihe waters, a great flood. One 
wave mounted [the other] wave. Thence two golden wombs 
came into being, these two [viz.]: re and sdman. a. This same 
re floated unto that same sdman, = I. 53. 5. s. = I. 53. «. 

• 

4. She floated awav desiriufj intercourse. She floated around a 
thousand seventies of years. 5. licgarding this there is this 



55. '**A.B. /a. "A.B. tiryaiida. ^'A.B. dgayo; C.ngeyo. ^^-tham. 

56. ^-da, ^kugydu. ^ye.pa. ^rkkasd-. ^A,hyapl'. * A,B. papard-. 



Jdiminlya- UpanisiuJ-BmhmaTia. 135 

stri smdi 'ra ^gre sarhcaratV ^cehand* salile patim : 
samas sa/tasrani saptaCis tafo ''jCiyata pa^yata 
ill. «. asau va adityah pa^yalah.* esa eva tad^'' ajayata. etena 
hi pa^yati. «. sa ^vittnV^ nyaplarata. SfV' '^hrarm na rai tarn. 
tindami yena namhhai^eyam. tvayOi 'ra samhharCuii 7i. e. sii 
vai dridyiim tccha^re Vy ahraroi na rai mdi ^A'o \1yai}isya8i Ui. 
9d dviftyilm^* viitra^* nyaplavata. 9. [trtiyant^ icchasviii 're" 
^ty abratm no vava^^ ma^^ dve^' udyanisyatha iti, sa trCiydm^^ 
vittvii nyap/avcUa. so ^braiud^' aim rai mo ^dyamsyat/te^^ Vi. 
ift. sa yad ekayd ''gre samacadata^* tasmdd ekarce sdma. atha 
ydd dve apiisedhat tasmdd dvayor na kurvanti. atha yat iisr- 
bhis** saNiapddayat^^ tasmdd u tree sdma. ii. td abrav'U puui- 
dhram fia putd rdi sthe Ui, 56. 

a^t^da^ ^nuvdke prathamah khatj(fah. 

I. 57. 1. sd gdyatrl gdtJiayd '^punlta ndrd^ansyd^ tristub rdi- 
hhyd jagatL bhlmam bata^ malam apdvadhisate ^tt\ tasmdd 
bhlmaid dhiyo vd etdh. dhiyo vd hud malam apdvadhisate* Vi. 

^oka : " In the beginning the woman used to go seeking [her] lord 
in the flood, one thousand seventies of years ; thence the beau- 
teous one was bom.^ «. Yonder sun is the beauteous one (pa^- 
y€Ua)\ he was born then« for by him one sees {fya^yati). i. She, 
not having found [anyone], floated in. She said : " Verily I find no 
one with whom I might have intercourse. Let me liave inter- 
course with thee." «. "Then seek a second one,'' he said; "verily 
not alone wilt thou sustain me/' She, having found a second 
one, floated in. ». "Seek a third one/' lie said ; " verilv ve two 
will not sustain me." She, having found a tbinl one, floated in. 
He said : " Verily now you will sustain me." lo. Because he 
talked first with one, therefore the soman is in one re. And 
because he refused two, therefore they do not do (sing) it in 
two [rc''«]. And because he agrecnl with three, therefore the 
sdnian is in a triplet, ii. He said to them: "Cleanse yourselves, 
verilv vou are not clean." 

I. 57. 1. That gdyatrl cleansed itself with the gdfhd, the tris- 
tu^h with the ndrdpahs'i, the j^t(f<ttl with the rdibhu " Lo, they 
have struck away fearful (bhlma) defilement (malay There- 
fore these devices are terrible (F bhomda). " \'erily, these de- 
Tiees have struck away defilement." And therefore [they are] 
tanible {fbhunala). And therefore one should not eat [any- 



51 'C. samtt. *'ti. ^pa^yaJ^. ^tam. "pt^m. "A. om. sd 

m&apiavata. "C. -ydm. ^*A.B. odt. "C. vd. "C. leaves space ; A.B. 
dto. *'C.abr'. "B.C. -tycwt. ^•C.-pad-. "^ A.B. tisra-. ^^samp-. 

57. ' A.B. 'syot. ^A.ba. = C. -the. 



13f5 m Oeriel, 

tasmdd u hhlmalah. tasniad u gdyatdm* nd ''^tydt,^ malena hy 
ete jivanti. a. atha rk*" sdmd ^bravld bahn vdi khh ca kith ca 
pumdn^ carati, tvani anupunlsve Hi. aa urdhvaganend ^punUa. 
8. putdni ha vd asya sdmdni puta' rcah putdni yajunsi putam" 
andktam* putarh sarvam hhaimti ya evaih veda. a. tdbhydm 
diQO mUhundya parydnhan. tdm sambhavisyann^^ ahoayatd^^ 
^7)10 ^hani asmi sd tvarh ^a" tva?n asy amo ^ham iti, ». idm 
etad xihhayato warn'* ''tyaricyata^* hinkdrena pnrastdt stobhena 
madhyato nidhansno ^paristdt, ati tisro brdhittandyanls sadrfil 
ricyate ya emim veda, «. tayor ya^ sambhavator urdhvaQ puso** 
^dravat [prdnds] te. te prdnd evo '^Wdhvd adravan.** 7. so ^sdv 
ddityas sa esa eva ud agnir eva gl cayidramd eva tham, sdmdny 
eva ud rca eva g't yajfmsy eva tham ity adhidevatam. 9. athd 
^dhydtmam.*'' prdna eva ud vdg eva gl mana eva tham. sa eso 
^dhidevatam cd ^dhydtmam co hfgtthah.*" 9. sa ya evam etad 
adhidevatam cd ^dhydtmam co ^dgltham veddi Hena hd ^sya 
sarveno '^dgUani^^ bhavaty''^ etasmdd u eva sarvasmdd dvrgcyate 
ya evam vidvdhsam upavadati. 57. 

a^t^da^ ^nuvdke dvitiyaJi khandah. 

thing] of those singing ; for they live on defilement (mala). 
2. Then the re said to the sdman : " Verily, much does a man 
pratice of this sort and of that. Cleanse thyself also." He 
cleansed himself with the upper series (?). s. = I. 51. \. 4. They 
enclosed the quarters for their intercourse. When he was about 
to have intercourse with her, he called out : " I am he, thou art 
she; thou art she, 1 am he." 6. With speech he thus exceeded 
her on both sides, with the hlnkdra in front, with the stobha in the 
middle, with the nidhana in the rear. Three similar women of 
the Brahman caste exceeds he who knows thus. 6. The vital blast 
which when they had intercourse ran upward, that is the breaths. 
These breaths ran upward. 7. Yonder sun, that same is ud^ Agni 
is gly the moon is tham. The sdmans are ud, the rc^s are gl^ the 
yajuses are tham. So with regard to the divinities, e. Now 
with regard to the self. Breath is ud^ speech is g7, mind is tham. 
That is this udg'itha with regard both to the divinities and to 
the self. 9. He who thus knows the udg'Uha with regard both 
to the divinities and to the self, verily his udgltha is sung by 
this all ; and he is cut off from this all who speaks ill of one who 
knows thus. 



57. *'id. *A. 'gnl-. ''A.B. rkka, '-tani. *'A. -ta. "A. nUk-. 
^^'syany. "A. avacayata ; B.C. ahvayanta. '*A.B. sfwia, ^"'C. -cd. 
^* A..B. tyarueyate. '*A.B. eft-. '«A.B. rf?a-. " A. 'c?r7/id-. ^^C.glth-. 
^»C. -gith-. *^A. bhavatye*ti; B. bhavanti. 



Jdiminvyor Upwiiisdd'Brdhmana, 137 

I. 58. 1. tad yad idam dhuh ka udagdslr iti Tea etam ddityam 
agasTtr^ iti ha vd etat prcchanti* a. etaih ha vd etam trayyd* 
vidyayd gdyanti. yathd vlndgdthino* gdpayeyur evam. s. sa 
esa hradali^ kdnidndm purno yan nianah. tasydi ^sd kulyd* 
ycuT vdk,' 4. tad yathd* vd apo^^ hraddt kulyayo ^pardm upa- 
nayanty^^ evam evdi Uan manaso ^dhi vdco ^dgdtd yajatndnam^* 
yasya kdindn prayacchati. 5. sa ya udgdtdram daksindbhir^* 
drddhayatV* tarn sd kulyo* ^padhdvati. ya u enaih nd ^Vddhayati 
sa w tdm apihanti. «. atha vd atah^* pratti^^* cdi 'v</ pratigra- 
/«ip ca. tad dhumam^^ iti vdi pradlyate. tad vdcd yajamdndya 
j)rad€ya7n majiasd ^Hmane.^' tathd ha sarvam na prayacchati. 

7. ta<Jl yad idam sambhavato veto ^sicyata^* tad a^ayat^^ yathd 
hir<inyam avikrtairC^ Uldyad evam, 8. tasya sarve devd mama- 
tvlna dsa?i mam,a mame ^ti, te ^bruvan vi ^dam karavdmaha iti. 
te ^bruvan chreyo*^ vd ida/m asmat, dtmahhir evdi '*nad vikaravd- 
fnahd iti, 9. tad dtmabhir eva vyaknrvata, tesdm vdyur eva 
hinkdra dsd ^gnih prastdva indra ddis somabrhaspatt^^ udgltho 
*'^vinau pratihdro vi^ve devd upadravah prajdpatir eva nidha- 

1, 58. I. When they say here : " As who hast thou sung the 
lidglthaT'* they ask this: "As who hast thou sung this sun?" 
a. Verily they sing it with the threefold knowledge, just as 
lute-players might play. «. Mind is this pool full of desires. 
Speech is the stream of it. 4. As they lead the water from a 
lake nearer by means of a stream, just so the udgdtar [leads] 
that from the mind by means of speech unto the sacrificer whose 
wishes he fulfils, t. Whoso by sacrificial gifts conciliates the 
ndgdtar^ unto him this stream runs ; and whoso does not con- 
ciliate him, he drives this [stream] away. 6. Now henceforth 
[about] giving and receiving. [A gift] is given [with the 
words] : " This is smoke." Thus it should be given to the sacri- 
ficer with speech, with the mind to one^s self. Thus one does 
not bestow all. 7. That seed which was shed when they had 
intercourse, that lay there, just like undefiled sparkling gold. 

8. Of it all the gods were desirous to be possessors [saying] : " It 
is mine, it is mine." They said: "I^t us divide it among our- 
selves." They said: "Verily, it is superior to us. Let us divide 
it by our selves." 9. They divided it by their selves. Of them 
Vayu was the hinkdra^ Agni the prastdva, Indra the ddi, Soma 
and Brhaspati the udgUha, the two A9vins the pratihara, all the 

68. *A.B. -w. * A,B, pracchaimy. 'A.B. n^yya, *C, -gdyino; all 

gdyoif-. *C. hrd', «A.B. ArtW-. 'C. yat, »wU. ^ -tra, '"ado. »A. 

-yaftny; B. -yante; C. -yaniy, "-nd. ^^ dakfiiy}bhi, ^* rddh-, '*B.C. 

adkaJ^, ^*pratig, "A.B. d^ft-. "df-. '^Csidhy-, ^Cdag-, «>api-; 

A. apUftaih. «" yd, *» A.B. somdbr-i^ 

VOL. xvx. 19 



138 B. Oertef, 

fiam, 10. etii vdi sarvd devatd eta hiranyam,^* asya sarvdbhir 
devatdbhis stutam hhavati ya evaih veda. etdbhya u eva sa sarvd- 
bhyo devafdbhya. dvr^cyate ya evarh vidvdmam ujmvadati. 58. 

a^tddage *nuvdke tftiyafi khan^ff,. 

I. 59. I. atha ha brahmadattag cdikitdneyah kurum^ jagdmd 
^bhipratdrinarh* kdksasenim. sa hd ^smdi madhuparkaih yaydca, 
a. atha hd ^sya vdi prapadya^ purohito ^nte nhamda pdunakah. 
tarn hd ^nd?nantrya* madhuparkam papdu, s. tarn ho ^vdca 
kim vidvdn no ddlbhyd '^ndinantrya madhuparkam pibasi ^ti, 
sdmavdiryam* prapadye Hi ho ^vdca, 4. ta?h ha tatrdi* 'wa 
papraccha yad vdydu fad vetthdS iti, hinkdro vd asya sa Hi, 
5. yad ayndu tad vetthdS UL prastdvo vd asya sa iti. «. yad 
ifidre tad vetthdS iti. ddir vd asya sa iti. i. yat soviabrhaspa- 
tyos' tad vetthdS iti. udgUho vd asya sa iti. %. yad apvinos tad 
vetthdS iti. pratihdro vd asya sa iti. 9. yad vipvesu d^vesu^ tad 
vetthdS* iti. upadravo vd asya sa iti, lo. yat prajdpatdu tad 
vetthdS iti. nidhanarh vd asya tad iti ho hn'tca. drseyam vd asya tad 

gods the upadrava, Prajapati the nidhana. 10. Verily these 
are all the divinities; these are gold. Praised by all divini- 
ties it is of him who knows thus ; and from all divinities he is 
cut off who speaks ill of one who knows thus. 

L 59. 1. Now Brahmadatta Caikitaneya went to the Kuru 
Abhipratarin Kaksaseni. He (A.) offered him a honey-potion 
(madhiiparka). i. Now his purohita ^aunaka, stepping forth, 
sat down near by. He (B.) drank the honey -potion without 
addressing him ((}.). s. He \C}.) said to him (B.): "As know- 
ing what, O Dalbhya, dost thou drink the honey-potion without 
addressing [me] ?" " Having recourse to that which belongs to 
the strength of the sdman (?)," he (B.) said. 4. He {().) asked 
him (B.) just there: " Dost thou know that which is in Vayu?" 
" Verily, the hinkdra of it." s. " Dost thou know that which 
is in Agni ?" " Verily, the prastdva of it." «. " Dost thou 
know that which is in Indra ?" " Verily, the ddi of it." 7. " Dost 
thou know that which is in Soma and Brhaspati ?" " Verily, the 
udgltha of it." 8. " Dost thou know that which is in the two 
Ayvins ?" " Verily, the pratihdra of it." 9. Dost thou know 
that which is in all the gods ?" " Verily, the upadrava of it." 
10. '* Dost thou know that which is in Prajapati ?" " Verily, the 



68. "fctra^y. 

59. *B. Artl-; A. drain. 'C. ends here. *-ya^. *A. 'mantraJ}.. ^sA- 
ma miVj^d, the r cancelled. *A.tata, 'A.B sonidb-. ' B. repeats d-. 
• A. om. 



Jaiminlyor Upanisad-Brahmaifa. 139 

handhulti v& tur/a" se 'ti. ii. »a ho ^vdca nomas te 'stu bhagavo 
vidvan ap<i madhuparkam iti. u. atfut he HaroA papraccha 
kimdevatyam" gAmaoairyam" jwapadye 'ti. yaddevatydsu stv- 
rala Hi ho ''viica taddeeatyavi iti. is. tad etat sadhv ena pra- 
tyNktam." vyftptir vij aayfi! 'se 'ti ho 'odea briiky eve 'ft. me 
'dam le namo 'karme *ti ho 'vOca. nxii 'va no 'lijtrdksir iti. 
I*, an ho 'oacd 'praksi/am viiva tod devtitdm apraksyam viiva 
lea devatiiyai devatah. rdydeoatyam suma vdco mano devatd 
mananoh papavah pa^iinam oxadhaya ciadhlndm dpah. tad etad 
adbAyo" jdtam sumd 'psu prntistMtam iti. 59. 
aftSda^e 'nuviSke eaturthalj khaif^lt. 

I. 60. I, devaaurti aspardhanta. te devd manaso 'dagdyan.' 
tad €sdm atttrd abhidrutya' pdpmana saniattjan.' tatmdd bahit 
kiih ca kim ca manasd dhydyatu punyam cdi 'nena <ihyayati 
pdpam ca. a. te vdco 'dagdyan. tiim tathdi 'v<V 'kurvan.' ta- 
tmdd bahii kiiii ca kim ca vdcd vadati. satyam' cdi' 'nayd 

tiidfirina of it," lie said ; "that of it beloiigs to the sages (rxi); 
that is it« connection." u. He (^,) said : "Homage be to thee, 
reverend sir; with knowledge hast thou driink the honey -potion," 
». Then the other one (A.) asked : " What divinities lias that 
which belongs to the strength of the adman (?) to whicli thou 
hast recourse T' " What divinities the [verses] have with which 
the praise (stoira) is sung," he (B.) said, " those it has as divinities." 
I*. "That was well answered; that is its accomplishment (?)," 
he said; "just talk." "Don't! We have done thee this honor," 
he said ; " do not ask us too much." it. He said : " 1 should 
have asked thee about the divinity, I should have asked 
thoe about the divinities of the divinity. The sdman has speech 
as its divinity ; mind is the divinity of speech, the domestic 
animals [are the divinity] of mind, the herbs [are the divinity] 
of the domestic animals, the waters [are the divinity] of the 
herbs. That same is the adman born from the waters, standing 
firm in the waters." 

I. 00. I. The gods and the Asiiras contended. The gods sang 
the udg'Uha with the mind. The Asuras, running against this 
[mind] of them, mixed it with evil. Therefore with the mind 
one tbink.x many a thing of one kind and another ; both [what is] 
good one thinks with it and [wha^ is] evil. 3. They sang the 
ndgitha with speech. That [speech] they treated in just the 



1 



140 E. Oertd, 

vadaty anrtam ca, s. te caksuso ''dag ay an. tat tathdi 'va '^r- 
van, tasmdd hahu kim ca kim ca caksiAsd papycUi, darpaniyam 
cat ^nena pa^yaty adar^anlyarh ca, a, te grotreno ^dagdyan, 
tat tathdi ^vd ^kurvafi. tasmdd bahu kim ca kim* ca* protrena 
grnoti, Qravamyam cdi ^nena prnoty a^ravanlyam ca, 5. te 
^pdneno ^ day ay an. tarn tathdi '«« '^kurvan. tasmdd bahu kim ca 
kim cd ^pdnena jighrati. surabhi cdi ^nena jighrati durgandhi 
ca. 6. te prdmno '^dagdyan* athd ^surd ddravans tathd karis- 
ydma iti manyamdndh. 7. sa yathd ^pmdnam rtvd lostho** vi- 
dhvansetdi ^vam evd ^surd vyadhvansanta." sa eso ^^md ^^kha- 
nam^^ yat prdnah. s. sa yathd ^^mdnam dkhanam** rtvd lostho^* 
vidhvansata evam eva sa vidhvansate ya evarh vidvdnsam upa- 
vadati. 60. 
a^tddage 'nuvdke paflcamah kfiaiyjiafy. aftdduQO *nuvdkas samdptaJi. 

II. 1. 1. devdndm vdi sad udgdtdra dsan vdk ca manap ca cak- 
su^ ca p'otram cd ^pdnaQ ca prdna^ ca. a. te ^dhriyanta teno 
^dgdtrd dlksdmahdi yend ^pahatya mrtyum apahatya pdpmdnam 

same way. Therefore with speech one speaks many a thing of 
this kind and of that ; both [what is] true one speaks with it and 

[what is] untrue, a. They san^ the udgUha with sight. That 
sight] they treated in just the same manner. Therefore with 
sight one sees many a thing of this kind and of that ; both 
[what is] seemly one sees with it and [what is] unseemly. 
4. They sang the udg'Uha with hearing. That [hearing] they 
treated in just the same manner. Therefore with hearing one 
hears many a thing of this kind and of that ; both [what is] 
worth hearing one nears with it and [what is] not worth hear- 
ing. 6. They sang the udgUha with exhalation. That [exhala- 
tion] they treated in just the same manner. Therefore with 
exhalation one smells many a thing of this kind and of that ; 
both what is fragrant one smells with it and what is of bad odor. 
6. They sang the udg'Uha with breath. Then the Asuras ran up, 
thinking : *' We will treat it in the same manner." 7. As a clod 
of earth colliding with a stone would break to pieces, even so the 
Asuras broke to pieces. Breath is this stone as a target, s. As 
a clod of earth, colliding with a stone as a target, breaks to 
pieces, even so he breaks to pieces who speaks ill of one who 
knows thus. 

II. 1. I. Of the gods there were six udgdtars: viz., speech and 
mind and sight and hearing and exhalation and breath, s. They 
resolved : *^Let us consecrate ourselves with that udgdtar by 

■ 60. "A. cm. ^B. -gat. >o-rfo. " A. «afe; B. -jawW. ^^-noih. »B. 
diiem. 



Jmminvya- Upam>is(id-Brdhm<x/na. 141 

svargam lokam iydme ^ti. 8. te 'bruvan vdco ^dgdtrd diksdmahd 
Hi, te vdco ^dgdtrd ^dUcsanta. sa yad eva vdcd vadati tad dtmana 
dgdyad atha ya itare kdmds tan devebhyah, 4. tdrn^ pdpmd 
^nvasrfyata. sa* yad eva vdcd pdpam vadati sa eva sa pdpmd, 
». te ^bruvan na vdi no ^yam mrtywiK na pdprndnam atyavdksU, 
nianaso ^dgdtrd diksdmahd iti, 6. te manaao ^dydtrd \liksanta, 
sa yad eva mafiasd dhydyati tad dtmana dgdyad atha ya itare 
kdmds tan devebhyah, 7. tat pdpmd ^nvasrjyata, sa yad eva ma- 
nasd pdpam dhydyati sa eva sa pdpm.d, s. te ^bruvan* no nvdva^ 
no *yam mrtyum* na pdpmdnam atyavdkslt,* caksuso ^dgdtrd 
diksdmahd iti, «. te caksuso ^dgdtrd ^dlksanta, sa yad eva cak- 
susd papyati tad dtmana'' dgdyad atha ya itare kdmds tdn deve- 
bhyah, 10. tat pd2ymd ^nvasrjyata, sa yad eva caksusd pdpam. 
pa^yati \sa eva sa pdpmd], 11. te ^bruvan no nvdva no ^yam 
mrtyum na pdpmdnam atyavdkslt, ^rotreno ^dgdtrd diksdmahd 
iti. 12. te protreno ^dgdtrd ^diksanta, sa yad eva protrena prnoti 
tad dtmana dgdyad atha ya itare kdmds tdn devebhyah, is. tat 

whom, having smitten away death, having smitten away evil, 
we may go to the heavenly world." 3. They said : " Let us con- 
secrate ourselves with speech as udgdtarP They consecrated 
themselves with speech as udgdtar. What one speaks with 
speech, that it sang to itself; and what the other desires are, those 
[it sang] to the gods. 4. Evil was created after it. What evil 
thing one speaks with speech, that is that evil. 5. They said : 
** Verily, this one hath not carried us beyond death, nor beyond 
evil. Let us consecrate ourselves with the mind as udgdtar?'* 
•. They consecrated themselves with the mind as udgdtar. What 
one thinks with the mind, that it sang to itself; and what the 
other desires are, those [it sang] to the gods. 7. Evil was created 
after it. What evil thing one thinks with the mind, that is that 
evil. 8. They said : " Verily, this one hath not carried us be- 
yond death, nor beyond evil. Let us consecrate ourselves with 
sight as udgdtar?'* 9. They consecrated themselves with sight as 
udgdtar. What one sees with sight, that it sang to itself; and 
what the other desires are, those [it sang] to the gods. 10. Evil 
was created after it. What evil thing one sees with sight [that 
is that evil]. 11. They said: "Verily, this one hath not carried 
OB beyond death, nor beyond evil. Let us consecrate ourselves 
with hearing as udgdtar,^^ la. They consecrated themselves with 
hearing as udgdtar. What one hears with hearing, that it sang 
to itself ; and what the other desires are, those [it sang] to the 
gods. It. Evil was created after it. What evil thing one hears 

1. ' -ma, * insert ya. * -iyu, * A. bravtn, • nva, • avatyav-. ' B. 




142 H. Oertd, 

pdpmd ^nva^rjyata. sa yad eva protrena pdparh grnoti sa eva m 
pdpmd, 14. te ^bruvan no nvdva no ^yani mrtyum napdpmdnam 
atyavdkslt. apdneno ^dgdtrd diksdmahd iti. id. te ^pdneno ^dgcUrd 
^dlksanta. sa yad evd "^pdnend ^pdniti tad dtmana dgdyad aiha 
ya itare kdnids tan devebhya/i. i6. tani pdpmd ^nva-srjyaia. sa 
yad evd ^pdjiena papam gandham apdniti sa eva sa pdpmd. 
17. te ^bruvan no nvdva no ^yam mrtyum na pdpmdnam atyavd- 
kslt, prdneno \lgdtrd diksdmahd iti. is. te prdneno ^dgdtrd 
^d'lksanta. sa yad eva prdnena prdtiiti tad dtmana dgdyad atha 
ya itare kdmds Ida devebhyah. i9. tarn pdpmd fid ^nvasrjyata. 
na hy etena prdnena pdparh vadati na pdparh dhydyati na 
pdpam papyati na pdparh prnoti na pdparh gandham apdniti.* 
ao. tend ^pahatya mrtyum apahatya pdpmdnarh svargam lokam 
dyan. apahatya hdi 'va fnrtyum apahatya pdpmdnarh svargam 
lokam eti ya evam veda. 61. 

prathame *nuvdke prathamah khan^ah. 

II. 2. 1. sd yd sd vdg dslt so ^gnir abhavat. a. atha yat tan 
mana dslt sa candramd abhavat. s. atha yat tac caksur dsU sa 
ddityo ^bhavat. a. atha yat tac chrotram dsU td imd dipo ^bha- 

with hearing, that is that evil. u. They said : " Verilv, this one 
hath not carried us beyond death, nor beyond evil, tet us con- 
secrate ourselves with exhalation as udgdtar.'*'* i5. They conse- 
crated themselves with exhalation as udgdtar. What one exhales 
with exhalation, that it sang to itself; and what the other desires 
are, those [it sang] to the gods. le. Evil was created after it. 
What evil odor one exhales with exhalation, that is that evil. 
17. They said : " Verily, this one hath not carried us beyond 
death, nor beyond evil. Let us consecrate ourselves with breath 
as udgdtar^'' is. They consecrated themselves with breath as 
udgdtar. What one breathes with breath, that it sang to itself; 
and what the other desires are, those [it sangj to the gods. 
19. No evil was created after that. For with this breath one 
speaks no evil thing, thinks no evil thing, sees no evil thing, 
hears no evil thing, exhales no evil odor. ao. By it having smit- 
ten away death, having smitten away evil, they went to the 
heavenly world. Having smitten away death, having smitten 
away evil, he who knows thus goes to the heavenly world. 

II. 2. I. What this speech was, that became Agni. a. And 
what this mind was, that became the moon. t. And what this 
sight was, that became the sun. 4. And what this hearing was, that 

1. ^apariti. 



> 



Jdiminiyor Upa/nisad-Brdhmcma. 143 

van, td u eva vi^ve devdh. a. atha yas so ^pdna dsit aa hrhaspa- 
tir abhavat, yad asydi vdco hrhatydi patis tasmdd hrhaspatih. 
«. atha yas sa prdna ds'U sa prajdpatir abhavat. sa esa jt>w^r7 
jyrajdvdn udgUho yah^ prdnah, tasya svara eva prajdh. jyrajd- 
vdn b/iavati yn evarh veda. 7. tarn hdi Ham eke pratyaksam eva 
gdyanti prdndS prdndS prdndS hum hhd ova iti, 8. tad u ho 
^vdca ^dtydyanis tata etam arhati pratyaksam gdtum. yad vdva 
vdcd karoti tad etad evd ^sya krtam bhavatl Hi, 9, atha vd ata^ 
rksdmnor eca prajdtih, sa yad dhinkaroty ahhy eva tena kran- 
dati,* atha yat prastduty di* 'va tena plavate, atha yad ddim 
ddatte reta eva tena sincati, atha yad udgdyati reta eva tena 
siktam samhhdvayatV atha yat praiiharati reta eva tena sam- 
hhntam pravardhayati, atha yad upadravati reta eva tena pra- 
vrddharh vikaroti, atha yan nidhanam upditi reta eva tena 
vikrtam prajanayati, sdi ^sa rksdmnoh^ prajdtih, lo. sa ya 
evam etdm rksdmnoh prajdtim veda pra hdi ^nam rksdma?vi 
janayatah, 62, 

prathame *nuvdke dvitiyah khan^dl),, prathamo *nuvdka8 samdptah, 

became these quarters ; and these are all the gods. 6. And what 
this exhalation was, that became Brhaspati. Because he is the 
husband (lord, pati) of this great (hrhatl) speech, therefore he is 
fcalled] Brhaspati. «. And what this breath was, that became 
PrajapatL That same, viz. breath, is rich in sons, rich in off- 
spring, the udgltha. Of it tone is the offspring. Rich in off- 
spring becomes he who knows thus. 7. Some sing that [breath] 
openly : " Breath, breath, breath, hum, bhd, ova,'*'* s. And (}\i' 
tyayani said regarding this : " Therefore it is possible to sing it 
directly. Verily, what he performs with speech, that same is 
performed of him." ». Now [about] the generation of the re 
and the sdman. In that he utters the hinkdra, thereby he 
cries lo [her]. In that he utters the prastdva, thereby he 
mounts. In that he utters the ddi, thereby he emits seed. In 
that he utters the udg'Uha, thereby he causes the emitted seed 
to come to life. In that he utters the pratihdra, thereby he 
causes the seed, come to life, to grow forth. In that he utters 
the upadrava, he develops the seed, having grown forth. In that 
be enters upon the nidhana, thereby he causes the seed, being un- 
folded, to be born forth. That is the generation of the re and 
of the sdman, lo. He who thus knows this generation of the re 
aod of the sdman, him the re and the sdman propagate. 

2, *A. yat. *A. atam; B. atha. 'B. kurvati, *e, *-6Mv-; A. 
om. yati. atha yat praiiharati, * A. 8dmnolf> ; B. ks&mnofy. 



144 B. Oertel, 



II. 3. I. esa eve ^dam agra d&ld ya^ esa tapati, sa esa sarvesdm 
bhutdnam tejo hara indriyarh vtryam dddyo ^Wdhva udakrdmat. 

8. 80 ^kdmayatdi ^kam evd ^ksaram svddu mrdu^ devdndm va- 
name* '^t.* s. sa tapo Hapyata, sa tapas taptvdi ^kam evd* 
^ksaram abhavaf. a, tarn devdf ca rsaya^ co ^pasamdipsan, 
athdi ^80 ^surdn bhutahano ^8TJatdi Haaya pdpmano ^nanvaga- 
mdya, 5. tarn vdco ^pasamdipaan, te vdcam aamdrohan. tesdrh 
vdca7n paryddatta, tctsmdt paryddattd vdk. satyam ca hy 
enayd vadaty anrtam ca, «. tarn manaso ^pa^amdipaan, te ma- 
naa aanidrohan. tesdm manah paryddatta, tasmdt paryddattam 
manas. punyam ca hy enena dhydyati pdpam ca, 7. tarn 
caksuso ^paaamdipaan, te caksus aamdrohan, teadrh caksuh par- 
yddatta. taamdt 2^(^^dtta7h^ caksuh, dar^nlyarh ca hy enena 
pa^yaty adar^anlyam ca, s". tarn ^otreno ^pasamdipaan, te 
protram aamdrohan, tesdm grotram paryddatta, tasmdt parydi- 
tarn* Qrotram, gravanlyam cdi ^nena prnoty apravamyam ca, 

9. ta7n apdneno ^pasamdipsan. te ^jmnam aamdrohan, tesdm 
apdnam paryddatta. taamdt parydtto ^pdnah, aurabhi ca hy 

IT. 3. I. This [universe] in the beginning was he who bams 
here. This same, taking tiie splendor, the grasp, the vitality, the 
virility of all beings, went upward, a. He desired : " May we 
win the one sweet soft syllable of the gods." 8. He performed 
penance. He having performed penance became the one syllable. 
4. That gods and sages desired together to obtain. Then he 
created creature-slaying Asuras, in order to prevent evil from 
going after. 5. That they desired together to obtain by speech. 
They ascended speech together. He took possession of their 
speech. Therefore speech is taken possession of ; for [what is] 
true one speaks with it and [what is] untrue. «. That they 
desired together to obtain by mind. They ascended mind to- 
gether. He took possession of their mind. Therefore mind is 
taken possession of ; for [what is] good one thinks with it and 

tvhat is] evil. 7. That tney desired together to obtain by sight, 
hey ascended sight together. He took possession of their 
sight. Therefore sight is taken possession of ; for [what is] 
seemly one sees with it and [what is] unseemly. «. That they 
desired together to obtain by hearing. They ascended hearing 
together. He took possession of their hearing. Therefore hear- 
ing is taken possession of. For [what is] worth hearing one 
hears with it and [what is] not worth hearing. 9. That they 
desired together to obtain by exhalation. They ascended exhala- 
tion together. He took possession of their exhalation. There- 

8. *B. sa. *'9d. ^madu, *om. ^eti. ^divd. ^repeat from above 
xtdevandm, ^ paryydttam. * A. parydtta ; B. parydptarh. 



Jaitninlya- Vpanisad-Brdhmana. 145 

enena jighrcUi durgandhi ca. lo. tarn prdneno '^pasamdipsan. 
tarn prdneno ^pasamdpnuvan, n. athd ^surd bhutahana ddra- 
van mohaf/isydma iti manyamdndh. is. sa yathd ^pndnam 
rtvd lostho^' vidhvansetdi ^vam evd ''surd vyadhvansanta, sa eso 
*pmd ^khano yat prdnah, \z. sa yathd ^pndnahi dkhanam rtvd 
loxtho^* vidhvansata evam eva sa vidhvansate ya evam vidvdnsam 
upavadati, 63. 

dvitiye *nuvdke prathamah khandal}, 

IL 4. 1. sa esa vafi diptdgra tedgUho yat jfrdnuh.^ esa hi ^darh 
sarvam vape kurute. a. va^ bhavati ^.v/pe" so an kurute ya evam 
vedcL asya hy asdv agre dtpyateS amusya^ vd sah.* a. tarn hdi 
''tain udg'Uharh pdtydyanir dcaste va^l dijttdgra itL diptdgra ha 
vd asya klrtir bhavati ya evam veda. 4. dbhruir iti kdrirdda- 
yah, prdnam vd anu prajdh pa^ava dbhavanti. sa ya evam 
etam dbhutir^ ity upd-sta di ^va prdnena prajayd j^apibhir bha- 
vati, 6, sambhutir* iti sdtyayajfiayah. jtrdnam vd anu prajdh 
papavas sambhavanti, sa ya evam etam sambhutir ity updste 
sam e[ya] prdnena i>r(Jj<^y(i pa^ubhir bhavati, «. prabhutir iti 
^iUindh.* jyrdnarh vd anu prajdh pagavah prabhavanti, sa 

fore exhalation is taken possession of ; for fragrance one smells 
with it and bad odor. lO. That they desired together to obtain 
by breath. That they obtained together by breath, n. Then 
the creature-slaying Asuras ran unto [themj, thinking : " We 
will confound [them]." la. = I. 60. 8., is. = L 60. 9. 

IL 4. I. That same, viz. breath, is the controling flame-pointed 
udgitha. For it gets this all into control, a. He becomes con- 
troling, he gets his people into control who knows thus ; for 
does yonder one flame at this one's point or this one at yonder 
one's? ». That same udgxtha ^atyayani . calls 'the controling 
one, the flame-pointed one.' Verily flame-pointed becomes his 
fame who knows thus. 4. The Kfirirudis [call it] 'existence' 
(abhiiti). Verily, along with breath offspring and domestic 
animals exist. Whoso thus worships it as existence, with breath, 
with offspring, with domestic animals he exists. 5. The Satyaya- 
jfiis [call it] 'origination' (sambhuti). Verily, along with breath 
offspring and domestic animals originate. Whoso thus worships 
it as origination, with breath, with offspring, with domestic 
animals he originates, e. The ^ailanas [call it] 'prevalence' (pra- 
hhM), Verily, along with breath offspring and domestic aui- 

9^" ^ — — . ' ■" " ' ~ *" "" """' * 

«. ^lo9tO' 

4. 1 insert e^A tahl'daihsarvarh vagekunite, * -^. ''mu^-. ^atafy. 

VOL. XVI. 20 



146 //. Oertel, 

ya evani etam prahhntir ity update prdi ^va prdnena* prajayd 
papubhir hhavati, 7. bhutir* iti bhdUabinah^^ prdnam vd anu 
prajdh pa^avo bhavanti, sa ya evam etam bhutir Uy update bhii- 
vaty eva prdnenn prajayd papubhlh, a. aparodho* ^naparuddha 
iti pdrsnap f^dilanah. em hy anyam aparunaddhV* ndi Ham 
anya/i. esa ha^^ vd \'iya dvimntam^^ bhrdtrvyam aparunaddhi 
ya eKam veda, 64^ 

dvitiye ^numke dvitiyafy kharj^^' 

II. 5. 1. ekavlra^ ity* drtmeyah,* eko hy evdi '«o viro yat prdnah, 
d hd ^sydi ^ko vlro vlryavdii jdyate ya evam veda. «. ekaputra 
iti cdikitdneyah, eko* hy evdi 'sa putro yat prdnah. 8. sa u eva 
dviputra iti, dvdu hi prdndpdndu, 4. sa u eva triputra* iti. 
trayo hi prdno ^pdno vydnah. 5. sa u eva catusputra iti. cat- 
vdro hi prdno ^pdno vydnas samdnah. «. sa u eva paficaputra 
iti. paiica hi jmrno^ ^pdno vydnas samdno ^vdnah. 7. sa u eva 
satputra iti. sad dhV prdno ^pdno vydnas samdno ^vdna nddnah. 
8. sa u eva sajftajfutra iti. sapta hi ^me pirsanydh jiyrdndh. 9. sa 

mals prevail. Whoso thus worships it as prevalence, with breath, 

with offspring, with domestic animals he prevails. 7. The Bhfil- 

labins [call it] * coming into being' {bhiUi), Verily, along with 

breath offspring and domestic animals come into being. Whoso 

thus worships it as coming into being, with breath, with offspring, 

with d(»mestic animals he comes into being, a. Parana ^ailana 

calls it] *the unexcluded exclusion.' For it excludes another, 

but] another [does] not [exclude] it. Verily, it excludes the hate- 

'ul rival of him who knows thus. 

II. 5. 1. Aruneya [calls it] * sole hero.' For that, viz. breath, 
is sole hero. Of him a sole hero, rich in heroism, is born who 
knows thus. a. 9J*i^^t^"®y* [calls it] * having one son.' For that, 
viz. breath, is the only son. a. It is also having two sons. For 
breath and exhalation are two. 4. It is also having three sons. 
For breath, exhalation, and vydna are three. «. It is also having 
four sons. For breath, exhalation, vydna^ [and] samdna are 
four. 6. It is also having five sons. For breatn, exhalation, 
vydna, samdna, [and] avdna are five. 7. It is also having six 
sons. For breath, exhalation, vydna, samdna, avdna, [and] 
tiddna are six. a. It is also having seven sons. For these 
breaths in the head are seven, o. It is also having nine sons. 

4. ' B. inserts pajayd. « A. hhur. • avaroddhd. *® A. -tiadvi. " A, 
se. " 'ta. " -Wn-. 

5. * -ru. * ty. ^ 'lyaya ; for eko all MSS. ekd. * A. -«. * A. dvip-. 
* B. -nd. ' abhi. 



Jdimmlya' Upanisa<l'Brdhmana. 147 

u eva navaptUra iti, sapta hi prsanydh^ prdnd dvdv avdficdu, 

la. sa u eva dapaputra iti, sapta pirsanyah jmmd dvdv avdilcdu 

tidhhydm dapamah, ii. sa u eva bahuputra* iti. etasya hi hjam^"^ 

sarvdh prajdh. la. etam ha sma vdi tad udg'Uham vidvdmah 

pfirve brdhtnandh kdmdgdyina^^ dhuh kati te piitrdn dgdsydma 

iti. 65. 

dvitiye *nuvd.ke tftiyafy khatu^dfy, 

II. 6. 1. sa yadi hruydd ekam} ma dgdye Hi 2yrdna udgltha iti 
vidvdn ekam manasd dhydyet. eko hi prdnaJi. eko ha ^syd ^Ifd- 
yate. «. sa yadi bruydd dvdu ma dgdye Hi jyrdna udgltha ity 
eva vidvdn dvdu manasd dhydyet. dvdu^ hi prdndpdndu* dvdu^ 
hdi ^vd ^syd ^^jdyete.* a. sa yadi hruydt trin ma^ dgdye Hi prdna 
udgltha ity eva vidvdns trln manasd dhydyet. trayo hi prdno 
^pdno vydnah. trayo hdi 'va ^syd ^'^jdyante. 4. sa^ yadi Imiydc 
caturo ma dgdye Hi prdna udgltha ity eva vidvdnp caturo ma- 
nasd dhydyet. catvdro hi prdno 'pdno vydnas* samdnah. catvdro 
hdi ^vd ^syd ^^jdyante. 5. sa yadi hruydt 2^ctflea ma dgdye Hi 
prdna itdgUha ity eva vidvdn paUca manasd dhydyet. panca hi 

For there are seven breaths in the head [and] two downward ones. 
10. It is also having ten sons. For there are seven breaths in the 
heady two downward ones, [and] the tenth in the navel, ii. It is 
also having many sons. For this [earth] is all its offspring. 
19. Yerily, Knowing thus this udgltha^ the Brahmans of old when 
they sang a wish [to any one] used to say : " How many sons 
shall we sing unto thee ?" 

IL 6. I. If he should say : " Sing one unto me," knowing that 
breath is the udgltha^ he should think one with his mind. For 
breath is one. Truly, one is born unto him. i. If he should 
say : " Sing two unto me," knowing that breath is the udgltha^ 
he should think two with his mind. For breath and exhalation 
are two. Truly, two are born unto him. a. If he should say : 
" Sing three unto me," knowing that breath is the udgltha, he 
should think three with his mind. For breath, exhalation, [and] 
vydna are three. Truly, three are born unto him. 4. if he 
should say : " Sing four unto me," knowing that breath is the 
udgltha, he should think four with his mind. For breath, exhala- 
Uon, vydna, [and] samdna are four. Truly, four are born unto him. 
•. If he should say : " Sing five unto me," knowing that breath 
it the udgltha, he should think five with his mind. For breath, 



6. *A.-dife. 'B. vasuputra. "A. yam; B. dayam. " -gdtna. 
6. 'A. aik'. *B. traffo. 'B. inaerta 'vydnaJjf^. *B. inserts sa Mi 
*9yd ^jdyante. ^ mana, * A. om. sa yadi vyanas. 



^vd 



148 H. Oertel, 

prdno ^pdno vydnas samdno ^vdnah, paflca hdi 'v5 ^syd ^jdyante. 
«. sa yadi bruydt sari ma dgdye Hi prdna udgltha ity eva vidvdn 
san matiasd dhydyet, sad dhV prdno ^pdno vydnas samdno ^vdna 
uddnah, sad dhui* ^vd ^syd ^^jdyante. i, sa yadi bruydt sapta 
ma dgdye Hi prdna udgltha ity eva vidvdn sapta nianasd dhyd- 
yet, sapta hi '//?€ girsanydh prdndh, sapta hdi '«a '*syd "^^fdyante, 
•. sa yadi brOydn nnva ma dgdye Hi prdna udgltha ity eva 
vidvdn nava nianasd dhydyet. sapta ^Irsanydh prdnd dvdv 
avdflcdu, nava hdi '*vd '*syd ^^jdyante. 9. sa yadi bruydd dapa 
ma dgdye Hi prdna udgltha ity eva vidvdn dapa^ manasd dhyd- 
yet, sapta ^Ir san yah prdnd dvdv avdncdu nabhydm dapamah. 
dapa hdi ^vd ^syd ^Ifdyante, lo. sa yadi bruydt sahasram ma 
dgdye Hi prdna udgltha ity eva vidvdn sahasram manasd dhyd- 
yet, sahasram hdi Ha ddityarapmayah, <€'" *sya putrdh. saha- 
sram hdi 'wa ^syd '*'*jdyante, ii. evam hdV^ '*vdi Ham udgltham 
para dtndrah kakslvdns trasadasyur iti purve mahdrdjdp^* pro- 
triyds sahasraputram upaniseduh, te ha sarva eva sahasraputrd 
dsuh, 19. sa ya^^ evdi ^varh veda sahasram hdi 'va ^sya putrd 
bhavanti, 66, 

dvitiye *nuvdke caturtfiah khan4oJ}, dvitiyo ^nuvdkas samdptafy, 

exhalation, vydnUy samdna, [and] avdna are five. Truly five are 
born unto him. 6. If he should say : ** Sing six unto me," know- 
ing that breath is the udgltha^ he should think six with his mind. 
For breath, exhalation, vydna^ samdna^ avdna, uddna are six. 
Truly, six are born unto him. 7. If he should say : "Sing seven 
unto me," knowing that breath is the tidgltha, he should think seven 
with his mind. For these breaths in the head are seven. Truly, 
seven are born unto him. s. If he should say : " Sing nine unto 
me," knowing that breath is the udgltha, he should think nine with 
his mind. There are seven breaths in the head [and] two down- 
ward ones. Truly, nine are born unto him. 9. If he should say : 
" Sing ten unto me," knowing that breath is the udgltha, he should 
think ten with his mind. There are seven breaths in the head, 
two downward ones, [and] the tenth in the navel Truly, ten are 
born unto him. lo. If he should say : " Sing a thousand for me," 
knowing that breath is the udgltha, he should think a thousand 
with his mind. Truly, a thousand are the rays of the sun. They are 
its sons. Truly, a thousand are born unto him. ii. Para Atnura, 
Kaksivant, Trasadasyu, great kings of old, scholars in sacred lore, 
thus studied this same udgltha of a thousand sons. All of them 
had a thousand sons. He who knows thus, of him there come to 
be a thousand sons. 



6. '6/ii. •^/kJ. *B,dvd, '^B.ta, ^^ha, ^^jdg, ^*yad. 



"> 



JavmirmjOr- Upanisad-BrdhmaTia, 149 

n. T. 1. ^rydto^ vdi manavah prdcydm sthalymn* ayajata.* 
tasmin ha bhUUdny udglthe ^pitvam* esireJ" a. tarn (leva brhas- 
patino ^dgdlrd dikmmahd iti purastdd dgacchann ayam ta 
udgdycUv iti, bambend* ^]fadvisena pitaro daksinato' ^yam ta 
udgdycUv ity upanasd kdvyend^ '*surdh* pa^cdd^"" ayam ta udgd- 
ycUv ity aydsyend^^ ^^ngirasena manusyd uttarato ^yam ta udgd- 
yatv iti, 8. aa Ac*' ^^ksdrh cakre hantdi ^ndn prcchdni kiyato** 
vd eka ip6 kiyata ekah kiyata eka Hi. 4. sa ho ^odca brhaspatim^* 
yan me tvam udgdyeh kim tatas sydd lti.^\ 5. sa^* ho ^vdca 
devesv eva ^fis sydd devesv Ipd avargam u tvdm lokaiii gamaye- 
yam iti, <i. a^ha ho ^vdca bambam djadvisam yan me tvam. 
fidgdyeh kim tatas sydd iti. i. sa ho ^vdca pitrsv eva ^rls sydt 
pitrsv ipa svargam u tvdm lokam gamayeyam iti. s. atha ho 
^vdco ^panasam kdvyam yarC* me" tvam. udgdyeh kim tatas sydd 
iti, 9. sa ho ^vdcd ^suresv eva prls »ydd asnresv 7pa*" svargam u 
tvdm lokam gamayeyam, iti. lo. atha ho ^vdcd ^y day am dngira- 

II. 7. 1. 9^ryata Manava made a sacrifice on the eastern site. 
With him created beings sought a share in the udgltha. a. Unto 
him the gods came from the east (front) [saying] : " Let us con- 
secrate ourselves with Byhaspati as udgdtar. Let this one sing 
the udgltha for thee." With Bamba Ajadvisa the Fathers [came] 
from the south (right) [saying] : " Let this one sing the udgltha 
for thee." With U9anas Kavya the A suras [came] from the 
west (rear) [saying]: "Let this one sing the udgltha for thee." 
With Ayasya Angirasa men [came] from the north (left) [say- 
ing] : ** Let this one sing the udgltha for thee." i. He considered : 
" Come now, I will ask them how great the power of the one is, 
how great the power of the other is, how great the power of the 
other (third) is." 4. He said to Brhaspati : ^^ If thou shouldst 
sing the udgltha for me, what would be the result of it ?" 6. He 
said : " Among the gods there would be fortune, among the gods 
dominion, and I should cause thee to go to the heavenly world." 
6. Then he said to Bamba Ajadvisa : " If thou shouldst sing the 
udgltha for me, what would be the result of it ?" 7. He said : 
" Among the Fathers there would be fortune, among the Fathers 
dominion, and I should cause thee to go to the heavenly world." 
s. Then he said to U9anas Kavya : " If thou shouldst sing the 
udgltha for me, what would be the result of it ?" 9. He said : 
*' Among the Asuras there would be fortune, among the Asuras 
dominion, and I should cause thee to go to the heavenly world." 
10. Then he said to Ayasya Angirasa : " If thou shouldst sing 




150 //. Oei^tel, 

sarh yan me tvam^* udgdyeh kirn tataa sydd iti, ii. sa ho ^vaca 
devdn eva devcUoke dadhyair^^ manusydn manusyaloke pitfn*^ 
jntrloke nudeyd ^smdl lokdd asurdn*^ svargam u tvdm lokam 
gamayeyam iti, 67, 

txtiyt *nuvdke prathamcUi khan^joh, 

II. 8. 1. sa ho ^vdca toam ine bhagava udgdya ya etasya sarva- 
sya ya^o^ [*«*] Ve. a, tasya hd ^ydaya evo ^jjagdu, tagnidd udgdtd 
vrta utiarato nivepanarh lipaeta, etad dha nd ^^ruddham nive^- 
tiam yad uttaratah. s. ^tttarata dgcUo ^ydsya dngirasa^ par- 
ydtasya* ^ndnavaayo ]jifagdu. sa prdnena devdn devcUoke ^da- 
dhdd apatiena ma^itisydn manusyaloke vydnena pitfn* pUr- 
loke hinkdrena vqjrend ^smdl lokdd asurdn anudata. 4. tan 
ho ^vdca dfirarh gacchate Hi, sa diXro ha ndma lokaJu tarn ha 
jaginulu ta ete ^surd asambhdvyam* pardbhutdh, 6. chandobhir 
eva vdcd parydtam* mdnavarh svargam lokam gamaydth cakdra, 
«. te ho ^^cur asurd eta tarn veddma yo no 'yam itthaia adhatte Hi, 
tata* dgacchan.* tarn etyd ^papyan, i, te 'bruvann ayarh vd 
dsya iti, yad ahruvann ay am vd dsya iti tasmdd ayamdsyah, 

the udgitha forme, what would be the result of it?'^ n. He 
said : '' I should place the gods in the world of the gods, men in 
the world of men, the Fathers in the world of the Fathers ; I 
should push the Asuras away from this world; and I should cause 
thee to go to the heavenly world." 

II. 8. I. He (9-) said: "Sing thou, reverend sir, the udgitha 
for me, who art the glory of this all." a. Of him Ayasya sang 
the udgitha. Therefore an udgdtar^ when chosen, should desire 
to take his resting-place in the north (left). For that resting- 
place which is in the north is not obstructed, s. Having come 
from the north, Ayasya Angirasa sang the udgitha of ^aryftta 
Manava. By breath he placed the gods in the world of the gods, 
by exhalation men in the world of men, by the vydna the Fathers 
in the world of the Fathers, by the hinkdra [as] thunderbolt he 
pushed the Asuras away from this world. 4. He said to them : 
" Go ye afar." That is a world named * afar.' They went to it. 
These same Asuras were irretrievably defeated. 6. By the 
metres, by speech, he caused 9*^y^^* Manava to go to the 
heavenly world. «. These Asuras said : ** Come, let us know 
him who placed us thus." Thereupon they came. Having come, 
they saw him. 7. They said : " Verily he {avam) is in the mouth 
(<S«ya)." Because they said : " Verily he is in the mouth," there- 

7. ^'A. nmw. ^^-dhydt, " -ifn. -Mnsert w. 

8. *-fa«a. ''-ten, * asaitnhyeyam- *^yyd-, *A. ta. * -chas. 



Jdiminlya' Upanimd-Brdh inana. 151 

ayamasyo' ha vdi ndmdi ^sah. tarn aydsya Hi paroksnni dca- 

ksate, 8. $a prdno vd aydsyah, prdno ha vd endn sa nunude, 

9, sa ya evarh vidvdn udgdyati prdnendi ^va devdn devaloke 

dadhdty apdnena' manusydn*^ manusyaloke vydnena j^^t^fn^ pitr- 

lake hinkdrendf 'i?a vajrend ^smdl lokdd dvisantam bhrdtrvyam 

nudate. 68, 

ifiiye 'nuvdke dvitiyah khan^ah, 

II. 9. I. tarn ha hruydd durarh ga^iche Hi, sa yaui eva lokam 
astird agacchahs tarn hdi ^va* gacchati, a. chandobhir eva vdcd 
yajiimdnam svargam lokam gamayati, a. td etd vydhrtayah^ 
pre Vy e Hi vdg \iti\ hhur bhuvas svar ity [ud iti], a. tad yat 
pre ''ti tat* prdnas tad ayam lokas tad imam lokam asmin loka 
dbhqfcUi. 6. e Hy apdnas tad asdu lokas tad amum lokam amus- 
tnin loka dbhajati, 6. vdg iti tad brahmAi tad idam, antariksam, 
7. bhur bhuvas svar iti sd trayl vidyd, s, ud iti so ^sdv ddityah, 
tad yad ud ity ud iva ^lesayati.* ». tad yad ekam evd ^bhisam- 
padyate tasmdd ekavtrah. eko ha tu san vlro viryavdn bhavati, 
d hd ''sydi ^ko^ vlro viryavdn* jdyate ya evam veda, lo. tad u ho 
^vdca ^dtydyanir bahuputra esa udgUha' ity evo '^pdsitavyam,, 

fore he is [called] Ayamasya. Ayamfisya, verily, is his name. 
Him they call Ayasya in an occult way. 8. This breath is Aya- 
sya. Verily as breath he pushed them away. ». He who know- 
ing thus sings the udgltha places with breath the gods in the 
world of the gods, with exhalation men in the world of men, with 
the vydna the Fathers in the world of the Fathers, with the hin- 
kdra [as] thunderbolt he pushes his hateful rival away from this 
world. 

IL 9. I. He should say to him : " Geo afar." What world the 
Asnras went unto, unto that same one he goes. a. With the 
metres, with speech, he causes the sacrificer to go to the heavenly 
world. 8. These are the sacred utterances : />ra, «, voo, bhiis 
bhuvas svary [ud], 4. What ^^ra is, that is breath, that is this 
world, that gives a share of this world in this world, s. A^ that is 
exhalation, that is yonder world, that gives a share of yonder 
world in yonder world. 6. Vac, that is the brahman, that is this 
atmosphere. 7. Bhus bhuvas svar, that is the threefold knowl- 
edge. 8. Ud, that is yonder sun. Inasmuch as it is ud, it causes 
to cling up {^^plis + ud), as it were. 9. Inasmuch as it forms a unit, 
therefore it is sole hero. But being one it becomes a hero possess- 
ing heroism. To him a sole hero possessing heroism is bom who 
knows thus. lo. And ^^tyayani said this : '^ One should worship 

8. ' -aso. « A. pdn-, » ehOhk-, '• -^n. 

9. » B. -d. ' syd', » sat. * A. (ife;-. ' A. -«. • -y&vdn, ' -eiity). 



152 //. Oertel 

bahavo hy eta adHi/asycC ra^mayas te* ^sya putrah, tastnad 
hahujtutra esa udgttha ity evo ^jnlsitavyain iti, 69. 

trtlye ^nuvdke tftlyaJ^ khan4o^h, tftlyo 'nuvdkas samdptdl^, 

II. 10. I. devdsuras samayatante "^ty dhuh, fia ha vdi tad devd- 
surds samyetire. prajOpati(;. ca ha vdi tan mrtyup ca samyetdte. 
3. tasya ha prajdpater devdh priydh} putrd anta d9uh, te ^dhri- 
yanta teno ^dgdtrd dlkmmahdl yend ^pahatya mrtyutn apahatya 
pdpmdnam svargam lokam iydme Hi. s. te ^bruvan vdco ^dgdtrd 
diksdniahd iti. 4. te vdco ^dgdtrd ^diksanta. tebhya^ idam vdg 
dgdyad yad idam vdcd vadati yad idam vdcd bhuHjate. 6. tdfn 
pdpmd ^nvasrjyata. sa yad eva vdcd pdpaih vadati sa eva aa 
2xipmd. 6. te ^Irnivan na vdi no ^yam mrtyum na pdpfndnam 
atyavdksU.^ mayiaao ^dgdtrd diksdmahd iti. 7. te manaso ^dgd- 
trd ^dlksanta. tebhya idam man a dgdyad yad idam manasd 
dhydyati yad idam manasd bhufijate. s. tat pdpmd ^nvasrfyata. 
sa yad eva manasd pdpam dhydyati sa eva fe pdimid. ». te 
^bruvan no 7ivdva no ^yam mrtyum na pdpmdnam atyavdksU. 

[saying] : * Possessing many sons is tliis udglthaJ* For many are 
these rays of the sun. They are its sons. Therefore one should 
worship [saying]: * Possessing many sons is this udgUha.^"*^ 

II. 10. 1. They say the gods and the Asuras strove together. 
Truly, the gods and the Asuras did not then strive together. 
Both Prajapati and Death then strove together, a. Now the 
gods were near to this Prajapati, [being his] dear sons. They 
resolved : " Let us consecrate ourselves with that udgdtar by 
whom, having smitten away death, having smitten away evil, we 
may go to the heavenly world." 8. They said : " Let us conse- 
crate ourselves with speech as udgdtar.'*'^ a. They consecrated 
themselves with speech as udgdtar. Speech sang to them that 
which one speaks here with speech, which one enjoys here with 
speech. 5. Evil was created after it. Just what evil thing one 
speaks with speech, that is that evil. 6. They said : "Verily, this 
one hath not carried us beyond death nor beyond evil. Let us 
consecrate ourselves with mind as udgdtar.'*'* i. They consecrated 
themselves with mind as tidgdtar. Mind sang to them that which 
one thinks here with the mind, which one enjoys here with the 
mind. 8. Evil was created after it. Just what evil thing one 
thinks with the mind, that is that evil. ». They said : " Verily, 
this one, too, hath not carried us beyond death, nor beyond evil. 

9. ^ adityaihsya. *ta. 

10. ' B. -ydyafp. * A. inserts no ^dgdtra dik^amahCi iti, which is can- 
celled in red, between te and hhya. ^avaty-. 



JdiminlyO' Vpani^ad-Brahinana, 163 

cakstiso ^dgdtrd diksamahd iti. lo. te caksuso '^dgdtrd ^dlksanta, 
tebhya idam caksur dgdyad yad idam caksusd pa^yati yad 
idam caksusd bhufijate, ii. tat pdpmd ^nvasrjyata, aa yad eva 
cakstisd pdpam papyati sa eva sa pdpmd, 12. te ^hruvan no 
nvdva no ^yam mrtyurh na pdpmdnain atyavdksU, protreno 
'*dgdtrd diksdmahd iti, is. te protreno ^dgiitrd ^dlksanta. tebhya 
idam protram dgdyad yad idam protrena prnoti yad idam pro- 
trena bhufijate, 14. tat pdpmd ^nvasrjyata. sa yad eva protrena 
pdpajh prnoti sa eva sa pdpmd, 15. te ^bruvan no nvdva no ^yam 
mrtyum* na pdptndnarn atyavdksU,^ prdneno ^dgdtrd diksdmahd 
iti.- 19, te prdneno ^dgdtrd ^dlksanta, tebhya idam prdna dgd- 
yad yad idam prdnena prdniti yad idam. prdnena bhufijate^ 
17. tain pdpmd ^nvasrjyata. sa yad eva prdnena [pdpam] prd- 
niti sa eva sa pdpmd, is. te 'bruvan no nvdva no* ^yam mrtyurh 
na pdpmdnam atyavdkslt. anena mukhyena prdneno ^dgdtrd 
d'iksdmaJid iti, i». te ^nena m,ukhyena prdneno ^dgdtrd ^dtk- 
santa, «o. so ^bravln mrtyur esa esdm sa udgdtd yena mrtyuni' 
atyesyand Hi, 91. na hy etena j^rdnena pdpam vadati na pdpam 
dhydyati na pdpam papyati na pdpam prnoti na pdpam 

Let us consecrate ourselves with sight as udgdtar,^^ 10. They 
consecrated themselves with sight as udgdtar. Sight sang to 
them that which one sees here with sight, which one enjoys here 
with sight. 11. Evil was created after it. Just what evil thing 
one sees with sight, that is that evil. 12. They said : " Verily, 
this one, too, hath not carried us beyond death nor beyond evil. 
Let us consecrate ourselves with hearing as udgdtar,'*'' is. They 
consecrated themselves with hearing as udgdtar. Hearing sang 
to them that which one hears here with hearing, which one enjoys 
here with hearing, u. Evil was created after it. Just what evil 
thing one hears with hearing, that is that evil. 15. They said : 
** Verily, this one, too, hath not carried us beyond death nor be- 
yond evil. Let us consecrate ourselves with breath as udgd- 
Uir.'*'^ i«. They consecrated themselves with breath as udgdtar. 
Breath sang to them that which one breathes here with 
breath, which one enjoys here with breath. 17. Evil was cre- 
ated after it. Just what evil thing one breathes with breath, 
that is that evil. is. They said : '* Verily, this one, too, hath 
not carried us beyond death nor beyond evil. Let us con- 
secrate ourselves with this breath of the mouth as udgdtar.^^ 
i». They consecrated themselves with this breath of the mouth 
as udgdtar. 20. Death said : " This is that udgdtar by whom 
they will go beyond death." 21. For with this breath one speaks 
no evil thing, thinks no evil thing, sees no evil thing, hears no 

10. * 'tyu, * B. injBerts sa. ^ ne, ' -^am, 

VOL. XVI. 21 



154 //. OerteL 

gandham apdniti. 3«. tena ^pahatya mriyurn apahatya papmCi- 
fiath svargam lokaui dytin^ apahatya hdi '/;a mrtyuni apahntya 
papmdnam svargam lokam eti ya evam veda. 70, 

caturthe 'nuvdke prathamah khan^h, 

II. 11. 1. sa yathd hatvd prainrdyd ^t'tydd^ evat/t evdi Va//* 
nirtywu atydyan, a. sa vdcarn prathamdni atyaoahat. td?n pa- 
rena mrtyum^ nyadadhdt, so ^gnir ahhavat, s. atha mano Hya- 
vahat,* tat parena mrtyuni^ nyadadhdt sa candramd abhavat. 
4. a>tha caksur atyavahat. tat parena mrtyuni^ nyadadhdt. sa 
ddityo ^bhavat. b, atha grotram atyavahat. tat parena mrfyiim* 
nyadadhdt. td imd di^o ^bhavan, td u eva vi^i^e devdh «. atha 
prdnam atyavahat. tarn parena mrtyum^ nyadadhdt, sa vdyur 
abhavat. 7. athd* ^^tmane kevalam eva "'nnddyajyi dgdyata. 

8. sa esa evd ^ydsyah. dsye* dhiyate.^ tasmdd aydsyah. yad v 
eva' \^yam\ dsye^ ramaie tasmdd v evd ^ydsyah.^ 9. sa esa evd 
^^ngirasah. ato hi '*mdny angdni rasam labhante, tasmdd dfigira- 
saJi.^° yad v evdi ^sdm angdfidm rasas tasmdd v evd ^^ngirasah. 
10. tarn devd abruvan kevalam vd dttnane ^nnddyam dgdsVi. 
ami na etasminn annddya (ihhaja.^^ etad asyd ^fidmayatvam" 

evil thing, exhales no evil odor. m. By him having smitten 
away death, having smitten away evil, they went to the heavenly 
world. Having smitten away death, having smitten away evil, 
he goes to the heavenly world who knows thus. 

II. 11. 1. As one would pass beyond [another], having smitten 
him, having crushed him, even so they passed beyond that death, 
a. Speech he carried beyond it first. He deposited it beyond 
death. It became fire. ». Then he carried mind beyond it. He 
deposited it beyond death. It became the moon. 4. Then he 
carried sight beyond it. He deposited it beyond death. It be- 
came the sun. ft. Then he carried hearing beyond it. He de- 
posited it beyond deatli. It became these quarters; they are also 
all the gods. «. Then he carried breath beyond it. He deposited 
it beyond death. It became wind. 7. Then he sang food-eating 
for himself only. 8. Tiiat same is Ayasya. He {ayam) is placed 
in the mouth {dsya)\ therefore he is [called] Ayasya. And as 
he rests in the mouth, therefore also he is [called] Ayasya. 

9. That same is Angirasa. For from him these limbs (aiiga) 
take their sap (rasa) ; therefore he is [called] Angiraaa. And 
because he is the sap of these limbs, therefore also he is Angirasa. 

10. The gods said to him : " Only for thyself hast thou sung food- 
eating. Let us also have a share in this food-eating. That is his 

10. ^gamayan, 

11. ' B. inserts sa ; for atudyan all -yat. * -yii. - -n. * dathd. * ase. 
*dhyatu ''B.egd. ^sye. ^*mydsyaJj>. *®<l7l-. " a/<. ^^dmayatvam. 



Jdiminlya^ Upanisad-Brahwana. 165 

asfV* ^ti, 11, tarn vdi pravi^ate Hi. sa vd dkd^dn^* kurusve Hi, 
sa imdn prdndn dkdpdn^^ akyruta.^* 13. (am vdg eva hhutvd 
^gnih prdvigan^^ m<ino hhutvd candramd^ caksttr hhvtvd '^''ditya^ 
^rotram bhutvd di^h prdno bhntvd vdyith. is. esd vdi ddivi 
parisad ddivt sabhd ddivl sarhsat. u. gacchaii ha vd etdm^'' 
ddivlm parisadam ddivim aahhdm ddivhh}'' samsadaih ya 
eva fit veda, 71. 

caturthe *nuvdke dvitlyah khan(jtaJi. 

II. 12. 1. yatro ha vdi kva cdV Hd devatd Jiispr^anti na hdi 
''rfi tatra ka^ cana pdpmd nyangah pari^isyate. a. sa vidydn 
ne ^ha ka^ cana pdpmd nyangah pari^eksyate^ sarvam evdi^ Hd* 
devatdh pdpmdnam nidhaksyantl Hi. tathd hdi ^va hhavati. 
t. ya u ha vd evamvidam^ rcchati^ yathdi Hd devatd rtvd 7ilydd 
evam nyeti.'' etd^n hy evdi ^nam devatdsu prapannam etdsu 
vasantam upavadati. 4. ta^ya hdi Hasya ndi 'ya kd cand ^^rtir^ 
asti ya evarh veda. ya evdi ^nam upavadati sa drtim drcchati.* 
6. sa ya enam^^ rcchdd eva td devatd upasrtya hruydd ayain md 
^"^rat^^ sa imdm drtim^^ nyetv iti. tdrh hdi ^vd ^'rtim nyeti, 
•. ydvaddvdsd^* u hd ''sye ''me prdnd asmin loka etdvaddvdsd^^ ti 

immunity from ijlness (?)." 11. " Verily enter that." " Then make 
spaces." lie made these breaths spaces [for them]. 12. Fire, hav- 
ing become speech, entered that; [so did] the moon, having be- 
come mind; the sun, having become light; the quarters, having 
become hearing; the wind, having become breath, is. Verily, this 
is the divine assembly, the divine congregation, the divine confer- 
ence. 14. He goes to that divine assembly, divine congregation, 
divine conference, who knows thus. 

11. 12. 1. Verily, wheresoever these divinities touch, there no 
evil whatever, [not a] trace, is left. a. He should know: *•' No evil 
whatever, [not a] trace, will be left here; these divinities will burn 
down all evil." Truly it happens thus. s. And whoso encounters 
one knowing thus, as one having encountered these divinities 
would perish, even so he perishes. For he speaks ill of him who 
has resorted to these divinities, who dwells in them. 4. Verily, 
of one who knows thus there is no misfortune whatever ; he who 
speaks ill of one knowing thus, he meets with misfortune, s. If 
one should harm him, he should say, approaching these divinities: 
"This one hath harmed me. Let him go down unto this misfor- 
tune." He goes down unto that misfortune. 6. And as many 

11. "a»i. ^*6kd^t. ^^ oQdsanam. ^*kiiruta. "om. the-?fi. ^^prdvi-, 

12. * ce, ' k§ate, * evam. * eta. * -vid or -vida. • ducchati. ' neti. 
^'tir, ^achclMti. »»em. ^^rat. ^^atti. ^*-ddvagd. 




156 H. Oertd, 

hd "^sydi Hd devcUd ammmin lake bhavanti, 7. tcwndd u hdi 
^vam vidvdn ndi 'va "^grhatdydi^* hihhlydn nd ^lokatdydi. etd me 
devatd asmin loke grhdn karisyanti, etd artiusmW^ lake bhavanti, 
tasmdd u lokam praddsyantV^ Hi. s. ta^mdd u hdi ^vam vidvdn 
ndi ^vd "^grhatdydi bibhlydn nd Hokatdydi. etd me devatd asmin 
loke grhehhyo grhdn karisyanti svebhya^^ dyatanebhya iti hdi ^va 
vidydd \etd] devatd^^ amusmiii loke lokam praddsyantl Hi, 9. tas- 
mdd u hdi ^vaih vidvdn ndi ^vd ^grhatdydi bibhlydn nd Hokatd- 
ydi, etd ma etad ubhayam saThnathsyanCl Hi hdi hm vidydt, 
tathd hdi 't'a bhavati, 72, 

caturthe 'nuvdke tfttyafy khaitdah, caturtho ^nuvdkas samdptahL, 

II. 13. I. devd vdi brahmano vatsena* vdcam aduhran, agnir 
ha vdi brahmano vaisah, a. sd yd sd vdg brahmdi ^va tat, atha 
yo ^gnir mrtyus sah, s. tdm etdm vdcam yathd dhenum vatseno* 
^pasrjya prattdm duhltdt '*vam eva devd vdcam sarvdn kdmdn 
aduhran,* a, duhe^ ha vdi vdcarh sarvdn kdmdn ya evam veda, 
sa hdi ^so ^ndnrto vdcam devlm ndindhe^ vada vada vade '*ti, 

m m 

b, tad yad iha^ purusasya pdpam krtam bhavati tad dviskarott, 

abodes as these breaths of him have in this world, so many 
abodes these divinities of him come to have in yonder world. 
7. Therefore one knowing thus should not be in fear of house- 
lessness, nor of worldlessness [thinking]: "These divinities will 
make houses for me in this world. They come to be in yonder 
world; and therefore they will give me the world." 8. And there- 
fore one knowing thus should not be in fear of houselessness, nor 
of worldlessness. "These divinities will make in this world 
houses for me from [their] houses, from abodes of their own," 
he should know; "these divinities will give a world in yonder 
world." 9. And therefore one knowing thus should not be in 
fear of houselcssi^ess, nor of worldlessness. Let him know : 
" They will bring about both for me." Verily so it comes to pass. 

11. 13. 1. Verily, the gods milked speech by means of the calf 
of the brahtnan. Verily, fire is the calf of the brahman. 
9. This speech, that is the orahman; and fire, that is death. From 
this same speech — as one would milk a given cow by means of a 
calf, admitting [it to her] — even so the gods milked from speech 
all desires. 4. Verily, he milks from speech all desires who knows 
thus. He, not being untruthful, kindles ^?) divine speech [say- 
ing]: "Speak, speak, speak." a. What evil is done here by man, 

12. ^*grah', "B. asmU, ^^pravadd-. "B. inserts dyatanebhya, 
'• eva id, 

18. *A. pastena; B. patsena, ^vak^-, -^ -ra. *jahe. ^A. udigdhe, 
^amiha. 



^K 



JdirrdmyO' ITpanisad-Brdhmana. 157 

yad thai ^twd apt rahasl 'va kurvan manyate' ^tha* hai ^nad 
dvir eva karoti, tasmdd vdva pdpam na kurydV 7S, 

paficame *nuvdke prathamaJi hlian^ali, 

II. 14. I. esa u ha vdva devdndrh nedistham upacaryo yad 
agnih, «. tarn addhH '*pacaret, ya enam a^min lake sddhu ^jiaca- 
ratP tarn eso ^nhusmin loke sddhu '^pacaraii, atha ya enam asmin 
loke ud ^"^driyate tarn eso ^musmin loke nd ^^driyate, tasmdd vd 
agnim sddhu ''jyacaret, s. tarn ndi hm hastdbhydm spr^n i\a pddd- 
hhydrh na dandena,* 4. hastdbhydm sprpati yad asyd ^ntikam 
avanenikte, atha yad ahhiprasdrayati tat pciddhhydni, 6. sa 
enam dsprsta Ipvaro durdhdydm dhdtoh. tasmdd vd agnim sddhu 
^pacaratL sudhdydm hdi ^vdi ^narh dadhdti. 7^. 

paficame 'nuvdke dvitiyah khantfah. 

II. 15. I. esa u ha vdva devdndm mahdpanatamo yad agnih, 
a. fan na vratyam^ adaddno* ^piiydt, yo vdi mahdpane ^napiaty 
apndti "^^pedro hdi hiam ahhisanktoh.^ putim^ iva^ hd "^pnlydt* 
8. atho ha prokte ^gane hruydt samlntsvd ''gnini iti, sa yathd 

that it makes manifest. Although he thinks that he does it 
secretly, as it were, still it makes it manifest. Verily, therefore 
he should not do evil. 

II. 14. I. Verily, he of the gods is to be next served, viz. 
Agni. a. Him one should serve well. Whoso serves him well 
in this world, him he (A.) serves well in yonder world. And 
who does not care for him in this world, him he (A.) does not 
care for in yonder world. Verily, therefore one should serve 
Agni well. s. Him one should not touch with the hands, nor with 
the feet, nor with a stick. 4. He touches him with the hands, 
when he washes himself in his neighborhood ; and when he 
stretches himself out towards [him], then [he touches him] with 
the feet. 0. He, being touched, is liable to place him in discom- 
fort. Therefore one serves Agni well. Truly, he places such 
a one in comfort. 

IL 15. 1. And verily he of the gods is the most voracious 
one, viz. Agni. a. Therefore he should not eat what belongs to 
a vow without having given [him]. Verily, if one eats while 
the voracious one does not eat, he is likely to fasten on him. 
Truly he would eat what is putrid, as it were. s. So then, when 
the meal is announced, he should say : '^ Kindle the fire." As, 



IS. ^ 'ta, *^ ath', ' B. adds e^a u ha vd of the next chap. 

14. ' carati. * A. tan^enam ; B. tandhdinam. 

15. * pra-, ^ daddsino. * (ibhi^a)fiettdJi. ^-ir. ^ivamiva. **gnh 



158 n. Oertel 



? 



prokte ^^ane greydmam parivesfavdi bruydt tddrk taV a. etad 
u ha vdva sdma yad vdk, yo vdi caksus adma p'otrarh same Hy 
updste na^ ha tena karoti, 6. atha ya* ddityas sdma candramds 
same Hy updste n<it hdi 'wa tena karotL «. atha yo vdk sdfne Hy 
updste sa evd ^nusfhyd sdma veda, vdcd hi sdmnd ^^rtvijyam 
kriyate, 7. sa yo vdcas svaro jdyate so 'ynir vdg v eva vdk. 
tad atrdi^*^ ^kadhd sdma hhavatL s. sa ya evam etad ekadhd 
sdma hhavad veddi ^vam hdi Had ekadhd sdm,a bhavatl ^ty 
ekadhe 'ya ^resthas svd^idm hhavatL ». tasvndd u hdi ^varhvi- 
dam eva sdmnd ^^rtvijyam kdrayeta. sa ha. vdva sdma veda ya 
evam veda, 7t5, 

• 

paficame ^yiuvdke tffiyah khan^ah. paficamo *nuvdkas samdptah, 

III. 1. I. ekd ha vdva krtsnd devatd ^rdhadevcUd evd ^nydh. 
ayam eva yo ^yam pavate, a. esa eva sarvesdm devdndm gra- 
hdh, 8. sa hdi ^so ^stam ndma, astam iti he '*ha papcdd* grahdn 
dcakscUe, 4. sa yad ddityo ^stam agdd iti grahdn agdd Hi hdi 
Hat, tena so ^sarvah, sa etam evd ^pyeti, 6. astam candramd 
eti, tena so ^sarvah, sa etam evd ^pyeti, «. astam naksatrdni 

when the meal is announced, one would direct that one's superior 
be served [first], even so is that. 4. And that is also the sdman^ 
viz. speech, verily, he who worships [saying]: "Sight is the 
sdman; hearing is the sdman,^'* he does not thereby perform it. 
5. And he who worships [saying] : " l^he sun is the sdm-an; the 
moon is the sdmati,^'' he does not thereby perform it. 6. Now he 
who worships [saying]: " Speech is the sdman,'*^ he at once knows 
the sdm.an, l^or with speech as the sdma7i the priestly office 
is performed. 7. The tone which is born from speech, that is 
Agni, and speech is just speech. That becomes here one, the 
sdman, 8. He who thus knows that which becomes one, the 
sdman [saying]: "Verily that becomes one, the sdman^^ he 
becomes one, as it were, the best of his [people]. ». And there- 
fore one should cause one knowing thus to perform the priestly 
oflice with the soman. Verily he knows the sdman who knows 
thus. 

III. 1. I. One entire deity there is ; the others are half-deities. 
[It is] this one namely who cleanses here (the wind), a. lie [rep- 
resents] the seizers of all the gods. s. He, indeed, is * setting ' 
by name. * Setting ' they call here the seizers in the west. 4. In 
that the sun has gone to setting, it has gone to the seizers. 
Therefore it is not whole. It goes unto that [god]. 6. The 
moon sets. Therefore it is not whole. It goes unto that [god]. 
«. The asterisms set. Therefore they are not whole. They go 

15. " B. tarn, • nd. » yad, »• etr-, 
1. ^ B. pahca. 



Jdiviinlya- Upwriisad- Brahm ana, 1 69 

ynnti. tena tdny asarvdni, tdny etafu evd ^pii/arUi, 7. a?iv agnir 
gacchcUi, tenn so ^sarvah. sa etarn evd ^pyeti. 8. ety ahah. eti 
rdtrih.^ tena te asarve. te etam evd ^jntah,* 9. muhyanii di^o na 
cdi td* rdtrim prajiidyante, tena td asarvdh. td etam evd ^piyanti, 

10. varsati ca parjanya uc ca grhndti, tena so ''sarvah,^ sa etam 
evd ^pyeti, ii. kslyanta dpa evam osadhaya^ evarh vana^pata- 
yah. tena tdny asarvdni, tdny etam evd ^piyanti, la. tad yad 
etat aarvarh vdyum evd ^pyeti tasmdd vdyur eva sdma, la. sa ha 
vdi sdmavit sa [krtsnairi] sdma veda ya evarh veda. u. athd 
^dhydtmam, na vdi svapan vdcd vadati. se ^yam"* eva prdnam, 
iipyeti, ift. nO: rnanasd dhydyati. tad idam, eva prdnam apyetV 
16. na caksusd papyati, tad idam eva prdnam apyeti. n. 7\a 
protrena grnoti tad idajn eva prdnam apyeti. le. tad yad etat 
sarvam prdnayn evd ^bhisameti tasmdt prdna eva sdma. i9. sa 
ha vdi sdmavit sa krtsnaih sdma veda ya evaih veda. ao. tad 
yad idam, dhur na hatd '*dya vdtl Hi [««] hdi Hat puruse ^ntar 
niramate* sa ptlrnas^" svedamdna dste. ai. tad dha pdunakaw)^ 
ca kdpeyam ahhipratdrinarh ca \kdksase7iivi\ brdhmanah parive- 
visyamdnd^^ updvavrdja.^' 76. 

prathame *nuvdke prathamali khancjlcUi. 

unto that [godl 7. The fire goes out. Therefore it is not whole. 
It goes unto tnat [god]. 8. Day goes ; night goes. Therefore 
they are not whole. They go unto that [god], o. The quarters 
are confounded ; they are not known by night. Therefore they 
are not whole. They go unto that [god], lo. Parjanya rains and 
holds up. Therefore he is not whole. He goes unto that [god]. 

11. The waters are exhausted, even so the herbs, even so the forest- 
trees. Therefore they are not whole. They go unto that [god], 
n. So, as this all goes unto wind, therefore is wind the sdman, 
18. He is sdynau'knowingy he knows the [entire] sdman, who knows 
thus. u. Now with regard to the self. One who sleeps speaks not 
with the voice. That same [voice] goes unto breath, ift. He 
thinks not with the mind. That same [mind] goes unto breath. 

16. He sees not with sight. That same [sight] goes unto breath. 

17. He hears not with hearing. That same [hearing] goes unto 
breath, is. So, as this all goes together unto breath, therefore is 
breath the sdman. i9. He is sdma7i-knowing^ he knows the entire 
sdman^ who knows thus. 20. Now when they say: "Lo ! it doth 
not blow to-day,'* it is then resting within man ; he sits full, 
sweating. 21. Now unto Caunaka Kfipeya and Abhipratarin [Kak- 
saseni], while they were being waited upon, a Bruhman came. 



1. 'A. -ra/j. *-tdfj. ^tdih. * B. inserts sa sdma veda. 'B. c{j-; A. 
Ojw-. '^^mam. " -yati. ^-mite. ^^^-na. "A. -fco^. "-ri«yd-. ^*-prdjd. 



f 

\ 



160 H. Oertel, 

III. 2. 1. tdu ha hihhikse^ tarn ha nd ^'^dadrate^ ko vd ko ve 

m 

Hi manyainCuidu, a. tdu ho ^pajagdu 
rnahdttnana^ caturo deva ekah 

ka^ sa^ jagdra bhwmnasya gopdh : 
tarn kdpeya^ na vijdnanty eke 

^bhipratdrin hahudhd nivistani^ 
iti, n. sa ho ''tjdcd ^bhipratdri '*mam^ vdva' prapadya pratibrnhl 
Ui, tvayd'^ vd^ ay am jyTatyucya^*^ itV^ 4. tarn ha pratyuvdcd^* 
^Hmd devdndfn lUa niartydndjh^^ 

hiranyadanto rupaso^* na^^ sunuh : 
mahdnta^n asya niahimdnain}^ dhur 

anadyamdno yad^"* adantam^* atiV* 
HL 6. mahdtinanag caturo [deva^ eka iti. vdg^^ vd^^ agnih, sa 
mahdtmd devah. sa yatra svajnti^* tad vdcam prdno girati, 
0. niana^ candramd^ sa mahdtmd devah. sa yatra svapiti tan 
manaJ/^ prdno girati, 7. caksur** ddityas sa mahdtmd devah, 
sa yatra svapiti tac caksuh prdno girati. 8. profram dipas td** 
niahdtmdno devdh. sa yatra svapiti tac chrotrafn prdno girati. 
». tad yan ynahdtmana^ caturo d^va eka ity etad dha tat. 
10. kas** sa^'' jagdre^" Hi. prajdpatir vdl kah. sa hdi Haj jagdra. 

III. 2. 1. He begged [food] of them. They paid no attention 
to him, thinking: " Who or who is he ?" 2. lie sang unto them : 
"One [god] — who is he? — swallowed up four magnanimous ones, 
being a keeper of creation ; him, O Kapeya, some do not know; 
him, O Abhipralarin, settled down in many places." s. Said 
Abhipratarin : " Stepping forward, answer this man ; by thee 
must this man be answered." 4. Him he answered : " The self 
of the gods and of mortals, with golden teeth, defective (?), not a 
son. Great they call his greatness, in that he, not being eaten, eats 
him who eats." 6. *One [god] four magnanimous ones:' speech 
verily is fire; that is a magnanimous god. When one sleeps, 
then breath swallows up speech. 6. Mind [is] the moon ; that is a 
magnanimous god. When one sleeps, then breath swallows up 
mind. 7. Sight [is] the sun ; that is a magnanimous god. When 
one sleeps, then breath swallows up sight. 8. Hearing [ia] the 
quarters ; those are magnanimous gods. When one sleeps, then 
breath swallows up hearing. ». So, when [it is said] : * One god 
four magnanimous ones,' this is what that means. 10. * Who (ka) 
is he who swallowed up:' Ka is Prajfipati. He swallowed this 



2. ^ A. drnbh: -drdte. ^so. ^B.kdlapeya. ^ A. nivindam, « A. 
m{a)ma ; B. md. ' A, vayyd ; B. yayyd, ^ B. ayd, • B. vdva. '• -yucce. 
"7i. "-ydca. ^^maty-, ^-'B.parcwo. ^*wu. ^^ mabhi-. " B. yodi. 
"A. datam; B. dantam. »»A. anti. ««A. pdc: B. im. *^B, yd. ««A. 
svatipiti. *' A. -na; after this inserts pr«^. ^*'ar. -^insert ma/idfmd. 
^«A. fco. «^«o. ^jagdr-. 



Jdiminlya- Upcmisad-BrdhmaTui. 161 

II. bhuvanasya gopd itL sa u vdva hhuvanasya gopdh. la. tarn 
kdjteya*^ na vijdnanty eka iti, 7ia hy etain eke vijdnanti. is. ahhi- 
jtratdrin hahudhd nivistam iti. hahxalhd hy evdi ^sa nivisto 
ycU pruTiah. u. dtmd devdndyn t/^a" martydndm iti, dtmd hy 
esa devdndm xita niartydnam, i5. hiranyadanto rapaso^^ na^^ 
9unur iti. na hy esa aunuJi, sunurOpo^* hy esa san 7ia^* st'inuh, 
i«. mahdntain asya mahimdiiani dhnr iti, taahdntam hy^* etasya 
mahimdfiam nhuh,^* n. anadyamdno yml adantain^^ aU\ ^ti. 
anadyann'mo hy eso *danta7n atti. 77, 

prathame *nuvdke dviilynh khanddl}, 

III. *\, I. fasydi '«<t prlr Otmd sartindrudho^ yad asdv ddityah, 
tasmdd guyatraaya stotre nd hu'mydn n^c chriyd avachidyd* iti, 
«. sa esa evo ^kthata, yat purastdd avdniti^ tad etad uktha^ya 
firo yad daksinatas* sa daksinah pakso yad uttaratas sa^ uttarah 
pakso- yat pa^dt [tat"] puccham, a. ay am eva jwdna uktha^yd 
^Umd. sa ya evam etam* ukthasyd ^Umdfiam at man pratisthitam 
veda sa hd \nusmin lake sdtigas^^ satanus \sarmis\ satnbhavati. 4. 
^a^rad dha vd amusmin lake yad idam 2nirnsasyd '^'^nddu ^i^nam 

up. 11. * A keeper of creation:' he, indeed, is a keeper of crea- 
tion, la. * Him, O Kapeya, some do not know:' for some do not 
know him. is. *Him, O Abhipratarin, settled down in many 
places:' for this breath has settled down in many places, u. * The 
self of the gods and of mortals:' for he is the self of the gods 
and of mortals. 15. * With golden teeth, defective, not a son :' for 
he is not a son ; for he, having the form of a son, is not a son. 
16. * Great they call his greatness:' for they call his greatness 
great, n. *In that he, not being eaten, eats him who eats:' for 
he, not being eaten, eats him who eats. 

III. 3. I. Of it he is the fortune, the self completely risen (?), 
viz. yonder sun. Therefore one should not take breath in (during) 
the stotra of the gdyatra [-sdmari] [saying]: "May I not be cut 
off from fortune." a. That same is the uktha. When one takes 
breath eastward, that is the head of the uktha; when southward, 
that is the right side (wing); when northward, that is the left 
side (wing); when westward, that is the tail. s. This breath is 
the self of the uktha. Who thus knows this self of the uktha 
firmly established in the self, truly he comes into being in 
vender world with limbs, with a body, [whole]. 4. Verily, that 
IS certainly in yonder world, viz. a man's two testicles, the penisy 

2. *• -edha, * -o. *' A. -«c. ^ nas, " A.. «. ** B. dhur ; and inserts 
iti mahdnta hy etasya mahim dhufy, ^ antam, ^ sUnilr'. 
8. B.samddr-. ^vachc-. ^vditi. *A.'inah. *«arf. *tad, ^* sdiiigatas, 

VOL. XVI. 22 




162 H. Oertel, 

karndu nCisike yat kim cd ''nasthikam na sambhavcUL ». cUha 
ya evam etmn' ukthasyd^ '^'^tmdnam dtman pratisthitam veda aa 
hdi 'ua ^musmin loke sdngas satanus sarvaa sambhavati. «. tad 
etad vdi^vdmUram uktham, tad annarh vdi vigvafn prdno 
mitram, 7. tad dha vi^vamitra^ pramena taj^asd vratacaryene* 
^ndrasya priyam dhdmo ""pajagdma, s. tasmd u hdi Hat provdca 
yad^^ idam manxisydn dgatam. 9. tad dha sa tipanisasdda 
jyotir etad uktham^^ iti, lo. jyotir iti dve aksare prdna iti dve 
annam iti dve, tad etad anna eva pratisthitam, n. cUha hdi 
^nam jamadagnir upanismddd ^^yur** etad uktham iti. la. dyur 
iti dve aksare prdna iti dve anna^n iti dve. tad etad anna eva 
pratisthitam. is. atha hdi ^narh^* vasistha upanisa^dda gdur 
etad ukthutn iti. tad etad^* annam eva. annam hi gdtdi. u. tad 
dhur yad asya prdnfuya purusag parlram atha kend ^nye^* prd- 
ndg ^arlravanto bhavantl Hi. i5. sa bruydd yad vdcd vadati 
tad vdca^ ^arlrarh yan manasd dhydyati tan manasa^ parlrani 
yac caksusd 2^a^yati tac caksnsa^ parlram yac chrotren/i pntoti 
ta-c chrotrasya ^arlram, evam u hd ^nye 2^rdndp ^ar'iraranto 
bhavantl Hi. 7S. 

prathame 'nuvdke titlyali khan(fah. 

the two ears, tlie two nostrils : whatever does not come into 
being boneless. 6. Now whoso thus knows this self of the 
uktha firmly established in the self, truly he comes into being in 
yonder world with limbs, with a body, whole. «. That same is 
the uktha belonging to Vi9vamitra. Verily, food is all (vipva)^ 
breath is a friend (mitra), 7. Now Vi9vamitra through exertion, 
through penance, through the performance of vows, went unto 
the dear abode of Indra. 8. And he proclaimed to him that 
which has come to men here. 9. Now he went for instruction 
[to him] [saying]: "Light is this uktha.'''* lo. * Light ' has two 
syllables, * breath ' has two, * food ' has two. That same is firmlj' 
established in food. ii. Then Jamadagni went for instruction 
to him [saying]; "Life is this uktha.'*'* la. 'Life' has two sylla- 
bles, 'breath' two, 'food' two. That same is firmly established 
in food. 13. Then Vasistha went for instruction to him [say- 
ing]: "The cow is this uktha.'*'* That same is just food. For 
the cow is food. u. This they say : " If man be the body of this 
breath, how then do the other breaths (senses) come to have 
bodies ?" i6. Let him say : " What he speaks with speech, that 
is the body of speech. What he thinks with tlie mind, that is 
the body of the mind. What he sees with sight, that is the 
body of sight. What he hears with hearing, that is the body of 
hearing. Thus the other breaths (senses) also come to have 
bodies." 

3. 'A. -fad. ^X.ukth-. ^pr-. ^Uad. '' utth-. '- A. (-.wrfa) (/dur; B. 
dyugnur. '•'* -d. '* nted. '" B. ^nyena. 



Jdiminiya' Ujxtn isad-Brdhviana. 1 63 

III. 4. I. tad etad uktham sapiavidharn. ^asyate stotrlyo^ 
^iiurOpo dhiiyya pragathas suktam nimt paridhdiuyd? 2. lyant^ 
eva stotriyo ^gnir anurupo vdyur dhdyyd^ ''ntariksam pragdtho^ 
dydus suktam ddityo niuit. taarndd bahvrcd udite nividam adhl- 
ynnte. ddityo hi fiivit. di^ah paridhdniye Vy adhidevataia. 
3. athd \lhydtmam. dtmdl h^a stotriyah ,prajd ^niirupah prdno 
dUdyyd* manah pragdtha^^ giras suktam caksur nivic chrotratn 
jyaridhdmya' , 4. tad dhdi Had eke tristubhd 2)aridadhaty aiiu- 
stuhhdi ^ke, tristubhd tv eva 2)aridadhydt, 6. tad dhdi Had eka 
eta vydhrtlr abhivydhrtya yansa7iti^ niahdn inahyd^ sainadhatta 
dero devyd sainadhatta brahuia brdhmanyd^'^ samadhatta, tad 
yat samadhatta samadhatte Hi, e. tasutdd iddnlni^^ ^^Mrw.y«5//a 
ij^rlrdni pratisamhitdni, purmo hy etad ukthain, 7. mahdn 
inahyd samadhatte HI. agnir vdl mahdn lya/n eva mahu 8. devo 
devyd samadhatte Hi, vdyur vdi devo ^ntariksam devV^ ». brah- 
nia brdhmanyd samadhatte Hi, ddityo vdi brahma dydur^^ brdh- 
manl, 10. tdsd7h vd etdsdm devatdndm dvayor^*-dvayor deva- 

III. 4. 1. That same uktha is sevenfold. Chanted is the sto- 
triya (strophe), the anurupa (autistrophe), tlie dhdyyd (kindling 
verse), the 2>r a gdt ha (tristich), the sukta (hymn), the nlvid (noti- 
fication), [and] the paridhdftlyd (closing verse). «. This [earth] 
is the stotriya; Agni the anurupa; Vfiyu the dhdyyd; the at- 
mosphere the pragdtha; the sky tlie sukta; the sun the nivid — 
therefore the Rig-veda scholars study the nivid when [the sun] 
has risen ; for the sun is the nivid — the quarters the paridhd- 
myd. Thus with regard to the divinities, s. Now with regard 
to the self. The self itself is the stotriya; offspring the anu- 
rupa; breath the dhdyyd; mind the jtragdtha; the head the 
sukia; sight the nivid; hearing the paridhdnlyd, 4. Now some 
recite its paridhdnlyd with a tristubh, others with an anustubh. 
But let him recite the paridhdnlyd with a tristubh. b. That 
same some chant having uttered these sacred utterances : '* He, 
the great one, united with her, the great one; the god united 
with the goddess ; the brahman united with the brdhmanl. In 
that he united, he united." e. Therefore the bodies of men are 
now united respectively. For man is this uktha, 7. *He, the 
great one, united with her, the great one.' Verily Agni is he, the 
great one, this [earth] is she, the great one. e. * The god united 
with the goddess.' Verily Vayu is the god, the atmosphere is 
the goddess. 9. ' The brahman united with the brdhmanV 
Verily the sun is the ftrahman, tlie sky is the brdhmanl, 10, Of 
these divinities each two divinities make up nine syllables respeo- 



4. * insert 'gnir, ^ -niyam. 'om. *A. ddhdsyd; B. ddkdryyd, 
^prag-, ^ dhdryyd, '^ B, -dhatnl-, ^ insert <ad uAr^mim, a gloss. •-y(X. 
••A. -mahya. " A. idanl, " B. -vd. '» -dw. " -yo. 



164 //. Oei^tel, 

tayor 7iaoa-navd "^ksardni sampadyante. etad ime^* lokas^* tri- 
navd bhavanti, n. tctd brahtna vcii trivrL tad brakind '*bhioyd' 
hrtya pansanii. esa w eva atoinas so^* ^nucarah, n. yad imam 
dhur ekastorna ity ay am eva yo ^yam pavate, eso ^dhidevatam. 
prdno ^dhydtmam, tasya pariram anncarah.^* is. tad ycUhd ha 
vdi tnanda inanisrdrarh samprotarh sydd — 79. 

prathame *ntivdke caturthalj. khandah. 

III. 5. I. — ' evam hdi ^tasmin sarvajn idarh sarnprotam gan- 
dharvdpsarasah papavo manusydh, 2. tad dha mufljcts* sdma- 
pravasah* 7>rayay<irw. tasmdi^ ha pvdjanir odipyah preydya.* 
8. tasya hd ^ntariksdt 7>a^/^yd navanUapinda uraai nipapdta. 
tarn hd ^^ddyd ^7iudadhdit, 4. taio* hdi 'wa stomani' dadarpd 
^ntarikse vitatani bahxi pobhainnnam, tasyo ha yuktim* dadarpa, 
5. bahispavamdna/n d^adya tltra* viyi j^^^^i^yf^ *^* kurydt tUra^ 
grhitra^^ apdnya iti vdcd. dldrksetdi 'vd ^ksibhyam puprdsetdi 
^va karndbhydm, svayam idam manoyuktain, «. tad yatra vd 
isur atyagro bhavati na vdi sa tato hinastP^ tad^* u vd etam no 

lively. Thus these worlds come to be thrice nine. n. Verily that 
brahman is threefold. Having uttered the sacred utterances they 
chant unto this brahman. And this is also the atoma^ this the 
anucara (sequel). la. When they call him * possessing one stomas 
that is he who cleanses here. That [he is] with regard to the 
divinities ; breath [he is] with regard to the self. The anucara 
is its body. is. As the thread of a jewel would be twined in 
with the jewel, — 

III. 5. 1. — Even so this all is twined in with it, viz. Gandhar- 
vas, Apsarases, domestic animals, [and] men. a. Now Muilja 
Saiua^ravasa went forth, ^vajani, a Vai9ya, went before him. 
8. Falling from the atmosphere, a lump of fresh butter fell down 
on his breast. He, taking it, put it in addition [in the fire (?)]. 
3. Thereupon he saw the stoma spread out in the atmosphere, 
greatly shining ; he also saw its application (?). 6. Having set 
himself about the bahispavamdnay he should say fUra viyi prd- 
nya; fUra grhltra apdnya, with speech. He should wish to 
see with the eyes, he should wish to hear with the ears. This is 
of itself yoked to mind. Now when an arrow is too pointed, 
verily it then does not hurt. Verily thus he would not attain it. 



4. ^»B. -dM. "B. -^d?^ "«d. >»«d. ^^'Vafttam. 

5. ' A gloss, the second quotation in 5, is inserted at the beginnini? 
before eram (B. cvd). ^mdufij-. ^adhag-, * A, sec. m.; B. tamaamdi, 
* proydya. • teto, ' A. -a. »A. -t. » (Ittra, the first letter may be an /. 
^^grhittra. "A. asti; B. hanaati. ^^ yad. 



Jdimimycv- UpanUad-Brdhmann, 165 



^pdpnut/dt, pa ity evd'^pdnydt, tadyathd bimhend tnr(/ani dnayed 
evani evdi ^nam etayd devatayd ^^nayati. sa yuktah karotL esa^^ 
evd '*pi yuktah.'* 80, 

prathame ^numke pailcamah khan(fah. prathamo ^nuvdkan samaptali, 

III. 6. I. yo ^sdu sdmnah prattinL^ vedu pra hd '^smdi dry ate. 
«. dadd^ iti ha vd ayam agnir dlpyate tathe Hi vdyuh pavate 
hante Hi candramd om ity ddityah. ». esd ha vdi sdmnah prat- 
tih.* etdm ha vdi sdmnah prattim* sudaksinah ksdlmir viddrh 
cakdra. a. tdrh hdi Udm hotur vd ''\jye gdyen mditrdvarunasya 
vd tdm* daddiT tathdS hantdS^ hlni hhd ovd iti. pra ha vd 
asnidi dlyate. s. [so\ ^py* anydn hahun^ xiparyuparV^ ya evam 
tidih sdmnah prattim veda. 6. ya u ha vd ahandhiir^^ bandhu- 
mat sdma veda yatra hd '^py enarh na vidur yatra rosanti yatra 
pari 't?a caksate tad dhd ^pi (^rdiathyam Odhipatyam annddyam 
purodhdm^^ paryeti. 7. ag?iir ha vd abandhur^^ bandhumat 
sdnui. kasmdd vd hy enarh ddrvoh kasmdd vd parydvrtya man- 
thanti sa grdisthydyd^^ ^''dhipatydyd ''nnddydya purodhdydi'* 
jay ate. e. sa yatra ha vd apy evamvidam na vidur yatra ro- 

Let him breathe out [saying] simply ^><z. As one would attract 
a deer by means of a mirror, even thus he attracts it (?) by means 
of this divinity. He (?) performs yoked, and he is yoked also. 

III. 6. I. That one yonder who knows the delivery of the 
sdmany verily unto bim it is delivered, a. [Uttering] dadd, this 
fire here shines ; [uttering] tathd, the wind cleanses (blows) ; 
hanta the moon [utters], om the sun. s. Verily this is the deliv- 
ery of the sdman. Verily this delivery of the sd?nan Sudaksina 
Ksfiimi knew. 4. One should sing that same in the djya-chsini 
of either the hotar or the mditrdvaruna-i^T\Qf>X : daddy tathd, 
hantdy him bhd ovd. Verily it is delivered unto him. s. He is 
much superior to even many others who thus knows this delivery 
of the sdman. e. And whoso being without relatives knows the 
sdman rich in relatives, even where they do not know him, where 
they are angry at him, where they overlook him, as it were, he 
thus compasses excellence, supremacy, food-eating, [and] the office 
of a purohita. 7. Verily Agni, being without relatives, is the pa- 
llia/* rich in relatives. For in whatever way they churn him, from 
the wood, or by turning, he is born for excellence, for supremacy, 
for food-eating, [and] for the office of a purohita. 8. Verily even 



5. »«-^. »*-fii^. 

6. ^pratirii. *A. taddn ; B. daddn, 'A. praktiJIf,; B. pravrktih. 
*tduik. *B. inserts hantdS. ""A. om. ^ apy. *-huny. ^"A. -upa. 
" -cf^tt. " -dhd. '3 ^resih'. " A. -dye. 



!()<> //. OerU>l, 

santl yaira parV^ 'ra caksafe tad dhd ^pi ^rdisthi/am^^ ddhipat' 
yaui annddyani ptirodhdm paryeti. 81. 

dvitiye *nuvake prathamafy kham^aJ^, 

III. 7. 1. svaya?n u tatra yatrdi ^nam viduh. a. stidakslno ha 
vdi Jcsdimlh 2>rdcmapdlir^ jdhdldu te ha aabrahtna^drina dsuh, 
8. te h^ ''rue bahu japyaaya cd '*nyasya cd ^nucire* prdclnapdli^* 
ca jdhdldu ca, s. atha ha sma sudaksinah* ksdimir yad eva 
yajflasyd '/T/o yat siivlditam tad dha smdi 'ya prcchati, «. ta u 
fui vd apoditd vydkro^amdndg^ ceru^"^ ^udro duranUcdna iti ha 
sma* sudaksinam ksdimim dkro^afU^ prdclnaQolig^^* ca jdhdldu 
ca, 6. aa ha smd ^''ha sudaksinah ksdunir yatra hhiiyisthdh knru- 
jyaUcdlds samdgatd hhavltdras tan na esa sarhvddo nd'*nupadrste 
pldrd iva samvadisydmaha^^ iti. 7. td u ha vdi jdhdldu didlk- 
sdte^^ ^ukra^ ca yoprng^* ca. tayor ha prdclnapdlir vrta^^ 
udgdtd, 8. sa tad dha sudaksino Umhuhudhe jdhdldu hd ^diksi- 
sdtdm^* iti. sa ha samgrahUdram^* uvdcd ^^nayasrd^'' 're jdhdldu 
hd ^diksisdtdm^^ tad gamisydva iti. 82, 

dvitiye ^nuvake dvitlynh khandah. 

where they do not know one knowing thus, where they are angry 
at him, where they so to speak overlook liira, he thus compasses 
excellence, supremacy, food-eating, [and] the office of ^ purohita. 

III. 7. I. And [that happens] of itself where they know him. 
Q. Sudaksina Ksfiimi, Pracina^iili, the two Jfibfdas — they were 
fellow-students, s. These, viz. Pracinayfdi and the two Jabalas, 
recited much of what is to be muttered and of other [prayers], 
4. Then Sudaksina Ksaimi used to ask [them] concerning that 
which is easy of the sacrifice, concerning that which is well 
known. 6. And they, being distracted, kept crying out: "^Gdra, 
ignoramus !" Thus they, viz. PracTna9rili and the two Jabfdas, 
used to cry out against Sudaksina Ksaimi. 6. Then Sudaksina 
Ksaimi used to say: " Where most of tlie Kurupailcfdas shall be 
assembled together, there shall be tins disputation of ours; we 
will not dispute without witnesses, like piidras." 7. Now the 
two Jabalas, 9«kra and Go5ru, consecrated themselves. Of them 
Pracina9ali [was] chosen udgdtar, e. Then Sudaksina became 
aware : " The two Jabalas have consecrated themselves." Ho 
said to his driver: '* Sirrah, conduct [me thither]. The two Jaba' 
las have consecrated themselves. Thither we will go." 



6. ^*pari. 

7. ^-gdlflir. ^B.hai. ^'rUc-. * -i^dldi;. ^-iiaih. ^ py-; A, -d. 'A. 
coruq. •-<$. *akog' ^^-pati^-. ^^ dadi-. ^^ -ril^. ^^pr-. ^^saihsaih'. 
'* -llg. ^* didlk.?-. " -ydsvd. 



Jdiminlya- Upanisad-Brdhmaria, 167 

III. 8. I. tasya ha jfidtika- a^rumukha ivd ^^sur anyatardm 
vd ay am updgdd^ iti. 2. atha ha sma vdi yah purd brahmavd- 
dyam vadaty anyatardm updydd iti ha smdi 'na;/i manyante. 
atho ha smdi ^nam nirtam ivdi hw "^pdsate. s. tarn ha samgra- 
h'Uo '*vdcd Hha yad bhagavas te tdhhydm na ku^akim katJie^ 
^ttham dtthe Hi, 4. om iti ho \'dca gantavyam ma dcdryas* 
suyamdn^ amanyale Hi, ». na ha ratham dsthdya pradhdvaydm 
cakdra. tarn ha sma prattksante, «. kam jdn'Ue Hi, sudaksina 
iti, na vdi niinaih sa idam abhyaveydd iti. sa eve Hi, 7. sa ha 
sopdndd evd ^ntarvedy avasthdyo ^vdcd ^figa nv itthaih grhajyatdS 
iti, tarn ha nd ^nudatisthdsat.* sa ho ^vdcd ^ndtthdtd* ma^ edhi, 
krmdjino ^sl \^ti\, tad ime kurtipancdld (fvidur" anvtthdtdi 'ya 
ta iti ho ^''cuh. 8. tain ha kanlydn bhrdto" '?n?cv7'" ^ntlttistha^^ 
b/iagava udgdtdram iti, tarn hd ^nuttasthdu, ». sa ho ^vdca trir 
mi grh<ipate puruso jdyate, pitur evd ^gre ^dhi jdyate Hha md- 
tur atha yajUdt. 10. trir^* w" eva^* mriyaln^^ iti, sa yad dha vd 
euam etat pitd yonydrh reto bhutam siiicati — 83, 

dvdiiye ^nuvdke tftlyah khaijflaJj^, 

III. 8. 1. Now liis relatives were tear-faced, as it were [saying]: 
" lliis one hath gone unto one or the other." a. Now whenever 
one formerly engaged in a theological disputation, they used to 
think of him : " lie hath gone unto one or the other;" and they 
used to wait on him as on one dead. s. The driver said to him : 
" Since, sir, thou art not on good terms with these two, why dost 
thou speak thus ?" 4. " Yes," he said, " I must go; the teacher 
thought [them] easily governed." 6. He, mounting the chariot, 
drove off. They catch sight of him. e. "Do you know who 
this is?" "Sudaksina." " Mav he not come down hither now." 
" I It is] just he." 7. He, descending from the steps within the 
sacred enclosure, said : " Verily now is it thus, O householder ?" 
He did not wish to attend upon him. He said: " Be thou attending 
iipon me ; thou art [dressed] in the skin of a black antelope." 
These Kurupanealas knew this. "He is thy attendant," they 
said. 8. His vounger brother said to him : " Sir, attend upon the 
udgdtar,'*'' lie attended upon him. 9. He said : " Verily thrice, 
O householder, man is born. From his father he is bom first, 
then from his mother, then from the sacrifice. 10. And thrice he 
likewise dieth. When his father emitteth him as seed thus into 
the womb, — 



8*>B. -m. »B. ^. *ac&r', ^uHy-, ^-^(hds-, ' -uddlid-, 'iw. "in- 
sert iff. • A. grata, '"A. va. " anHtistha. " A. triv, "A. a ; B. u, 
" A. om. " B. triyata. 



168 IL OerUl, 

III. 9. 1. — tat prathamam mriyate, a. andham^ iva vfd 
tamo yonih, lohitastoko V(V vCii sa tad ahhavaty apam va 
stokah, kiih hi sa* tad dbhavati, s. aa yaa tdm devatdm veda 
yam ca sa^ tato ^ntisarnbhavati yd cdi* ^nam tarn nirtyum ativa- 
hat I aa udf/dtd mrtyum ativahatl Hi. 4. atha ya enam etad 
dtksayanti* tad dvitlyam mriyate. vapanti keQa^ma^iini. ni- 
krntanti nakhdn. 7>ra^yai7;an^?/* angdni. pratyacaty** anguTih. 
apavrto' ^jtavestita* date, na juhoti. na yajate. na yositam* ca- 
rati, aindnusim vdca/h vadati. mrtaaya vdvdi ^sa* tadd rujmui 
hhavati. 6. aa ya^ tdm devatdm veda ydm ca^° aa tato ^nuaam- 
hhavati yd cdi ^nam tarn inrtyum, ativahati aa udgdtd rnrtyum 
ativahatl Hi. «. atha ya enam etad aamdl lokdt pretarh citydm 
ddadhati tad trtlyam mriyate. 7. aa yaa^^ tdm devatdm veda 
ydm ca aa tato hiuaamhhavati yd cdi ^naih tarn mrti/ian ativa- 
hati^^ aa udgdtd mrtyxun ativahatl Hi. e. etdvad dhdi 'vo** "^ktvd 
ratham dsthdya pradhdvaydm cakdra. 9. tarn ha jdbdlaim pra- 
tyetarh kanlydn hhrdto '*vdca kdm^* bhavan^* chn-drako vdcam 
avddl ^ti. haatind gddham dislr iti. lo. j>ra hdi \'di '*narh tac 
clia^anaa yah kathain avocad bhagava iti. yaa traydndm mrtyrf- 
ndm admnd Hivdham veda aa udgdtd mrtyiim ativahatl Hi. 84, 

dvitiye ^nuvdke caturthafj khandaJj. 

III. 9. 1. " — Then he dies for the first time. a. Blind darkness, 
as it were, is the womb. He thus becomes either a drop of blood 
or a drop of water. What, pray, does he thus become ? s. He 
who knows that divinity after which he thence comes into being 
and which carries him beyond this death — he as udgdtar carries 
beyond death. 4. And when they thus consecrate him, then 



he dies for the second time. They cut [his] hair and [hisj beard, 
[his] nails. They anoint his several limbs. He bends 
his fingers. He sits uncovered, stripped off (?). He does not 



offer oblations, he does not sacrifice, he does not approach a 
woman, he speaks non-human speech. Verily he then has the 
form of one dead. 6. = a. e. And when they lay him, having 
departed from this world, upon the funeral- pyre, then he dies for 
the third time. 7. = «." e. Having said this much, mounting the 
chariot, he drove off. o. To this Jabala, having come back, [his] 
vounger brother said : " Sir, what words hath the ^lidra spoken ? 
Thou hast sought a shallow with an elephant." He (the older Ja- 
bala) set that forth to him who [had said]: "How hath he spoken, 
sir?": "He who knows the carrying-over of the three deaths 
by means of the sdrnan^ he as udgdtar carries beyond death.'* 

9. ^anth-. ^vo. 'B. «. <ce. *A. dl-. ^-ajaty. ''ava-. ^ydus-. 'aa. 
*® B. inserts fed. ^^yaiita-a. ^*-tiHi. ^^vd. '* insert vahati 7 1, can- 
celled in B. ^-yaj-. ^^-i^c. 



Jdiminlya' Upanisad-Brdhinana. 169 

III. 10. I. tarn vdva bhagavas te pito^ ^dgdtdram amanyate 
^ti ho ^vdca, tad u ha prdcina^dld vidur* ya esdni ayam vrta 
udydtd ^^sa.* tasmin ha nd ^nuviduh. a. te ho ^^cur anudhdvata 
kdndvlyam* iti. tarn hd ^nusasruh.* te ha kdndviyatn udgdtdram 
cakrire brahfndnam* prdclna^dlim, s. tarn hd ^bhyaveksyo^ ^vdcdi 
^vam €^a brdhmano moghdya vdddya nd '*gldyai>, sa nd ^nu sdmno 
^nvicchatl* Hi, atl hdt ^vdi ^nam iae cakre, 4. sa yad dha vd* 
enam^^ etat pitd yonydm reto bhutam sificaty ddityo hdt ^nam 
tad yonydm reto bhutam}^ siflcatL sa hd ^sya tatra mrtyor ipc." 
4. atho yad evdi ^nam etat pitd yonydm reto bhutam sitlcatV* tad 
dha vdva sa tato ^nitsambhavati prdnam ca, yadd hy eva retas 
siktam 2>rdna dvipaty atha tat sambhavati,^* e. atho yad evdi 
^nam etad dlksayanty agnir hdi ^vdi ^nam tad yonydm reto bhu- 
tam sificati. sa hdi ^vd ^sya tatra mrtyor »p€.** 7. atho ydm evdi 
Hdrh vdisarjanlydm dhutim adhvaryur juhoti tdm eva sa tato 
^nusambhavati chanddnsV* cdi 'va. ». atha ya enam etad asmdl 
lokdt" pretam citydm ddadhati candramd hdi ^vdi ^nam tad 
yonydm reto bhutam sificati, sa u hdi ^vd ^sya tatra mrtyor tp€. 
9. atho yad evdi ^nam etad a^mdP^ lokdt^"* pretam citydm dda- 

III. 10. I. He said : " Sir, verily, thy father thought him an 
udgdtar; and the Pr§clna9ala8 know it, who of them was the 
chosen udgdtar hero." To him they did not assent (?). a. They 
said : " Run after Kandviya." They ran after him. They made 
Kundviya the udgdtar y [and] Pracina5ali the ^raAmaw-priest. 
». He looking down at him said : " Thus this Brahman was not 
averse to idle talk. He doth not strive after the subtle of the 
sdman.'*'* He did this beyond him (?). 4. When the father 
thus emits him as seed into the womb, then the sun thus emits 
him as seed in the womb. He thei'e lords over this death. 
». And when the father thus emits him as seed into the womb, 
verily he thence comes into existence after that [seed] and after 
breath. For when breath enters the emitted seed, then it comes 
into being, e. And when they thus consecrate him, it is Agni 
who thus emits him as seed into the womb. He there lords 
over this death. 7. Now what yd/^ar/awa-offering the adhvaryu 
offers, after that he thence comes into existence and after the 
metres. 8. And when they thus lay him, having departed from 
this world, on the funeral pyre, it is the moon who thus emits 
him as seed into the womb. He there lords over this death. 
». Now when they put him, having departed from this world, 



10. *A. -6. ^vUjur, ^saJ^, *B,kdiitydvaijjam, ^-srat,, '^B.brdhma- 
t}am, ' 'pek^ya. * A. nvlc-. * B. raiiam. '° B. cm. " A. rat; " B. -o. 
'' insert atho vdca. ^^ insert atho ya enam etad dlksayanty .... taira 
mrtyor iQe. 'Mnsert atho yad evdi ^nam etad dlk^yanti, ^* A., dsi. 
" 'dn. >* B. -vantt Hi. 

VOL. XVI. 23 



170 H. Oertel, 

dhaty atho yd evdi Hd avoksanlyd dpas id eva sa tato ^ntisam- 
hliavati^^ prdnam v eva. prdno hy dpah, lo. tarn ha vd evamvid 
udgdtd yajamdnam oin ity etend ^kstxrend ^^dityain mrtyum 
ativahati vd(j ity agnim hum iti vdyum hhd iti candramasam, 
II. tdn^* vd etdn mrtyun sdmno ^dgdtd '^Hmdnam ca yq^amdnam 
cd ^tivdhaty om ity etend ^ksarena [yrdnend ^mund ^'^dityefia. 
13. tasydi ^sa ^oka 

utdi ^sdm jyestha*^ uta vd kanistha 

utdi ^sdm putra tUa vd pitdi ^sdm : 

eko ha devo manasi pravistah 

purvo ha jajfie sa u garbhe ^ntar 
iti. 18. tad yad eso ^bhyukta^^ imam eva purusarh yo ^yam 
dchanno" ^ntar om ity etendi 'ya ^ksarena prdnendi 'va ^mundi 
'ya ^^dityena [ J 85. 

dvitlye ^nuvdke paflcamdfy khaiitfalh. dvitiyo *nuvdka8 samdptaf^. 

III. 11. I. trir ha^ vdi puruso mriyate trir jdyate? a. sahdi 
''tad eva prathamam mriyate yad retas siktarh samhhxUam* bhci- 
vati, sa prdnam eva ^hhisambhavati. dgdm abhijdyate. ». athdi 
Had dvitlyam mriyate yad dlksate. sa chanddnsy evd* ^bhisam- 

on the funeral pyre, now what the waters for sprinkling are, 
after those he thence comes into existence and after breath also. 
For breath is the waters. lo. Him sacrificing an tidgdtar who 
knows thus carries beyond the sun, [i. e. beyond] death, by 
means of this syllable, viz. om; [saying] vac [he carries himj 
beyond Agni; [saying] hum, beyond Vayu; [saying] bhd^ beyond 
the moon. ii. Verily beyond these same deaths an ttdgdtar 
carries himself and the sacrificer, by means of this syllable, 
viz. om, by means of breath, by means of yonder sun. w. 
About this there is this ^oka : " Is he the oldest of them or 
the youngest? Is he their son, or their father? Truly one 
god IS entered in the mind ; he was born of old and he is within 
the womb." is. In that he is spoken of, this same man who is 
concealed within, by just that syllable om, by breath, by yonder 
sun [ ]. 

III. 11. I. Verily, thrice man dies, thrice he is born. a. Then 
he dies for the first time, when the seed, emitted, comes into 
being. He is converted into breath ; he is born into space. 
3. Then he dies for the second time, when he consecrates himself. 
He is converted into the metres ; he is born unto the sacrificial 



10. >• A. fd. '""japttha. ^' B. hyii-. ^- ncharm. 

11. ' A. fee. - insert 8a hdi*tad etni prathamam mriyate, trir Jdyate, 
■^ 8<thh'. * A. 01^. 



Jdiminvyor Vpanisad-Brdhinana, 171 

bhavati, daksindm abhijdyate, 4. athdi ^tat trtlyam mriyate 
yan^ mriyate, sa ^addhdm evd ^bhisambhavati. lokam abhijd- 
y<Ue. •. tad etat trydvrd* gdyatrarh gdyatV tasya jjrathamayd 
^^vrte ^mam* eva lokam jayati yad u cd ^smin loke. tad etena cdi 
''nam prdnena samardhayati^ yam abhisambhavaty etdrh cd 
^9md d^dm** prayaccJiati yarn abhijdyate, e. atha dvitlyayd 
^''crte ''dam evd ^ntariksam jayati yad u cd ^ntarikse, tad etdi^ 
cdV* ^nam chandobhis samMrdhayatH* ydny abhisambhavati, etdm 
cd ^smdi daksindm prayacchati ydm abhijdyate, 7. atha trt'i- 
yayd ^^vrtd ^mum eva lokam, jayati yad u cd ^m^usinin loke, tad 
etayd cdi ^narh praddhayd aam^ardhayat^ y^fydi ^vdi ^7ia7n etac 
chraddhayd ^gndv^* abhyddadhati sam ay am ito bhavisyatl Hi. 
etaih cd ^smdi lokam^* prayacchati yam abhijdyate, 86, 

tjiiye *nuvdke prathamah khan^alj,, 

III. 12. J. etad vdi tisrbhir dvrdbhir imdnp ca lokdii^ jayaty 
etdip cdi ^nam bhUtdis samardhayati' ydny abhisambhavati. 
t, atha vd ato hinkdrasydi 'va. tarn ha* svarge loke Bantam.* 
mrtyur anvety* apanayd, ». prir* vd esd prajdpatis sdmno yad 
dhinkdrah, tarn id' udgdtd griyd lyrajdpatind hinkdrena mr- 

gift. 4. Then he dies for the third time, when he dies. He is 
converted into faith ; he is born into [his] world, t. Therefore he 
sings the gdyatra [-chant] in three turns (dvrt). By its first turn 
he conquers this world, and what there is in this world. Thus he 
causes hinot to thrive with that breath into which he is converted, 
and he gives him that space unto which he is born. 6. And by its 
second turn he conquers this atmosphere, and what there is in the 
atmosphere. Thus he causes him to thrive with those metres 
into which he is converted, and he gives him that sacrificial gift 
unto which he is born. 7. And with the third turn he conquers 
yonder world, and what there is in yonder world. Thus he 
causes him to thrive with that faith with which faith they lay 
bim into the fire [saying]: "This one, from here, will come to 
life ;" and he gives him that world unto which he is born. 

III. 12. I. Verily, thus with three turns he conquers these 
worlds, and he causes him to thrive with those things into 
which he is converted. a. Now from here concerning the 
hinkdra. After him, being in the heavenly world, dcatli goes, 
hunger, s. The hinkdra is the fortune, Prajapati of the sd- 
man. That death the udgdtar drives away by means of for- 

11. *'m. *triy: 'B. -anh*. H*w-(I). •-7;ifd/i-. ^^ inaert nyabhisam- 
Mavaff, caDcelled in red. ^^ ca, '*'c?idi;. '*-cl. 

12. ^ vok', ^-tnfdh. 'A. cm. ^B.sitam. ^B. aneti. *^ri. "* ed. 



172 H, Oertel 

tyura apasedJiati. 4. hum me Hy aha md "^tra nu* gd yatrdi "^tad 
yajam,dna iti hdi Hat. ». sa yathd ^reyasd siddhah pdplydn 
prativijata^ eimyh}^ hdi ^vd ^smdn mrtyuh pdpmd prativijate* 
6. yan me ''ty dha candramd vdt ind nidsah, esa ha vdi md 
m>d8ah. taamdn me Hy dha, hhd^^ iti hdi Hat paroksene 'ra. ya^- 
mdd V eva trie Hy dha yad v eva^^ me Hy dhdi Hdni trini. tasmdn 
me Hi bruydt. 87. 

tjrtiye *nuvdke dvitlyah kJian^ah. 

III. 13. 1. hum bhd iti brahmavarca^akdmaaya. bhdfl hm hi 
brahmavarcasam. a. hum bo^ iti papukdmasya. bo iti ha pa^vo 
vd^yante. n, hum bay iti p'lkdmasya.* bay iti ha ^riyam, panu- 
yanti. a. hum bhd ovd ity etad evo ^payltam. 6. ma/iad ivd 
^bhiparivartayan gdyed iti ha smd '''*ha ndko mahdgrdmo mahd- 
nive^o bhavatl Hi. sa yathd sthdnum arpayitve* '*tarena* ve 
Harena vd pariydydt^ tddrk tat. «. tad u ho ^vdca ^dtydyanih 
kasmdi kdtndya sthdnum, arpayet. atho ^pagltam evdi '^tat. ndi 
^vdi Had* ddriyete' Hi. i. [iti] nu hinkdrdndm.* atfia vd ato 
nidhanam. eva. ovd iti dve aksare. anto vdi sdmno nidhatiam 

• 

tune, of Prajapati, of the hinkdra. 4. He says hum md: that 
is, " Do not now go thither, where the sacrificer now is." As, 
driven by a better one, a worse one trembles before him, even 
so death, evil, trembles before- him. e. As for his saying wa, 
ma is the moon, the month. Verily, this month is md. Therefore 
he says md; that is bhd^ in an occult way, as it were. As to 
why he says md — in that he says md, there are these three [mean- 
ings]. Therefore he should say md. 

III. 13. I. Hum. bhd are [the utterances] of him who desires 
lustre in sacred lore. For lustre in sacred lore shines (y'Ma), 
as it were. «. Hum, bo are [the utterances] of him who desires 
cattle. For cattle low bo. s. Hum bag are [the utterances] of 
him who desires fortune. For saying bag they extol fortune. 
4. Ham. bhd ovd, that is sung in response. " Let him sing turn- 
ing about unto something great, as it were," Naka used to say; 
"he becomes the owner of a great village, the owner of a great 
resting place." That is as if, having caused to run against a post, 
with another or another one should go about [it]. «. [But] ^a- 
tyayani said regarding this : " For what purpose should he cause 
to run against a post ? Now that is sung in response. Let him 
pay no attention to that." 7. So much about the hinkdras. Hence- 
forth regarding the nidhana. Ovd is two syllables. Verily the ni- 



12. ^ insert i/i. *-inca-. ^^eevam. ^^bhdga. ^^diva 
18. * vo. * fKfc-; A. '8U. * -vd ; A. ayitvd. * B. -ree. 
Hafid. ■» diidr'. * hiftkak-. 



3. 

• ^paryyd'. «A. 



Jaimiwiya- Vpanisaxl-Brahviann, 173 

anJUis svargo lokdndm anto hradhnasya vistapani. e. tarn etad 
udgatd yajamdnnni oni ity etend ^ksarend ^nfe svarge lake da- 
dhdti. 9. ya u ha vd apakso vrksdgram gacchaty ava vdi sa 
tatah padyate. atha j/ad vdi paksi vrksdgre yad asidhdrdydm 
yat ksuradhdrdydtn date na vdi sa tato ^vapadyate, 2^<^ks<ibhydm 
hi samyata* dste. lo. tam etad udgdtd yajamdnain om ity ete7id 
^ksarena svarapaksam krtvd ''nte svarge lake dadhdti. sa yathd 
paksy abihhyad dMdi \^am eva srarge loke ^hihhyad dste Hhd.^^ 
^^earati. ii. te ha vd ete aksare devaloka^ cdi ^va manusyaloka^ 
CO. ddityap ca ha vd ete aksare candramd^ ca. 12. dditya eva 
devaloka^ candramd mannsyalokah. om ity ddityo^^ vdg iti can- 
dramdh, la. tam etad udgdtd yajamdnam om. ity etend ^ksarend 
^dityam devalokam gamayati. 88, 

tfttye ^nuvdke tftlyaJf, khan(fah, 

III. 14. I. tam hd ^^gatam prcchati kas tvam aM Hi. sa yo ha 
ndmnd vd gotrena vd prabrdte tam hd ^Uia yas te ^yam mayy^ 
dtmd ^bhud esa te sa iti, 2. ta^niin hd "^Hman pratipat, tam^ 
rtavas sampaddryapad grhUain apakarsanti, tasya hd ^hordtre 

dhana is the end of the sdman, heaven is the end of the worlds, 
the summit is the end of the ruddy one. 8. Thus the udgdtar 
places the sacrificer by means of this syllable otn in the end in 
the heavenly world. 9. Verily he who without wings goes up 
to the top of a tree, he falls down from it. But if one having 
wings sits on the top of a tree, or on the edge of a sword, or on 
the edge of a razor, verily he does not fall down from it. For 
he sits supported by his wings. 10. Thus the udgdtar, making 
him, the sacrificer, by means of that syllable om possess sound as 
wings, puts him in the end in the heavenly world. As one with 
wings would sit without fear, even so he sits without fear in the 
heavenly world, [and! likewise moves about, n. These same two 
syllabUs are the world of the gods and the world of man. The 
sun these two syllables are, and the moon. la. The sun is the 
world of the gods, [and] the moon is the world of man. The sun 
is owj, the moon is vdc. is. Thus the udgdtar causes him, the 
sacrificer, to go to the heayenly world by means of this syllable 
om. 

III. 14. I. Him, having come, he asks: ** Who art thou?" When 
he announces himself , either by his [personal] name or by his family 
[name], he says to him: "This self of thee that hath been in me, 
that same is tnine." >. In this self is the beginning (? pratipat). 
Him seized the seasons drag away; of him day and night 



18. • hifksayata. '<* A. -o. " -e, 14. ' B. -dhy, « ta. 



174 n. Oertd, 

lokatn dpnutah, s. tasma u hdi Hena* pra-bruvlta* ko ^ham cumi 
suvas tvam. sa tvdrh svargyam^ svar agdm iti. 4. ko ha vdi 
prajdpatir atha hdi hmmvid eva suvargah.* sa hi suvar gacchati. 
6. tarn hd ^^ha yas tvam asi so ^ham asmi yo ^ham asmi sa tvam 
asy ehJi Ui, e. sa etam eva sukrtarasam pravi^ati. yad u ha vd 
asmin loke inanmyd yajante' yat sddhu* kurvanti tad esdm ur- 
dhvam annddyam utsldati. tad amum candramasam tnantisya- 
lokam pravi^ati, 7. tasye* ^dam mdnusanikd^nam^* andam 
udare^^ ^ntas sambhavati. ta^yo ''''rdhvam}^ annddyam uUHdati 
standv^* abhi. sa yad a jay ate ^thd ^smdi mdtd stanam annddyam 
prayacrhati. e, ajdto ha vdi tdvat puruso ydvan na yajate,^* 
sa yajfiendi ^va jdyate. sa yathd ^ndam prathamanirbhinnam 
evam eva, 9. tadd tarn ha vd evamvid udgdtd yajamdnam om, 
ity etend ^ksarend ^^dityam devalokam gamayati. vdg ity asmd 
tUtarend ^ksarena candram,asam^^ annddyam aksitim prayac- 
chati,^* 10. atha yasydi Had avidvdn udgdyati na^^ hdi ^vdi 
'*nam devalokam gamayati no enam annddyena samardhayatu^* 
11. sa yathd ^ndam vidigdham^^ ^ayUd ^nnddyam alabhamdnam 
evam eva vidigdhap gets ^nnddyam alabhamdnah*' is. ta^rndd 

obtain the world, s. To him he should answer thus: "Who (ka) 
am I, heaven [art] thou. As such 1 have gone to thee, the heav- 
enly heaven." 4. Verily Prajapati is who {ka)^ and he who knows 
thus is heaven-going ; for he goes to heaven. 6. He says to 
him: "Who thou art, that one am I; who I am, that one art 
thou ; come !" «. He enters this sap of good deeds. And what 
men in this world sacrifice, what good [deeds] they do, that of 
them rises upward fas] food-eating ; it enters yonder moon, the 
world of men. 7. This human -like egg of him comes into being 
within the belly. Of it the food- eating rises upward toward the 
two breasts. When he is born, then the mother offers her breast 
to him for food-eating, s. Verily unborn is the man in so far as 
he does not sacrifice. It is through the sacrifice that he is born ; 
just as an egg first burst. 9. Then the udgdtar knowing thus 
causes him, the sacrificer, through this syllable, viz. om, to enter 
the sun, the world of the gods. By means of the next syllable, 
viz. vdCy he gives him the moon, food-eating, imperishableness. 
10. But whose udgltha one not knowing thus sings, verily he 
does not cause him to enter the world of the gods, nor to 
thrive through food-eating. 11, As an egg would lie besmeared 
(?), not receiving any food, so he lies besmeared (?), not receiving 

14. 'tdina, * -brav-i A, -vit, *A. -gmn. ^ susvar-; B. -Tfi. 'B.jd- 
yante, «A. «d-. »A. -ai. »*-?aw nik-; after it insert idam. "B. 
adere, ^*ddhV'. ^^-ndc, ^*B, jayate. '*A. -«a. ^^-yak^iti, ^'nd. 



Jaiimrwyor Upanh<id-Brdhinaiia, 175 

u hai ^vamvidam evo ^dgdpayeta. evarhvid ihdi ^vo ^dgdtar iti 
hiUah f/rati^rnttf/dt.** 89, 

tf^y^ *nuvdke paflcamah khandxih, trtiyo *nuvdka8 aamdptah, 

III. 15. 1. vdg iti he^ ^ndro vi^iu'imitrdyo ^kthani^ itvdca, tad 
etad vi^odmitrd updsate vdcam eva, 3. inanur ha vasisthdya 
br€thmatvam uvdca, tctsmdd dhur vdsisthain eva hrahme Hi, 
J. tadu vd dhUr evarhvid eva brahmd. ha u evamvidam vdsis- 

• 

tham arhatl Hi, a, prajdpatih prdjijanisata, sa tapo Hapyaia. 
$a diksata hanta tiu pratisthdm janaydi* tato yah prajds srak- 
sye* id* etad eva pratisthdsyauti nd ^pratisthd^ carantlh prada- 
ghisyanta iti. 6. sa imam lokam ajanayad antariksalokam 
amurh* lokam iti. tdn imdns trih lokdfi janayitvd ^hhyat^rdmyat. 
6. tdn samatapat.^ tebhya>s samtaptebhyas trini ^ukrdny uddyann 
agnih prthivyd vdyur antariksdd ddityo divah. i, sa* etdni 
fukrdni punar abhy evd Hapat,* tebhyas sarhtaptebhyas trlny 
eva pukrdny uddyann rgveda evd ^yner yajiirvedo vdyos sdma- 
veda dditydt. 8. sa etdni pukrdni punar abhy evd Hapat. tebhyas 

any food. la. Therefore he should cause only one knowing thus 
to sing the ttdgltha. Only one knowing thus here being ad- 
dressed with " O udgdtar " should answer. 

III. 15. I. Indra said the uktha for Vi5vamitra [with] vac. 
That same the descendants of Yi9vamitra worship, just speech. 
1. Manu declared to Vasistha ^raAman-hood. Therefore they 
say: **The brahman belongs to Vasistha." a. This they also say: 
**One knowing thus is the ^/viAman-priest ; and who is equal to a 
Vasistha knowing thus ?" 4. Prajapati was desirous to have 

rro^ny. He performed penance. He considered: *' Come now, 
will generate a firm footing. Wliat offspring I shall generate 
thereafter, that will thus stand firm; it will not, moving about 
without firm foundation, fall (?)." He generated this world, [also! 
the world of atmosphere [and] yonder world. Having generated 
these three worlds, he toiled upon [them]. 6. He heated them 
together. From them being heated together three bright [bodies] 
went up : Agni from the earth, Vfiyu from the atmosphere, the 
sun from the sky. 7. He again heated these bright [bodies]. 
From them being heated together three bright [bodies] went up: 
the Bigveda from Agni, the Yajurveda from Vayu, the Samaveaa 
from the sun. 8. He again heated these bright [bodies]. Frpm 



li. •' 'Qrunu-, 

15. ^h&i. *tUth'. *A,jdye: B.janaye, *r^-« ^tdm. ^-mu, '^sam- 
abhavan. *^ ssa. *-7i. 



176 IL Oertel, 

sarhtaptebhycLs triny eva ^uJcrdny uddyan hhur ity eva rgvedad 
bhtiva iti yajurveddt svar iti sdmaveddt tad^^ eva, ». tad dha 
vdi trayydi vidydydi ^ukram, etdvad idarh sarvam, aa yo vdi 
traylm vidydih viduso lokas so ^sya loko hhavati ya evarh t^eda. 

caturthe 'nuvCike prathamah khan^afy, 

III. 10. 1. ay am vdva yajflo yo ^yam pavate. taaya vdk ca 
matiap ca vartanydu, vdcd ca hy esa etan tnanasd ca vartate, 
a. tasya hotd \lhvaryur udgdte Hy anyatardm vdcd vartanim 
samskurvanti, tasmdt te vdcd kurvanti. brahmdi ^va manasd 
^nyatardm,^ tasmdt sa tusn'un dste, «. sa yad dha so ^pi stuya- 
radne vd Qasyamdne vd vdvadyamdna dsitd ^nyatardni evd ^syd 
^pi tarhi sa vdcd vartanim sarhskurydt. 6. sa yathd purusa 
ekapdd yan hhresann^ eti ratho vdi '*kacakro vartamdna* evam 
eva tarhi yajiio bhresaiui eti. a. etad dha tad* vidvdn hrdhtnana 
uvdca brahmdnam prdtaranuvdka updkrte* vdvadyamdnam 
dsinam* ard/iani' vd ime tarhi yajnasyd hitaragnr* iti. ardham 
hi te tarhi yajnasyd ^ntarlyuh.* 6. tasmdd brahmd prdtaranu- 
vdka updkrte vdcamyania dsltd '''^paridhdmydyd d vasatkdrdd 

them bein^ heated together three bright [bodies] weut up : bhijis 
from the Uigveda, bhuvas from the Yajurveda, svar from the 
Saraaveda, just so. 9. That is the brightness of the threefold 
knowledge. So great is this all. Verily what the world is of 
him who knows the threefold knowledge, that becomes the world 
of him who knows thus. 

III. 1(5. 1. This sacrifice verily is he that cleanses here. Speech 
and mind are the two tracks of it. For thus it rolls along by 
speech and mind. a. Of it ' hotarj ' adhvaryu,^ * udgdtar'* arrange 
the one [track] by speech. Therefore they officiate with speech. 
The ftr«/imflr/<-priest [arranges] the other by the mind. There- 
fore he sits in silence, s. If he should sit talking aloud, while 
the stotra or the ^astra are being uttered, then he would arrange 
with voice the one track of it. 4. As a one-legged man, going, 
keeps on tumbling, or a one-wheeled chariot, rolhng, even so the 
sacrifice then keeps on tumbling. 6. A Brahman knowing this 
said this to a brahman-yTM^^t who, when the prdtaranuvdka was 
begun, sat talking aloud : "These here then have excluded half 
of the sacrifice." For half of the sacrifice they then did exclude. 
6. Therefore the Brfih man-priest should sit in silence, when the 



15. 'o-m. 

16. ^ -an. *B. ^t-. ^-ndth. *ta, ' -o. •* B. repeats d«-. ' -n. ^-gu- 
rur, • 'ntaryyuh. 



Jai7niinyar JJjxfn Isad- Brahm ana, 1 77 

itareiidm stuta^astrdndm evd^^ '''^samathdydi pavamdndndm. 
7. sa yathd purusa uhhaydpdd^^ yan}* hhresam 7ia^* nyeti ratho vo 
^hhaydcakro vartamdna evam etarhi yajno hhresam na nyeti, 91, 

caturthe *nuvdke dvitiyaJi khan^aJ)^, 

III. 17. 1. sa yadi yajfia rkto hhremnn iydd^ hrakinane pra- 
brute Hy dhuh, atha yadi yajusto^ hrahmane prahrute ^ty dhuh, 
atha yadi sdmato hrahmane prahrute ''ty dhuh, atha* yady ati- 
upasmrtdt kuta idatn ajanl Hi hrahmane prahrute Hy evd^'* ^^huh, 
«. sa hrahmd prdii* udetya sruvend ^^gnldhra djyam juhuydd 
hhur bhuvas svar ity etdhhir vydhrtihhih. z, eid vdi vydhrtayas 
sarvaprdyaQcittayah, tad yathd lavanefia suvarnarh samda- 
dhydt^ suvarnena rajatam rajatena trapu* trapund lohdyasam 
lohdyasena kdrsndyasarri' kdrsndyaaena ddru ddru ca carma ca 
^lesmandi* ^vam evdi ^vam vidvdns tat sarvam hhisajyati, <. tad 
dhur yad ahdusin me grahdn me ^grahld ity adhvaryave daksind 
nayanty aQansln^^ me vasad* akar^^ ma^^ iti hotra udagdsln ma 

prdtaranuvdka is begun, till the final verse, till the utterance of 
vasat of the other stotra and ^astra, even till the completion of 
the libations. 7. As a two-legged man, going, does not take to 
tumbling, or a two-wheeled chariot, rolling, even so the sacrifice 
then does not take to tumbling. 

m. 17. 1. If that sacrifice should go tumbling from the side 
of the rCy they say: "Tell it to the ^aAman-priest"; and if 
from the yajus^ they say: " Tell it to the hrahmaii-priest^^ ; and if 
from the sdman^ they say: " Tell it to the ^rcrAmaw -priest"; and 
if from [a cause] not understood — [when they ask] : " Whence 
hath this arisen?" — they say: "Tell it to the ^r«Amaw-priest." 
«. That ^aAman-priest going up toward the east should offer the 
sacrificial butter with a ladle in the dgntdhra, with these excla- 
mations: bhus, hhuvaSy svar. s. For these exclamations ex- 
piate everything. As one would mend gold with salt, silver 
with gold, tin with silver, copper with tin, iron with copper, 
wood with iron, wood and leather with glue, even so one know- 
ing thus cures everything. 4. This they say: "If with the 
words : * He hath offered for me, he hath dipped the dippings for 
me,' they lead the sacrificial gifts to the adhvaryu; if with the 
words: *He hath sung the pastra for me, he hath uttered the 
tfosat for me,' to the hotar; if with the words: *He hath sung 



1«. ^ Hi. " -p&d. ' » yad, " na^, 

17. 'f-. '-^o. *ratha, * A, praM ; B, prd, "B. mdadh-. *-puth, 
'^ A. kdr-, ' A. ^e^vux {sarhdaSiydtyna, parenthesis cancelled in red. 
• A -fOf. *• ahfni, " may, *» B. om. ev. '^ dgdfisin, 

▼OL. XVI. 24 



ITS //. Orrtvl, 

ity udgatre Hha kim cakruse hrahmane tiimlm Cmndya aama- 
vatlr eve Hardir^* rtvighhir dakslnd nayafitl UL 6. aa hruydd 
ardhahhdg^^ gluC^ odi^^ sa^* yajfiasyd ^rdharh hy esa yajna^ya 
vahatl HL ardhd ha stria vdi purd hrahmane daksind miyanfi 
Hi, ardhd itarehhya rtmghhyah, «. tasydl \sa ^loko 

iiiayl \laiii inn/nye bhuvanddi sanjam 

niayi lokd rnayi di^p cata^ra/i : 

iiiayV ^dam manye nimisad yad ejati 

mayy dpa osadhaya^ ca sarvd 
iti, 7. 7nayl ^dani mayiye bhtivanddi sarvam ity evamvidam ha 
vdve ^daih sarvam bhuvanam anvdyattam. e. mayi lokd tnayi 
dipap catasra ity exmmvidi ha vdva lokd evamvidl dipa^ cata- 
srah. 9. mayl ^dam munye nimisad yad ejati mayy dpa osadha- 
ya^ ca sarvd ity evarhvidV* ha vdve ^dam sarvam bhuvanam 
pratisthitam. lo. tasmdd u hdi \tamvidam eva brahmdmvh 
kurvlta, sa ha vdva^* brahnid ya evam veda. 92, 

caturthe 'nuvdke tftiyafy khaij^ah, 

III. 18. I. afha vd atas stomabhdgd7idm evd ^fiumantrdh, 
a. tad dhdi Had eke stomabhdgdir^ evd ^numantrayante, tat 
tathd m^ kurydt.^ «. devena savitrd prasutah prastotar deve- 

the udgltha for me,' to the udgdtar — now then to the brahman 
having done what, while he sat in silence, do they lead just as 
large sacrificial gifts as to the other priests?" 6. Let him say: 
" He, indeed, shareth in half of the sacrifice, for he carrieth half 
of the sacrifice." Indeed they formerly used to lead half of tlie 
sacrificial gifts to the ft raAma?? -priest, half to the other priests. 
6. Of this there is the following ^oka : ** In me, I think, is this 
whole creation etc., in me the worlds, in me the four quarters ; 
in me, I think, is that twinkling thing which stirs, in me the 
waters and all the herbs." 7. * In me, I think, is the whole crea- 
tion etc.:' for on one knowing thus this whole creation is depen- 
dent. 8. * In me the worlds, in me the four quarters :' for in one 
knowing thus are the worlds, in one knowing thus the four 
quarters. ». * In me that twinkling thing which stirs, in me the 
waters and all the herbs :' for in one knowing thus this whole 
creation has its support, lo. And therefore one should make one 
knowing thus a ftraAm<fw-priest. He indeed is a ^raAman-priest 
who knows thus. 

III. 18. 1. Now from here [about] the after-verses of the sto- 
mahhdgas, a. Now some recite the after-verses just with the 
stomabhdgas. One should not do that. a. And some recite the 



17. ^^-rer, ^^-dgh, '^om. "yd*. '«(<rt. ^"^ A. matihl, "^-ctairt. '^ B. etYi. 

18. ^ stoind-. "^ nu, ^ kurvdd. 




Ja/tm inly a- Upn n Isafl- Brdh rn ana . 1 79 

hhyo vdcam isye Hy u hdi 'Are ^numantrayante savitd vdi devd- 
ndm prasavitd savitrd* prasiltd idani ainirnayitraydmaha iti 
vadantah. tad u tathd na^ kurydt. 4. bhur hhuvcis svar ity u 
hdi ''ke ''nutnantrayanta esd vdi trayi^ vidyd trayydV 've* Warn 
ridyayd^ ''nwnantraydmaha iti vadantah, tad u tathd no eva 
kurydf. 6. om ity evd ^nvmantrayeta. 6. athdi ^sa vasisthasydi 
^krtstotnabhdydnumantrah, tena hdi Hena tJosisthah prajdtikdmo 
^nxirnantraydThcakre devena savitrd j^rasHtah jjrastotar^^ devebhyo 
vdcam isya bhur bhiivaa svar onx iti. tato vdi sa bahnh^^ pra- 
jayd 2*ci9ubhih prdjdyata.^^ 7. sa eva tena vasisthasydi '^kastotna- 
bhdgdnumantrerid^* "^numantrayeta^* bahur eva prajayd^^ papu- 
bhih /rrajdyate, iyani^* tv eva sthitir om ity evd '*7iumantrayeta, 

fi.O 

catnrth^ ^nuvdke caturthah^* khan^aJj, 

III. 19. I. athdi ^sa vdcd vajratn udgrhndti, yad^ dha soniah 
pavuia iti vo ^pdvartadhvam iti vd vdcdi ^va tad vdco vajram 
vigrhyate tmcas satyend Himucyate, tasmdd om ity evd ^numan- 
tray eta. a. devd vd anayd^ tray yd [vidyayd] sarasayo ^Wdhvds 

after-verses [with this] : " Impelled by god Savitar, O prastotar, 
send [thy] speech to the gods," saying: " Savitar, verily, is the 
impeller of the gods ; we recite this after-verse impelled by 
Savitar." One should not do that either. 4. And some recite 
the after-verse [with] bhUSy bhuvas, svar, saying : " Verily, 
this is the threefold knowledge ; we now recite this after-verse 
with the threefold knowledge." One should not do that either, 
ft. One should recite the after- verse [saying] only om. e. Now 
this is Vasistha's only stomabhdga-dLiiev-yerse. With this same 
Vasistha, desirous of offspring, recited the after-verses : " Im- 
pelled by god Savitar, O prastotar, send [thy] speech to the 
gods ; bhiiSy bhuvas, svar, om.'*'* Thereby he was greatly propa- 
gated through progeny [and] cattle. 7. Let him recite the after- 
verse with this one «^oma5Aa^a-after-verse of Vasistha ; he is 
greatly propagated through progeny [and] cattle. But this is 
the rule : let him recite the after-verse with om only. 

in. 19. 1. Now with speech he takes up a thunderbolt. In 
that he says either " Soma cleanses itself " or " Turn ye hither," 
thereby with speech that thunderbolt of speech is taken apart (?), 
by the truth of speech he is released. Therefore he should 
recite the after-verse [saying] om only. a. Verily the gods 

18. * rd. * A. ne, e cancelled in red. * -I. "^ irdiyye. *• *va. • -ydyd. 
^^-hu. ^* -jdyd. ^^pr&j-. ^^tastom-. ^^-yete. "tya. ^* B. paflcamah. 

»' 'Std. 

19. »ya. '-d. 



ISO //. Oei^teh 

svargam lokam udakraman, te manusyanam anvdgamad bibh- 
yatas^ trayam vedam apllayan, ». taaya pilayanta chain -evd 
^ksaram nd ^^aknuvan pUayituni on% iti yad etat, a. esa u ha 
vdva sarasah, sarasd ha vd evamvidas trayl vidyd bhavati. 
6. sa ydrh ha vdi tray yd* vidyayd sarasayd jitim jayati ydm 
rddhim rdhnoti jayati tdrh jitim rdhnoti tdm rddhim ya evam 
veda. 6. etad dha vd aksaram trayydi vidydydi pratisthd^ om 
iti vdi hold pratisthita om ity adhvaryur om ity udgdtd. 7. etad 
dha vd aksaram veddndm trioistapam, etasmin vd aksara* rtvijo 
yajamdnam ddhdya svarge loke samuduhanti. tasmdd om ity 
evd ^numantrayeta. 9^, 

caturthe *nuvdke paficaniaJ}, khandaJi, caturtho *nuvdka8 aamdptaJi, 

III. 20. I. guhd ^si devo ^sy^ upavd '«y' upa tarn vdya/tva* yo 
^smdn dvesti yam ca vayam doismxih, a. mahind* ^si bahtdd '«i 
brhaty asi rohiny asy apannd ^si, s. sambhur devo 'si sam 
aham bhiiydsam. dbhutir^ asy dbhuydsam. bhutir asi bhuydsafn, 
4. yds te prajd upadistd nd ^ham tava tdh paryemi. upa te td 

with this threefold [knowledge] rich in sap ascended upwards to 
the heavenly world. They, being afraid lest men should come 
after [them], pressed the threefold knowledge ^Veda). s. Press- 
ing it, they could not press one syllable of it; that was om, 
4. verily this is full of sap; full of sap becomes the threefold 
knowledge of one who knows thus. ft. Verily what victory one 
wins, what thrift one thrives with the threefold knowledge full 
of sap, he wins that victory, he thrives that thrift, who knows 
thus. 6. Verily this same syllable is the firm stand of the three- 
fold knowledge. [Saying] om the hotar stands firm, [saying] om 
the adhvaryuy [saying] om the udgdtar, 7. Verily this same 
syllable is the triple heaven (?) of the Vedas. The priests hav- 
ing placed the sacrificer in this syllable carry him up together 
into the heavenly world. Therefore he should recite the after- 
verse [saying] om only. 

III. 20. 1. " Thou art in secret, thou art a god, thou art on- 
blowing ; blow on him who hates us and whom we hate. a. Thou 
art great, thou art abundant, thou art extended (brhatX)^ thou 
art ruddy, thou art not fallen, s. Thou art a god coming 
into existence ; may I come into existence. Thou art exist- 
ence ; may I exist. Thou art becoming ; may I become. 
4. What offspring of thee is declared, that [offspring] of thee 



19. ^vtbh', *trdiy-. ^pratisfM. •-€. 

20. ^dev&smi. *'py. *vdya8vi, *mahikd, ^dbhuritir. 



Jdhniniija- Vpanisafh lirdh m ana . 181 

difdmi. s. ndma me ^ariram me pratisthd me, tan me tvayi 
tan me mo ^pahrthd itl ^mdm prthivim avocat, 6. tarn, iyam 
dgatam prthivl pratinandaty ay am te bhagavo lokah, saha* ndv 
ayam loka iti. i. yad vdva me tvayl ^ty aha tad vdva me punar 
deht HL 8. kim nu te mayV ^tL ndma" me parlram me pratisthd 
me, tan me tvayi tan me punar dehl Hi. tad asmd^* iyam prthivl 
punar daddti. ». tdm, dha pra md vahe Hi. kim abhl Hi. agnim, 
iti, tarn agnim ahhipravahati.^ lo. so ^gnim dhd ^bhijid asy^'^ 
abhijayyasam.^^ lokajid asi lokath jayydsam. attir asy annam 
adydsam. annddo bhavati yas tvdi ^vam veda. ii. sambhur devo 
*si sam aham bhuydsam, dbhutir asy dbhuydsam. bhutir asi 
bhuydsam, n. yds teprajd upadistd nd 'Aar/i tava tdh paryem,i. 
upa t€ td di^dmi, is. tapo m^ tejo me ^nnam me vdri me, tan m.e 
tvayi. tan me mo ''pahrthd^'^ ity agnhn avocat. u. ta7h tathdi 
^vd ^^gatam, agnih 2>ralinandaty ayam te bhagavo loka^ saha 
ndv ayam loka iti. i». yad vdva me tvayi Hy dha tad vdva me 
punar dehl Hi. le. kim nu te mayl Hi. tapo me tejo me 'nnam> 
me vdn me, tan me tvayi. tan me punar dehl Hi. [tad] asmd^* 
agnir punar daddti. it. tam dha pra md vahe Hi. 95. 

paficame *nuv<ike prathamai> khan^dfy. 

I do not comprehend (?). That [offspring] of thee I declare. 
». My name, my body, my foundation : that of me is in thee. 
Do not take that of me unto thee," thus he said to this earth. 

6. Him having come this earth joyfully receives [saying]: ** Thine, 

reverend sir, is this world. This world is ours in common." 

7. "Verily what of me is in thee," he says, "give that back to 
me." 8. " What now of thee is there in me ?" " My name, my 
body, my foundation. That of me is in thee; give that back to 
me. That this earth gives back to him. 9. He says to her: 
" Carry me forth." " To what ?" " To Agni." She carries him 
forth to Agni. lo. He says to Agni: "Victorious art thou, may 

1 be victorious ; world-conquering art thou, may I conquer the 
world; eating art thou, may I eat food; food-eating becomes he 
who knoweth thee thus. ii. = «. 12. = 4. i». " My penance, my 
splendor, my food, my speech, that of me is in thee. That of me 
do not take unto thee," he says to Agni. u. Him having come 
thus Agni joyfully receives [saying]: "Thine, O reverend sir, is 
this world, ^his world is ours in common." 15. = 7. la. " What 
now of thee is there in me?" "My penance, my splendor, my 
food, ray speech. That of me is in thee; give that back to me." 
That Agni gives back to him. n. He says to him: "Carry volq 

20. •«!. 'B. madhl. •A. ma. 'B. -kanti. "B. repeats cU}hi' 
jidatif. ^^jaryy-. ^^-thdy. ^*tasmd. ^^asmdy. 




182 JL OerM, 

III. 21. 1. kim abhl Hi. vdyum iti, tarn vayum ahhipravahcUi. 
3. aa vdyum aha yat 2^ura8tdd vast '*ndro rdjd bhuto vdH. yad 
dakainato vdsl ^''^dno bhuto vdsi, yat papcdd vdsi varuno rdjd 
hhvto vdsL yad lUtarato vdsi soma rdjd bhuto vdsi. yad upari- 
stdd avavdsi i^rajdpatir bhuto ^vavdsi.* a. vrdtyo* *sy ekavrdtyo 
^navasrsto^ devdndm bilam apyadhdh,^ 4. tava prajds tavdu 
\sadhay(ts tavd ^^po viealltam anuvicalatiti. 5. sanibhur devo* ^si 
sam ahani bhuydsani. dbhutir asy dbhuydsam. bhutir asi bhU- 
ynsam. e. yds te prajd upadistd nd ^ham tava tdh paryemi. 
upa te td di^dmi. 7. prdndpdndu^ me pmtam me. tan me tvayi. 
tan me mo '*2}ahrthd iti vdyum avocat. 8. tarn taihdi ^rd ^"^gataih 
vdyuh pratinandaty ayam te bhagavo lokah. saha ndv ayarn 
loka iti. 9. yad vdva me tvayV Hy aha tad vdva me punar de/i'i 
Hi. 10. kim nu te mayl Hi. prdndpdndu Tne Qrutam me. tan me 
tvayi. tan me punar dehi ^ti. tad asmdi vdyuh punar daddti. 
II. tam aha pra md vahe Hi. kim abhl Hi. a?Uariksalokam iti. 
tarn antariksalokam abhipravahati. la. tam tathdi 'va ^^gatam 
antariksalokah pratinandaty ayam te bhagavo lokah. saha ndv 
ayam loka iti, is. yad vdva me tvay'i Hy aha tad vdva me 

III. 21. 1. "To what?" "To Vayu." He carries him forth 
to Vfiyii. Q. He says to Vayu: "In that thou bio west from the 
front, thou blowest as king Indra. In that thou blowest from 
the right, thou blowest as the Lord. In that thou blowest from 
behind, thou blowest as king Varuna. In that thou blowest 
from the left, thou blowest as king Soma. In that thou blowest 
down from above, thou blowest down as Prajapati. a. Thou art 
the Vrutya, the only Vratya, not released of the gods (?). Thou 
hast closed the opening. 4. The progeny, the herbs, the waters 
follow after thy departing. 5. = 20. «. «. = 20. 4. 7. My breath 
and exhalation, my learning, that of me is in thee. That of me do 
not take unto thyself," he said to Vayu. 8. Him having come 
thus Vayu joyfully receives [saying]: " Thine is this world, rever- 
end sir. This world is ours in common." o. = 20. 7. lo. " What 
now of thee is there in me?" "My breath and exhalation, my 
learning. That of me is in thee. Give that back to me." That 
Vfiyu gives back to him. ii. He says to him: " Carry me forth." 
" To what ?" " To the world of the atmosphere." He carries 
him to the world of the atmosphere. 12. Him having come thus 
the world of the atmosphere iovfully receives [saying]: " Thine 
is this world, reverend sir. This world belongs to both of ua in 
common." it. = 20. 7. u. " What now of thee is there in me ?" 

21. 'A. 'pa-. * A. pr-. ' -sra^to. ♦ {ayvadhV},. » sarhrbhUr. • A. prd- 
ndndu. "* vayi. 



Jdimimya- Upan isad- Brdhnt ana . 1 83 

punar dehl ^ti, 14. Mm nu te mayl '*ti, ayarn ma dkd^ah. sa me 
tvayi. tan me punar dehl ^ti. tarn asmd dkd^am antariksalokah 
piinar daddti, 15. tarn dha pra md vahe Hi. 96, 

pancame *nuvdke dvitiyah khan<jia}i. 

III. 22. 1. ki?n ahhi Hi, di^ itl, tarW di^o ^bhipravahati. 
«. tarh tathdi '«a ^^yatarh dipah pratinandanty^ ay am te bhagavo 
lokah. saha no 'yam loka iti, s. yad vdva me yusmdsv ity dha 
tad vdva me punar datte Hi, 4. kim nu te ^smdsv iti, ^rotram 
iti. tad a»mdi ^rotram di^ah punar dadati. 5. td dha pra 7nd 
vahate Hi. kim ahhl Hi. ahordtrayor lokam iti, tam ahordtrayor 
lokam ahhijyravahanti. a. tam tathdi 'ya '^'^gatam ahordtre pra- 
tinandato ^yarh te hhagavo lokah. aaha no ^yam loka iti. 7. yad 
vdva me yuvayor ity dha tad vdva me punar dattam. iti. •. kim 
nu ta dvayor iti. aksitir iti. tdm asmd aksitim ahordtre punar 
dfUtah. 9. te dha pra md vahatam, iti. 97. 

paHcame *nwjdke tftiyah khan4ali. 

III. 23. 1. kim abhl Hi. ardhamdsdn iti. tam ardhanulsdn 
abhipravahatah. 9. taM tathdi ^vd ^^gatam ardhamdsdh prati- 
nandanty^ ay am te bhagavo lokah, sahu no 'yam loka iti. 

** This space of mine. That of rae is in thee. Give that back to 
me.'' That space the world of the atmosphere gives back to 
him. i». He says to it: "Carry me forth." 

III. 22. I. "To what?" "To the quarters." It carries him 
forth to the quarters. 2. Hira having come thus the quarters 
joyfully receive [saying]: "Thine is this world, reverend sir. 
This world is ours in common." s. = 20. 7.* 4. "What now of 
thee is there in us ?" " Hearing." That hearing the quarters give 
back to him. 5. He says to them : " Carry me forth." " To 
what ?" *' To the world of day and night." They carry him to 
the world of day and night, e. Him having come thus day and 
night joyfully receive [saying]: "Thine is this world, reverend 
sir. This world is ours in common." 7. = 22. s. 8. " What now 
of thee is there in us two?" "Imperishableness." That imper- 
ishableness day and night give back to him. 9. He says to them: 
"Carry me forth." 

III. 23. 1. "To what?" "To the half -months." They carry 
him forth to the half-months. 3. Him having come thus the 
half-months joyfully receive [saying] : " Thine is this world, 

22. ' -d. « -dati, 28. » A. cm. « -dati. 
♦ Reading " you" for *' thee." 



184 //. Oeriel, 

t. yad vdva me i/usmdsv ity aha tad vdva me punar datte HL 
4. kim nil te ^snidsv iti. hnCtni ksudrdni parvdni. tdni m,e ytts- 
mdsu. tdni me pratisamdhatte Hi. tdny asyd ^rdhamdsdh pvnah 
pratisaindadhati.^ 5. tdn aha pra md vahate Hi. kim ahhH Hi, 
nidadn iti. tarn, indsdn ahhipravahanti. a. tarn tathdi ^vd ^'*ga- 
tani mdsdh ]>ratinanda7ity^ ayam te hJiagavo lokah. saha no 
^yaih loka iti. 1. yad vdva vie yiismdsv ity dha tad vdva me 
punar datte Hi. 8. kim rni te ^smdsv iti. imdni athHUdni parvdni. 
tdni m€ yusmdsu. tdni me ^yrati^arhdhatte Hi. tdny asya mdsdh 
punah pratisamdadhati. 9. tan dha pra md ttahaie Hi. 98. 

paflcame *nuvdke caturthai> k?iai!f4afy. 

III. 24. 1. kim ahh't Hi. rtUn iti. tarn rtun abhipravahanti. 
a. tarn tathdi^ 'va '*''gatam rtavah pratinandanty ayam te hha- 
f/avo lokah. saha no ^yam loka iti. a. yad vdva me yusmdsv 
ity dha tad vdva me punar datte Hi. *. kim nu te ^sm^dsv iti. 
imdni jydydmi jfarvdni. tdni me yusmdsu tdni me pratisarh' 
dhatte Hi. tdny asya rtavah punah i)ratisamdadhaii. §. tdn 
dha pra md vahate Hi. kim abhl Hi. samvatsaratn iti. tarn sarh- 
vatsarain ahhipravahanti. e. tarn tathdi 'va ^^yatam samvatsa- 

reverend sir. This world is ours in common." 1. = 22. 1. 
4. " What now of thee is there in us ?" " These petty joints. 
These of me are in you. These of me put together in their 
respective places." These [joints] of his the half-months put 
respectively together. 6. He says to them: "Carry me forth." 
"To what?" "To the months." They carry him forth to the 
months, e. Him having come thus the months joyfully receive 
[saying]: "Thine is this world, reverend sir. This world is ours 
m common." 7. z= 22. s. 8. " What now of thee is there in us?" 
" These gross joints. These of me are in you. These of me put 
together respectively." These [joints] of his the months put 
respectively together. 9. He says to them: " Carry me forth." 

HI. 24. I. "To what?" "To the seasons." They carry him 
forth to the seasons. 9. Him having come thus the seasons 
joyfully receive [saying] : " Thine is this world, reverend sir. 
This world is ours in common." s. = 22. ». 4. " What now of 
thee is there in us?" "These chief joints. These of me are in 
you. These of me put respectivel}' together." These [joints] of 
his the seasons respectively put together. ». He says to them: 
" Carry me forth." " To what ?" " To the year." They carry 
him forth to the year. «. Him having come thus the year 



28. • A. -dhdti. corrected in red. 24. ' A. tdi. 



Jdiminlya- UpanisoAj-Brdhm aria, 185 

rah pratinandaty ay am te hhagavo loJcah, gaha 7idv ay am loka 
iti, 7. yad vdva me tvayl^ Hy dha tad vdva me punar dehl '*tL 
8. kim nu te mayl Hi, ayam, ma dtma, sa me tvayi tan m,e punar 
dehl Hi. tarn asmd dtmdnam sarhvatsarah punar daddti, ». ta7n 
dha pra md vahe* Hi, 99, 

paHcame *nuvdke paficamaJj. khan4<ih, 

III. 25. 1. kim abhi Hi, divydn gandharvdn iti, tarn* dit>ydn 

gandharvdn abhipravahati, a. tarn tathdi ^vd ^^gatam divyd 

gandharvdh pratinandanty ayam te hhagavo lokah, aaha no 

^yam loka iti, a. yad vdva me ynsmdsv ity dha tad vdva me 

pnnar datte Hi, 4. kim nu te ^smdsv iti, gandho* me modo me 

jwamodo me, tan me yusmdsu, tafi me punar datte Hi, tad asmdi 

divyd gandharvdh punar dadati, ft. tan dha jrra md vahate Hi, 

kim abhl Hi, apsarasa iti, tarn apsaraso ^hhipravahanti, e. tarn 

tathdi ^vd ^^gatam apsarasah pratinandanty ayam te hhagavo 

lokah, saha no ^yarh loka iti, i, yad* vdva me yusmdsv ity dha 

Uid vdva me punar datte Hi. e. kim nu te ^smdsv iti, haso me 

krlld me mithunam me, tan me yusmdsu, tan me jmnar datte Hi, 

tad asmd apsarasah punar dadati, 9. td dha pra md vahate 

Hi, 100, 

paHcame *nuvdke ^o^f/iaiji khamfali, 

joyfully receives [sayiDg] : " Thine is this world, reverend sir. 
This world is ours in common." 7. = 20. 7. s. " What now of 
thee is there in me ?" " This self of mine. That of me is in thee. 
Give that back to me." That self the year gives back to him. 
f. He says to it: '* Carry me forth." 

ni. 25. I. "To what?" "To the heavenly Gandharvas." It 
carries him to the heavenly Gandharvas. s. Him having come 
thus the heavenly Gandharvas joyfully receive [saying]: *' Thine 
is this world, reverend sir. This world is ours in common." 
8. = 22. 8. 4. " What now of thee is there in us ?" " My f ra- 

f ranee, my joy, my delight. That of me is in you. Give that 
ack to me." That the heavenly Gandharvas give back to him. 
ft. He says to them: '* Carrjr me forth." **To what?" " To the 
Apsarases." They carry him forth to the Apsarascs. e. Him 
having come thus the Apsarases joyfully receive [saying] : 
"Thine is this world, reverend sir. This world is ours in com- 
mon." 7. = 22. 8. 8. " What now of thee is there in us ?" 
'*My laughter, my play, my sexual pleasure. That of me is in 
TOO. Give that back to me." That the Apsarases give back to 
him. •. He says to them: " Carry me forth," 

24. ' B. tvadhi, ' vahate, 25. ' A. ta, * B. gaMharvo. ^ B. yuyad, 
VOL. XVI. 25 




186 H. OerUl, 

III. 26. 1. Mm ahhl Hi. divam iti, tarn divam ahhipravaharUi 
a. tarn tathdi '«a ^^gatam dyduh^ pratinandaty ayam te bhagavo 
lokah, saha ndv ayam loJca iti. z. yad vdva me tvayl Hy aha 
tad vdva me punar dehl Hi. 4. kim mi te mayl Hi. trptir iti. 
sakrt trpte ^va hy esd. tdm asmdi trptim dyduh punar daddti. 
ft. tarn aha pra md vahe Hi» kim, abhi ^ti. devdn iti. tarn devdn 
abhipravahaii. a. tarn tathdi 'ya ^''gatam devdh pratinandanty 
ayam te bhagavo lokah. saha no ^yam loka iti. t. yad vdva me 
yusmdsv ity dha tad vdva me punar datte Hi. 8. kim nu te 
^smdsv iti. amrtam iti. tad asmd amrtam devdh punar dadati.* 
9. tan dha pra md vahate Hi. 101, 

paficame *nuvdke saptanuify khamfaJf,. 

III. 27. 1. kim abhl Hi. ddityam iti. tam ddityam abhiprava- 
hanti. 9. sa ddityam dha vibhuh purastdt sampat^ pa^dt. 
samyan* tvam asi. samlco manusydn arosV rusatas ta rsih 
pdpmdnam hanti. apahatapdpmd bhavati yas tvdi* ^vam^ veda. 
8. sambhUr* devo *8i sam aham bhuydsam. dbhutir (Msy dbhdyd- 
8am. bhatir'' asi bhUydsam. *. yds te prajd upadistd nd ^hafh 
tava tdh paryemi. upa te td di^dmi. 5. ojo me balam me caksur 
me. tan me tvayi tan mc m,o ^pahrthd ity ddityam avocat. 

III. 26. 1. "To what?" '«To the sky." They carry him 
forth to the sky. a. Him having come thus the sky joyfully 
receives [saying] : " Thine is this world, reverend sir. This 
world is ours in common." s. = 20. 7. 4. " What now of thee 
is there in me ?" " Satisfaction." For that is satisfied once for 
all, as it were. That satisfaction the skv gives back to him. 
6. He says to it: "Carry me forth." "i'o whiat." "To the 
gods." It carries him forth to the gods. a. Him having come 
thus the gods joyfully receive [saying] : " Thine is this world, 
reverend sir. This world is ours in common." 7, = 22. s. 
8. " What now of thee is there in us ?" " Immortality." That 
immortality the gods give back to him. 9. He says to them : 
" Carry me forth." 

III. 27. I. "To what?" "To the sun." They carry him forth 
to the sun." 9. He says to the sun : " Extensive art thou in the 
east, success (?) in the west. Thou art collective. Thou hast 
been angry with collective men ; of thee that art angry the sage 
{rsi) slays the evil. lie hath his evil smitten away who knowetb 
thee thus." s. = 20. «. 4. =20. 4. 6. "My power, my strength, my 
sight: that of me is in thee. Do not take that of me unto thee, 

26. ^dy&u. ^-ddii. 

27. ^ A. -vat. * samyarAdafi. 'A. aroti^, the tt cancelled in red. * tv, 
^evam. •B. 'bhutir. ''bhrtir. 




JdiminlyO' Upwnisad-Brdhm ana. 187 

e. iam tathdi ^vd ^gcttam* ddityah pratinandaty ayam te bhagavo 
lokah, 8(Mha ndv ayam loka iti. i, yad vdva me tvayi Hy aha 
tad vdva me punar dehl Hi. 8. Mm nu te mayl Hi. ojo me* 
halam me caksur me. tan me tvayi.^* tan me punar dehl Hi. tad 
asmd ddityah punar daddti. 9, tarn aha pra md vahe Hi. kim 
abhl Hi. candramasam^^ iti. tarn candramasam abhipravahati. 

10. sa eandramasam aha satyasya panthd na tvd" jahdti.^* amr- 
ta^ya^* panthd natvdjahdti. n. navo-navo bhavasi jdyam,dno 
hharo ndma brdhtnana updsse. tasmdt te satyd ubhaye devam^a- 
nusyd annddyam, bharanti. annddo bhavati yaa tvdi* ^vam* 
veda. u. sambhur devo *«» sam aham bhuydaam. dbhutir asy 
abhuydsam. bhutir asi bhtlydsam. is. yds te projd upadistd na 
''ham tava tdh paryemi. upa te td di^dmi. u. mano me reto me 
prajd me punassambhutir^^ me** tan me tvayi tan me mo ^pa- 
hrthd iti eandramasam avocat. i5. tarn tathdi 'wa ^^gatam can- 
dramdh pratinandaty ayam te bhagavo lokah. saha ndv ayam 
loka iti. 18. yad vdva me tvayi Hy aha tad vdva me punar dehl 
Hi. 17. kim nu te mayl Hi. nw.no^'' me reto me prajd me punas- 
sambhutir me.*" tan me tvayi. tan me punar dehl Hi. tad asmdi 
candramdh punar daddti. i8. tarn aha pra md vahe Hi. 102. 

paflcame *nuvdke *9t^ma]jf. khan^xHf,. 

thas he said to the san. e. Him having come thas the san joy- 
fully receives [saying]: "Thine is this world, reverend sir. This 
world is ours m common." 7. = 20. 7. 8. " What now of thee 
is there in me ?" " My power, my strength, my sight : that of me 
is in thee. Give that back to me." That the sun gives back to 
him. •. He says to it : " Carry me forth." " To what ?" <' To 
the moon." It carries him to the moon. lo. He says to the 
moon : " The path of truth f orsaketh thee not ; the path of im- 
mortality forsaketh thee not. u. Anew and anew thou becomest, 
being bom. Burden by name, a Brahman, thou dost worship. 
Therefore the true, both gods and men, bring food for thee. 
Food-eating becometh he who knoweth thee thus." i«. = 20. a. 

11. = 20. 4. u. " Mjr mind, my seed, my offspring, my second 
birth: that of me is in thee. Do not take that of me unto thee," 
thus he said to the moon. u. Him having come thus the 
moon jovf ully receives [saying] : " Thine is this world, reverend 
sir. This world is ours in common." i8. = 20. 7. n. " What 
now of thee is there in me ?" " My mind, my seed, my offspring, 
my second birth : that of me is in thee. Give that back to me." 
Tnat the moon gives back to him. is. He says to it : " Carry 
me forth." 

27. •'^aatd. » A. om. '^A. tvtyi; B. tvtyiti. ^^'hcan-. »« A. vd. "B. 

-d«i. ^^A. om. amfiasya pai^Md (so reads BI) devo *8i sam 

aham. ** -ii. *• me. ma. " B. kiih nu. 



188 //. Oertel, 

III. 28. I. kim abhl Hi, hrahmano^ lokani iti. tarn ddityatn 
abhipravahati, 2. sa ddityam aha pra md vahe Hi, kim abhl 
Hi, brahmano^ lokam itL tarn candramasam abhipravahati.^ sa 
evain ete devate anusarhcarati,^ s. eso ^nto ^tah par ah pravdho 
nd ^sti.* ydn u kdn^ cd Hah prdco lokdn ahhyavddisma' te* sarva 
djytd bhavanti te jltds tesv asya sarvesu kdmacdro bhavati ya 
evam veda, 4. sa yadi kdmayeta punar ihd "^^jdyeye Hi ya^smin 
ktUe ^bhidhydyed yadi brdhmanakule yadi rdjakule tasminn 
djdyate, sa etam eva lokam punah prajdnann abhydrohann eti, 
5. tad u ho ^vdca patydyanir bahuvydhito vd ay am bahu^o lokah, 
etasya vdi kdmdya nu* bruvate^^ [i^a] grdmyanW^ vd ka etat prd- 
sya punar the ^^ydd atrdi 'va sydd iti, 103. 

pancame *nuvdke navamdh khan4dfy, paficamo *nuvdka8 samdptaJi, 

III. 29. 1. uccdi^^avd^ ha kdupayeyah* kduravyo rdjd ^^sa, 
tasya ha ke^* ddrbhyah pdficdlo rdjd svasHya* dsa, tdu^ hd 
^nyo7iyasya priydv dsatuh, a. sa ho ^ccdi^pravdh^ kdupayeyo* 
*smdl lokdt preydya, tasmin ha prete ke^ ddrbhyo ^ranye mrga- 

III. 28. 1. ''To what?" "To the world of brahman:'' It 
carries him forth to the sun. a. He says to the sun : "Carry me 
forth." " To what ?" " To the world of brahman:' It carries 
him forth to the moon. He thus wanders to and fro between 
these divinities, a. This is the end. There is no carrying forth 
beyond this [limit]. And all the worlds beyond this [limit] 
of which we have spoken, they are all obtained, they are con- 
quered, in all of them there is unrestricted movement for him 
who knows thus. 4. If he should wish: " May I be bom here 
again," on whatever family he might fix his thoughts, be it a 
Brfihman-famlly, be it a royal family, into that he is born. He 
keeps on ascending to this world again fore-knowing. 5. And 
(^atyayani said : " Ofttimes, indeed, this world here is very ill. 
Now for the sake of it they talk to each other or toil [saying]: 
' Who having thrown that away would come here again ? he 
would be only there.' " 

III. 29. 1. XJccai99ravas Kaupayeya was a king of the Kurus. 
Now Ke9in Darbhya, king of the Paiicalas, was his sister's son. 
And they were dear to each other, a. This Uccru99rava8 Kau- 
payeya departed from this world. When he had departed, Ke9in 



28. * B. prathamo, - B. brdh-, ^A. -anti, n cancelled in red. ^insert 
here eifo tyam abhipravahati, pra md vahe Hi. kim abhi Hi, brahmaffO 

lokam iti devate anusathcarati, *B. ^smi, ''altered, red, to 

-di^tha* ^te^u, • insert vd. ^^bruvate, " B. inserts ca. 

29. ^ digr-, ^kduva-, 'B. keggi; A. keq^, *A. svastri-, »A. inserts 
gdy cancelled in red. 



J a iminiyd- TJpanisad' Brahviana . 189 

yiith cacdrd ^jyriyam vininlsarndnah, s. sa ha tathdi 'va palya- 
yatndno mrgdn jyrasarann* antarendi 'vo ^ccdip^avasam'' kdu- 
payeyam adhijagdma, 4. tarn ho ^vdca drpydmi aviSj jdndml 
Hi, na drpycuH Hi ho ^vdcajdndsi, sa* evd ^smi yam md manyasa 
itL 5. aiha yad bhagava dhur iti ho ^vdca ya dvir hhavaty 
anye ^sya lokam itpayantl Hy atha fcathani a^ako ma dvir bhavi- 
turn iti. 6. om iti ho ^vdca yadd vdi ta^ya lokaaya goptdram 
a vide 'tas* ta dvir abhuvani apriyam cd*" ^sya vifiesydmy anu 
cdi ^narh ^dsisydml Hi. 7. tathd bhagava iti ho^^ ^vdca. tarn vdi 
nn tvd 2^<^r^^v<^j^ *'<**• ^«^ ^<^ ^^^^(^ parisvajamdno yathd dhii- 
mam vd ''pi ^ydd vdyurh va" "kdpam vd ^gnyarcim vd ^po vdi 
^vam ha smdi "^nam vyeti. na ha smdi ^nam, parisvangdyo ^pala- 
hhate. lOi. 

^a^the *nuvdke prathamaJ), kfiarj^tfafy, 

m. 30. I. sa ho ^vdca^ yad vdi te purd rupara dsUt tat te 
rupam,. nd' tu tvd parisvangdyo^ ^palabha* iti. a. om iti ho 
^vdca brdhmano vdi me adma vidvdn sdmno ^dagdyat. sa me 
^parirena sdmnd parlrdny* adhilnot. tad yasya vdi kila sdma 

» 
Dkrhhyn went hunting in the woods, wishing to remove his sad- 
ness. 8. While he was thas roaming about, chasing deer, he 
perceived just between [himself and the game] Uccai99ravas 
Kaupayeya. 4. He said to him : " Am I really crazy, [or] do I 
know?" "Thou art not crazy," he (U.) said, "thou knowest. I 
am he whom thou thinkest me to be." 5. " Now since they say, 
reverend sir," he (K.) said, " ' if one becometh manifest, others 
go to his world,' how then hast thou been able to become man- 
ifest unto me?" e. "Yes," he (XJ.) said; "when I have found 
the keeper of that world, thereupon I have become manifest unto 
thee [thinking]: *I will remove his sadness and I will teach him.'" 
7. " Even so, reverend sir," he (K.) said ; " verily now let me 
embrace thee." When he [tried to] embrace him, as if one were 
to approach smoke, or wind, or space, or the gleam of lire, or 
water, even thus he escaped him. He [could] not take hold of him 
for an embrace. 

in. 30. I. He (K.) said : " Verily, what appearance thou hadst 
formerly, that appearance thou hast [even nowl ; yet I [can] not 
take hold of thee for an embrace." a. "Yes," he (U.) said ; "a 
Brahman who knew the sdm^n sang the udgltha for me with the 
9dman. By means of the bodiless adman he shook off my bodies. 

29. *pras8ar-. "'A. 'ccagr-; B. ^ccdigr-. ^ya. ^ata. ^'•B. va. ^^ he. 
"ud. 

30. ' A. -va, * n€. * -goyo. * ^palahhatey c cancelled in red. * 'Vdraxiy, 



190 H. OerteL 

vidvdn sdm7io ^dgdyati devatdndm eva salokcUdm gamaya^ 
^ti. i. patangah prdjdpatya iti ho ^vdca prajdpateh priyah 
putra daa* sa tctsmd etat sdmd ^hravU. tena sa rnndtn uddgdyaJt. 
ta eta^ X^.^V^ dhuta^arlrd iti. 4. ete^io eva sdmne Hi ho ^vdca 
pro^dpatir devdndm udagdyat. ta eta upari devd dhutaparird 
iti. 5. tasmin hdi ^nam afiupa^dsa. tarn hd ^nu^isyo ^vdca yas 
smdi ^vdi* Hat sdma vidydt sa amdi 'va ta udgdyatv iti. «. sa 
hd ^nu^ista* djagdma. sa ha sma kurupancdldndm}^ brdhmandn 
upaprcchamdnap carati. 105. 

§a^the *nuvdke dvitlydh khary^xih. 

III. 31. 1. vyudhacchandasd vdi dvddapdhena yaksyamdno* 
^smi. sa yo* vas* tat sdma veda* yad aharh veda sa eva ma udgd- 
syati. rrmadnsadhvam iti. s. tasm,di ha mlmdnsatndndndm, eka^ 
cana [na] sampraty ahhidadhdti. 3. sa ha tathdi ^va palyaya- 
mdnap pma^ne* vd* vane! vd^ ^^vrfi^aydnam upddhdvaydm 
cakdra. tarn ha cdyamdnah' prajahdu. a. tarn ho ^vdca ko *«i 
Hi. hrdhmano *smi prdtrdo hhaUa iti. s. sa kim vetthe Hi. sdme 
Hi. 6. om iti ho ^vdca. vyudhacchandasd vdi dvdda^dhetia 

Verily, whose udgltha one who kooweth the sdman singeth with 
the sdman^ him he causeth to go to the same world with the 
divinities." s. ** Patanga Prajapatya," he said, ** was a dear son of 
Prajapati. To him he told this sdman. With it he sang the 
udgltha of (for) the sagos (rsi). [Thus] these same sages have 
shaken off their bodies. 4. And with this sdman,^^ he said, 
" Prajapati sang the udgltha of ff or) the gods. [Thus] these same 
gods above have shaken off their bodies." 5. In this he (U.) in- 
structed him (K.). Having instructed him, he said : " Whoever 
shall know this sdman, let only him sing the udgltha for thee." 
6. He, being instructed, returned. He went about asking ques- 
tions of the Brahmans of the Kurus and Pancalas. 

III. 31. 1. [He said:] "I am going to sacrifice with a twelve- 
day sacrifice having its metres transposed. Who of you knoweth 
that sdman which 1 know, he alone shall sing the udgltha for 
me. Ponder !" a. Of them pondering not one answered him 
precisely, s. He wandering about in the same way, drove up unto 
one lying covered in a cemetery or a grove. Fearing him he (P.) 
started away. 4. He (K.) said to him : "Who art thou ?" " I am 
a Brahman, Pratfda Bhalla." 6. "As such what dost thou know ?" 
"The sdman.^^ «. "Very well," he (K.) said; "lam going to 

80. • d. ' -tarh. « ve. * -?^. »• B. -pdfle-. 

81. ^-fc^m-. *yadi. *tvain. ^vettha. ^ ^;macrundm. ^A.vdva; 
B.sddha. ''na. ^ A. uva ; B. upa. * A. ccMydna ; a. jdydna. 




Jdimmlya^ Upmiisdd'BrdhinaTia. 191 

ydksyamdno^* ^smi. sa yadi tvam tat sdma vettha yad aham 
veda^^ tvam eva ma tidgdsyasi.^* mlmdnsasve Hi. i, tasmdi ha 
mlmdnsamdnas tad eva^* sampraty abhidadhdu. a. tarn ho ^vdcd 
''yam ma udgdsyatl HV* 9. tasmdi ha kurupaUcdldndm^^ hrdh- 
mand asuyanta^* dhur esu ha vd ayam ktdyesu^^ satsU ^dgdsyatV* 
kasmd ayam alam^* iti. lo. cUarn nvdi^^ m>ahyam iti ha smd 
^^ha, 8di 't?a 'torn masyd ''lam, matdydi ''tasya hd '^larr^^ cvo" 
''j^agdu. tasmdd dlamydildjodgdte Hy dkhydpayanti, 106. 

9a§the 'nuvdke tfiiyaff. khan<fafy. 

HL 32. 1. tad dha adtyaklrtd dhur ydm vayam devatdm upds- 
m^ha ekam eva vayam tasydi devatdydi rupam gavy ddi^dma 
ekarh vdhana ekam hastiny ekam, purusa ekam sarvesu bhutesu. 
tasyd eve ''dam devatdydi sarvam rupam iti. a. tad etad ekam 
eva rupam prdna eva. ydvad dhy eva prdnena prdniti tdvad 
rdpam bhavati tad* rupam bhavati. z. tad atha yadd prdna 
tUkrdm^ati ddrv eve* 'va bhuto* ^narthyah* paripisyate na kim 
cana rupam,. 4. taayd hitardtmd tapah. tasmdt tapyamdnaByo 
^matarah prdno bhavati. ». tapaso hitardtmd ^gnih. sa niruk- 

sacrifice with a twelve-day sacrifice having its metres transposed. 
If thou knowest that sdman which I know, thou shalt sing the 
udgltha for me. Ponder." 7. He, pondering, answered him that 
precisely, s. He (K.) said to him : ^^This one here shall sing the 
udgltha for me." 9. Complaining of him the Brahmans of the 
Eurus and Pancalas said: "While those here are of the family, 
shall he sing the udgltha f To whom is he acceptable ?" 

10. " Verily, he is acceptable {dlam) to me," he fK.) said ; 

he sang his udgltha acceptably (alam). Therefore they call him 
the dlamydildja-udgdtar (?). 

HI. 32. I. This the Satyakirtas say : " As to the divinity 
which we worship, of that divinity we point out one form to be 
in the cow, one in a draught-animal, one in the elephant, one in 
man, one in all creatures. This is the complete form of this 
divinity." a. That same one form is breath. For as long as one 
breathes with breath so long there is form ; that is form. a. And 
when breath departs he is left useless, having become just like a 
log, [and] no form whatever [is left]. 4. His inner self is heat 
(penance). Therefore the breath of one who is heated (who 
practices penance) becomes hotter. ». The inner self of heat 

81* '•-fefowt*. " B. inserts yad ahaih vettha. " A. corrected from -fi, 
" B. inserts tta. " om. iti, ** B. ^ne-. »♦ d«i-. " kuie^u. » 'gOs-. 
'* B. arnam. ^ A. ny&i^ after this a ma is canceUed in A. ** insert ma. 
**evSu. 

82. ^ A. yad. * eyo. ' -e. * -thd^. 



192 H. Oertel, 

tah. tasmat sa dahcUV a. aiha ^dhidevatam.* iyam evdi ^sd 
devatd yo ^yam pavate.'' tasminn etasminn dpo ^ntah. tad annam, 
80 ^ruksa updsitavyah. yad asminn dpo ^ntaa tend ^ruksah, 

7. tasyd '^ntardtmd tapas. tasmdd esa dtapaty usncUarah pavate. 

8. tapaso hitardtmd vidytU. sa niruktah. tasmdt so *pi dahcUi.* 

9. tdni vd etdni catvdri sdma prdno van manas svarah, sa esa 
prano vdcd karoti manonetrah, tasya svara eva prc0dh. prajd- 
van bhavati ya evam veda, 107, 

^a^he *nuvdke caturtJiafy khandah, 

III. 33. 1. sa yo vdyuh prdna eva sah. yo ^gnir vdg eva sd. 
ya^ candramd mana eva tad, ya^ ddityas svara eva sah. tasmdd 
etam ddityam dhus svara eti Hi, a. sa yo ha vd amur devatd 
updste yd amur adhidevatam durupd^ vd etd duranusamprdpyd* 
iva, kas tad veda yady etd anu vd samprdpnuydn na vd, s. atha 
ya end adhydtmam updste sa hd ^ntidevo bhavati. nifjlryanU ^va 
vd* ita etd, [t'\asya vd etd^ parlrasya saha prdnena nirjlryand, 
ka u eva tad veda yady etd anu vd samprdpnuydn na vd,* 
4. atha ya end ubhayir* ekadhd bhavantlr veda sa evd ^nusthyd 

(penance) is fire. That is distinct. Therefore it bums. e. Now 
with regard to the divinities. He is this divinity who cleanses 
here. Within him are the waters. These are food. He is to be 
worshiped as soft. Because the waters are in him, therefore [he 
isl soft. 7. His inner self is heat. Therefore it blows hotter 
when [the sun] shines. 8. The inner self of heat is lightning. 
That is distinct. Therefore it also burns. 9. Verily these four 

tare] the sdman : breath, speech, mind, [and] tone. That same 
•reath, having mind as its guide, acts through speech. Of it 
tone is the offspring. Rich in offspring becomes he who knows 
thus. 

III. 33. 1. Vayu is breath, Agni is speech, the moon is mind, 
the sun is tone. Therefore they say of this sun : " He goeth as 
tone." 9. If any one worships yonder divinities, namely those 
[that are defined] with regard to the divinities — verily, they are 
of evil form, hard to be completely attained, as it were. Who 
knows whether he will completely attain unto them or not ? 
«. Now if any one worships them [as defined] with regard to the 
self, he becomes one who is near the gods. They waste away, 
as it were, from here. Verily these [divmities] waste away along 
with the breath of bis body. And who knows whether he win 
completely attain unto them or not ? 4. Now he who knows both 

82. *A. dati, 'B. -ddiv-, ^-p-, ^B. repeats tdni vdsitavyo (!) yad 
asminn dpo *ntas tasmdt so *pi dahati, 

83. * B. yadd, * -ruvd. » -apd, * A. cd, *vd, « ubhedhir. 



Jdirainvyor Upanisad-Brdhmana . 1 98 

sftma veda sa dtmdnam veda sa brahtna veda, 5. tad dhuh 

• 

prdde^mdtrdd vd ita etd ekam bhavanti. ato hy ayam prdnas' 

svarya* upary* upari vartata iti. «. cUha hdi ^ka dhup catur- 

aiiguldd^'^ vd ita etd ekam bhavanti Hi, ato hy evd ^yam prdnas' 

svarya^ upary* upari vartata iti. 7. sa esa brahmana^^ dvartah. 

sa ya evam etam brahmana^^ dvartam veda ^bhy enam prajdh 

pa^va dvartante sarvam dyur eti, e. sa yo hdi '*vam vidvdn 

prdnena prdnyd ^pdnend ^pdnya manasdi Hd ubhaylr devatd 

dtmany etya mukha ddhatte tasya sarvam dptam, bhavati sarvam 

jitam, na hd '^sya ka^ cana kdmo ^ndpto bhavati ya evam veda. 

108. 

fa^the 'nuvdke paficama^ khan^ctfy. 

III. 34. I. tad etan mithunarh yad vdk ca prdnap ca, mithu- 
num rksdme. dcaturam vdva^ mithunam prajananam. 2. tad 
yatrd ^da dha somah pavala iti vo ^pdvartadhvam iti od tat 
sahdi 'ra vdcd matiasd prdnena svarena hinkiirvanti. tad hinkd- 
rena* mithunam kriyate. «. sahdi ^va vdcd manasd prdnena 
svarena nidhanam upayanti. tan nidhanena mithunam kriyate. 
4. tat saptavidham sdmnah. saptakrtva* udgdtd ^Hmdnarh ca 

these kinds [of divinities] as unified, he immediately knows the 
sdmcm^ he knows the self, he knows the brahman. 0. This they 
say: ''From the size of a span from here these [divinities] 
become one. For from here this breath turneth sounding 
upward and upward." e. And some say : " From [the size of J 
four fiugers from here these [divinities] become one. For from 
here this breath turneth sounding upward and upward." 7. That 
is the turn of the brahman. He who thus knows this turn of the 
brahman, unto him offspring [and J domestic animals turn; he 
goes to complete age. e. He wno, knowing thus, breathing with 
breath, exhaling with exhalation, coming into the self, puts these 
divinities of both kinds with the mind in the mouth, by him 
everything is obtained, everything conquered. No wish soever 
of him is unattained who knows thus. 

in. 34. I. Those are this couple, viz. speech and breath; a 
couple are re and sdman. Verily to the fourth [generation] a 
pair is generative. «. Now where one says here either "Soma 
cleanses itself," or "Turn ye hither," they thus utter the 
hinkdra along with speech, with mind, with breath, with tone. 
With the hinkdra a couple is thus brought about, a. They also 
perform the nidhana along with speech, with mind, with breath, 
wiUi tone. With the niouiana a couple is thus brought about. 
4. That is the sevenfold of the sdman. Seven times the udgdtar 

98. '-a. *8vayy. •-ri(I). ^^-l&id. ^^ brahman. 
84. ^pdpa. ^'k&ra. '-d. 

VOL. xvi. 26 



194 B. Oertel, 

yajamdnam ca ^arlrdt prajanayati. §. yddrgaayo ha vdi reto 

bhavati tddr^am sambhavati yadi vdi purusctsya purusa eva 

yadi gor gdur eva yady aQvasyd 'pwa eva yadi mrga^ya nirga 

eva, yaaydi '??« reio bhavati tad eva sambhavati. «. tad yathd 

ha vdi suvarnam hiranyam agndu prdsyamdnam^ kalydnataram 

kalydnataram bhavaty evam eva kcUydnatarena kcUydnatarend 

'^Hmand sambhavati ya evam veda. i. tad etad red* ^bhyanucyate. 

109. 

^a§the *nuvdke ^a^fha^ khaii^i^. 

III. 35. I. patangam aktam^ asurasya mdyayd 

hrdd pa^yanti manasd vipapcitah : 
samudre antah kavayo vi caksate 

m^riclndm padam, iccharUi vedhasa 
iti. 2. patangam aktam iti. prdno vdi patangah. patann iva 
hy esv angesv ati ratham udlksate.* pcUanga ity dcaksate. «. asu- 
rasya mdyaye Hi. mano* vd asuram. tac^ dhy asusu ramate. 
tasydi '«a mdyayd ^ktah. *. hrdd papyanti manasd vipapcita 
iti. hrddi* 'va* hy etepapyanti yan manasd vipa^itah. 5. sa?n' 
udre antah kavayo vi caksata iti. puruso vdi samudra evamvida 
u kavayah. ta^ im,dm puruse ^ntar vdcam vicaksate. «. marlci- 

causes himself and the sacrificer to be born from the body. 
6. And verily of what kind [of being] the seed is, that kind [of 
being] arises: if it be of a man, a man; if of a cow, a cow; if of 
a horse, a horse; if of a deer, a deer. Of what [being] the seed 
is, just that being is born. «. Now as gold of good color being 
cast into the fire becomes more and more beautiful, even so he 
comes into being with a more and more beautiful self who 
knows thus. 7. That same is referred to in a re. 

m 

III. 35. 1. ** The winged one, adorned with the magic of an 
Asura, with the heart the inspired [bards] see, with the mind. 
Within the sea the sages look about; the faithful seek the track 
of the rays." 9. * The winged one, adorned': breath is the 
winged one. For flying (patan)^ as it were, in these limbs 
{anga)^ he looks up beyond the chariot (?). [Therefore] he is 
called winged one ipatanga). i. * With the magic of an Asura': 
mind is a8ura[-likej. For it rests {^ram) in the vital airs (cww). 
He is adorned with its magic. 4. 'With the heart, with the 
mind the inspired [bards] see': for verily the inspired ones see 
with the heart as with the mind. 5. ' Within the sea the sages 
look about' : verily man is the sea, and those who know thus are 
the sages. They look about for this speech within man. 8. ' The 

34. ^fcya. ^ -syd-. 

85. * attam. ' -tdfy. • B. -e. * ta. * hfd. • evaih. ' sa. 



^ 



Jad/minlyar Upa/niscidrBrdhiria/na. 195 

nam ptzdarn icchanti vedhasa iti. maricya iva vd eta devatd yad 
agnir vdyur ddUyap candramdh. 7. na ha vd etdsdm devatdndm 
padam asti. padeno ha vdi* punarmrtyur anveti, 8. tad etad 
ananvitam sdma pufiamirtyund, ati punarmrtyum taraii ya 
evarh veda. 110. 

^a^ihe *nuvdke aaptamafy khan4aJf>, 

III. 36. 1. patango vdcam rnanasd bibharti 

tdm gandharvo ^vadad garbhe^ antah : 
tdm dyotamdndm* svaryam manlsdm 
rtaaya pade kavayo ni pdntl 
Hi. 3. patango vdcam manasd bibharti Hi, prdno vdi patangah, 
sa imam vdcam manasd bibharti, s. tdm gandharvo ^vadad* 
garhhe antar iti. prdno vdi gandharvah purusa u garbhah. sa 
imam ptiruse ^ntar* vdcam vadati. 4. tdrh dyotamdndm sva- 
ryam^ manlsdm iti, svaryd hy esd manlsd yad vdJc, 5. rtasya 
pade kavayo ni pdntl Hi, mano vd rtam evamvida u kavayah, 
am ity etad evd ^ksaram rtam,* tena yad ream mlmdnsante yad 
yajur yat sdma tad endm nipdiiti. 111, 

^Oifihe *nuvdke *^t^mafy khan^a^* 

faithful seek the track of the rays': rays, as it were, are these 
divinities, viz. Agni, Vayu, sun, [and] moon. 7. Verily, of those 
divinities there is no track. [For] by means of a track second 
death goes after, a. That same is the sdman which is not gone 
after by second death. He crosses over second death who knows 
thus. 

III. 36. I. "The winged one beareth speech with the mind; that 
[speech] the Gandharva spoke within the womb; this brilliant 
sounding wisdom the poets guard in the place of [sacred] order.'' 
«. * The winged one beareth speech with the mind': verily, 
breath is the winged one; he bears this speech with the mind. 
I. 'That [speech] the Gandharva spoke within the womb': verily 
breath is tne Gandharva, and man is the womb. He speaks this 
speech within man. 4. 'This brilliant, sounding wisaom': for 
sounding is this wisdom, viz. speech. 6. 'The poets guard in 
the place of [sacred] order': verily, mind is the [sacred] order, 
and those who know thus are the poets; om, that syllable is the 
[sacred] order. In that they reflect with it on the re, on the 
yiJ^UBy on the sdman, thereby they guard this [wisdom]. 



a5. ■ A. ve, 

86. *-o. *-<5. * vadati, ^ant-, »-a. «The MSB. have am ity , , , . 
fiam after yat sdma. 



196 //. Oertd, 

111. 37. 1. apa^yam gopdm anipadyanidnam 

a ca para ca pcUhibhip carantam : 

sa sadhricla^ sa visucir vasdna 

a varivartti bhuvanesv antar 

iii, 2. apa^yam gopdm anipadyamdnam iti, prdno vdi gopdh. 

sa hi '^dam sarvam anipadyamdno gopdyati, «. d ca pard ca 

pathihhi^ carantam iti, tad ye ca ha vd inie prdnd ami ca rap- 

jnaya etdir ha vd esa etad d ca pard ca pathibhip carati, 4. sa 

sadhrlcis sa visucir vasdna iti. sadhricii^ ca hy esa etad visiXci^ 

ca prajd vaste,^ 6. d varivartti bhuvanesv antar iti, esa hy evdi 

^su bhuvanesv antar dvarivartti, 6. sa esa indra udgUhah sa 

yaddi ^sa indra udgUha dgacchati ndi 'vo ^dgdtup co ^pagdtfndm* 

ca vijfldyate. ita evo ^^rdhvas* svar udeti. sa upari murdhno 

leldyati, 7. sa vidydd dgamad* indro ne ^ha kap cana pdpmd 

nyangah paripeksyata* iti, tasmin ha na kap cana papmd nyafl- 

gah paripisyate, b. tad etad' ahhrdtrvyam* sdma. na ha vd 

indrah kam catia bhrdtrvyam papyate, sa yathe '*ndro na kam 

cana bhrdtrvyam papyata evam eva [na^ kam cana bhrdtrvyam 

papyate ya etad evam vedd Hho yasydi'^vam vidvdn udgdyati, 

112, 

^a^the ^nuvdke navamafy khan^^h, ^a^t^o *nuvdka^ samdptah. 

III. 88. I. prajdpatim brahmd ^srjata, tarn apapyatn amu- 
kham^ asfjata, a. tarn aprapapyam* amukham paydnam brahmd 
^^vipat, purusyarh' tat, prdno vdi brahma, prdno vdvdi ^nam tad 
dvipat, «. savdatisthat prajdndmjanayitd, tamraksdnsy* anva- 

III. 37. I. "I saw the keeper who doth not fall down moving to 
and fro by the paths. Clad in the converging and diverging 
ones, he oft turneth hither within created beings." s. *I saw the 
keeper who doth not fall down ' : verily breath is the keeper. For 
he keeps this all without falling down. s. ' Moving to and fro 
by the paths': now what these breaths here and yonder rays are, 
by them as paths he thus moves to and fro. 4. ' Clad in the con- 
verging and diverging ones': for he is thus clad in converging 
and diverging offspring. •. * He oft turneth hither within created 
beings': for he often does turn hither within these created 
beings. 6-« = I. 45. 4-6. 

III. 38. 1. The brahman created Prajapati. It created him 
not seeing, without mouth, a. Him lying not looking, without 
mouth, the brahman entered. That [became ?] human. Verily 
the brahman is breath. Breath, indeed, entered him thus. s. He 
arose, a generator of progeny. Him the Baksases fastened on. 

87. * -He-; at the beginning of this pada all MSS. insert atim. » R 
saste, *-tfn-. ^-dhva. *dgad, ^parife-, ''eta, ^bhr-, 
38. * mukh', * aprav-, * -faih, * A. -dsy. 




Jdiininlyor Upwti Isad-Brah mana, 197 

fiOcaiUa,^ 4. tarn etad eva sdma gdyann tUrdyata, yad gdyann* 
cUrdyaia tad gdycUrcisya gdyatratvam, &. trdyata eyiam sarra- 
smdt pdpniano mucyate ya evarh tJeda. a. tayn upd ^Hmdi gdyntd 
tiara ity red ^'^^ravamyeno^ ^pdgdyan." 7. yad ttjtd ^smdi gay aid 
nara iti tena gdyatram abhavat, tasmdd esdi '*va pratipat kdryd, 
8. pavamdndye ^fiddvd ahhi detmin iyd'hiun-hhdksdtd iti soda^d 
^ksardny abhyagdyanta.^* soda^akalarh^" vdi brahma, ktUd^a ecdi 
^nam tad brahmd ^^t)i^at, 9, tadetac caturoinpatyaksararh gdya- 
tram, astdksarah pra^tdvahV sodapdksaram gUam tac caturvin- 
^is sampadyante, caturvinpatyard/iarndsas^* samvatsarah. sam- 
vatsaras sdma, 10. td^^ reap parlrena mrtyur anvditat, tad yae 
chariravat tan mrtyor dptam, atha yad aparvram tad amrtam, 
tasyd ^parirena sdmnd parirdny adhunot, 113. 

saptame *nuvdke prathamah khaxKJlafy, 

III. 39. I. ovdSe ovdSc ovdSe hum bhd ovd iti sotiapd '*kmrdny 
abhyagdyata. sodapaJcalo^ vdi purusah, kaldpa evd ^sya tac 
charirdny adhunot. a. sa eso ^pahatapdpmd dhntaparlrah, tad 
ekkriydvrtiyuddsamgdyaty o ity uddsa, d iti dvrdydt. vdg iti 

4. Him one singing this same sdman rescued. Because he singing 
(gdyan) rescued (atrdycUa)^ that is the reason why the gdyatra 
[^adman] is called so. 6. One rescues him, from all evil he is 
delivered, who knows thus. e. They sang unto him with the re 
which belongs to the preliminary invocation : " Sing, ye men, 
unto this one." Inasmuch as [it runs]: "Sing {y/gd)y ye men, 
unto this one," hence it became the gdyatra {-sdman). There- 
fore this is to be made the introductory verse. 8. " Unto Indu, 
who is being purified, who desires to sacrifice to the god," thus they 
sang sixteen syllables unto [him J. Verily sixteenfold is the brah- 
man. Part by part the brahman thus entered him. ». That 
same is the gdyatra [-sdman'] with twenty-four syllables. The 
prastdva has eight syllables. The song (gUa) has sixteen sylla- 
bles. Thus twenty-four are obtained. Twenty-four half-months 
has the year ; the year is the sdfnan, 10. Because of the body 
death went after these rc*s. What is possessed of a body, that 
is obtained by death ; and what is bodiless, that is immortal. 
By means of the bodiless sdman he shook off this one's bodies. 

III. 39. 1. He sang unto [him] sixteen syllables : ovcrc, ovdc, 
ovdc^ hum, bhd, ova, Sixteenfold is man. Part by part he thus 
shook off his bodies. 3. That same one had evil smitten away, 
bis body shaken off speech (vac) is the brahman ; that 

88. 'anii^oc-. *gdyatrafin, ^^ravasty-, ^^pdgd-, '•B. -Mm. ^^prdst-, 
'*towi. "A. -yato. ^*-sds, 
39. '-u. 




198 H. Oertel, 

tad brahma. tad id antariksam so ^yam vdt/uh pavate. hum iti 
cafidramdh, bhd ity ddityah, t. etasya ha vd idam aksarasya 
krator^ hhdtl Hy dcaksate, 4. etasya ha vd idam aksarasya 
krator^ ahhram, ity dcaksate, 5. etasya ha vd idam, aksarasya* 
kratoh^ kubhram ity dcaksate, e. etasya ha vd idam aksarasya 
kratop* pubhram ity dcaksate. 7. etasya ha vd idam aksarasya 
krator* vrsabha^ ity dcaksate. s. etasya ha vd idam aksarasya 
krcUor* darbha* ity dcaksate. 9. etasya ha vd idam aksarasya 
krcUor* yo bhdtV ^ty dcaksate. 10. etasya ha vd idam aksarasya 
kratos^ sambhavcUl Hy dcaksate. 11. tad yat kim ca bhdS iti ca 
bhdS* iti ca tad etan mithunam gdyatram. pra mithunena jdyate 
ya evarh veda. IIJ^ 

saptame *nuvdke dvitiyai. khanifafy. 

III. 40. 1. tad etad amrtarh gdyatrain. etena vdi prajdpatir 
amrtatvam agacchad etena devd etena rsayah. 9. tad etad brah- 
ma prc0dpataye ^bravU prajdpatih^ paramesthine prdjdpcUydya 
paramesthl prdjdpatyo devdya savitre devas savitd ^gnaye ^gnir 
indrdye ^ndrah kdpyapdya kdpyapa rpyapnlgdya kdpyapdya 
r^yagrngah kdpyapo devatarase ^ydvasdyandya* kdpyapdya 
devatardp pydvasdyanah kdpyapap prusdya vdhneydya kdpya- 
pdya priiso* vdhneyah* kdpyapa indrotdya* ddivdpdya pduna- 

atmosphere is Vayu who cleanses here ; hum is the moon ; bhd 
is the sun. . «. In virtue of this syllable they say of him : " He 
shineth." 4. In virtue of this syllable they say of him abhra 
(cloud). &. In virtue of this syllable they say of him kubhra. 
«. In virtue of this syllable they say of him piibhra (white). 
7. In virtue of this syllable they say of him vrsabha (bull), 
s. In virtue of this syllable they say of him darbha. •. In virtue 
of this syllable they say of him " he who shineth." 10. In virtue 
of this syllable they say of him "he cometh into existence." 
11. Whatsoever is bhd and bhd, that is the couple, the gdyatra 
\'Sdman\ By copulation he is propagated who knows thus. 

IIL 40. I. That is the immortal gdyatra [-«aman]. By means 
of it Prajapati went unto immortality, by means of it the gods, 
by means of it the sages (rsi), «. That same the brahman told 
to Prajapati; Prajiipaii to Paramesthin Prajapatya; Paramesthin 
Prajapatya to god Savitar; god Savitar to Agni; Agni to Indra; 
Indra to Ka9yapa; Ka9yapa to R9ya9yfiga Kucyapa; R9ya9rnga 
Ka9yapa to Devataras ^y^vasayana Ka9yapa; JJevataras" ^y uva- 

sayana Ka9yapa to ^rusa Vahneya Ka9yapa; 9^^?^ Vihneya 

-■ 

89. ^krt', «80 MSS. ^-sva. *B. tT^T?-- 'A. dabha; B. saHnbhavati, 
^ ya hhMl. ^ bh, 

40. ' B. inserts kdcyapo. * A. gyavasdya. * A. bhi/^o; B. fti{»o. * B. 
vdkhne-. 'A. indrdl-. 



Jamhmvyor Upanisad^Brdhrricma. 199 

kdye ^ndroto daivdpap^ ^dunako drtaya dindrotaye pdunakdya 
drtir dindrotip ^dunakah pulmdya prdcinayogydya pulusah 
prdelnayogyds satyayajiidya pdulusaye jwdcinayogydya satya- 
yajfiah 2^dulusih prdcinayogyoB soma^nsmdya adtyayajilaye prd- 
cinayogydya somapusmas sdiyayajHih prdcinayogyo hrtsvd^- 
ydyd ^UaJeeydya' mdhdvrsdya rdjfie hrtsvdpaya dllakeyo mdhd- 
vrso rdjd jana^nUdya* kdndviydya jana^rutah kdndviyaa sdya- 
kdya jdna^ruteydya* kdndviydya sdyako jdna^ruteyah kdndviyo 
nagarine jdnapruteydya kdndviydya nagari jdna^ruieyah kdn- 
dviyap ^ngdya^^ ^tydyanaya^^ dtreydya ^afiga^ ^dtydyanir 
dtreyo rdmdya krdtujdteydya vdiydghrapadydya rdmah krd- 
tujdteyo vdiydghrapadyah — 115. 

aaptame ^nuvahe tftiyaf^ klmndah, 

IlL 41. I. — pankhdya bdbhravydya ^ankho bdbhravyo dak- 
sdya kdtydyaiiaya^ dtreydya daksah kdtydyafiir dtreyah kan- 
sdya vdrakaye kanso vdrakih prosthapdddya vdraJeydya pro- 
sthapddo vdrakyah* kansdya vdrakydya* kanso vdrakyo jay an- 
tdya vdrakydya jayanto vdrakyah kuberdya vdrakydya kubero 
rdrakyo jayantdya vdrakydya jayanto vdrakyo jana^rutdya 
vdrakydya jana^ruto vdraJcyas audattdya* pdrd^rydya sudcUtah 

Ku9yapa to Indrota Daivapa QsLnnaksL; Indrota Daivapa ^^unaka 
to Drti Aindroti (^^nnaka^; Dxti Aindroti QsL\xn2LkB, to Pulusa 
Pracinayogya; Pulusa Prficinayogya to Satyayajna Paulusi Pra- 
cinayogya; Satyayajna Paulusi Pracinayogya to Soma9usma Sat- 
yayajni Pracinayogya; Soma9U8ina Satyayajiii Priicinayogya to 
Hft8ya9aya Allakeya, the king of the Mahavrsas ; Hrt8ya9aya 
Allakeya, the king of the Mahavrsas, to Jana9ruta Kandviya; 
Jana9ruta Kandviya to Sayaka Jana9ruteya Kandviya ; Sayaka 
Jana9ruteya Kandviya to Nagarin Jana9ruteya Kandviya ; Na- 
garin Jana9ruteya Kandviya to ^afiga ^^tyayani Atreya; QsifigSL 
^iityayani Atreya to Rama Kratujateya Vaiyaghrapadya ; Rama 
Krfitujateya Vaiyaghrapadya — 

m. 41. I. — tojQmkhsL Babhravya; 9^^^^J^ Babhravya to 
Daksa Katyayani Atreya'; Daksa Katyayani Atreya to Kansa 
Vfiraki ; Kansa Yaraki to Prosthapada Varakya ; Prosthapada 
Varakya to Kansa Varakya ; Kansa Varakya to Jayanta Vara- 
kya; Jayanta Vfirakya to Kubera Varakya; Kubera Varakya to 
Jayanta Varakya ; Jayanta Varakya to Jana9ruta Varakya ; 
Jaiia9ruta Varalcya to Sndatta Priru9arya ; Sudatta Para9arya to 

40. * -pi^. ^ B. Uok; ' B. inserts s tdtydyajMfy prde^nayagyo hfisvd, 
• A. jdnugr-: B.jSinaffr'. *• gi^g-. " -ndya. 

41. * -ndya ; fi. kdiydjaya-, * vof^. ' j>-. 



200 //. Oertel, 

para^ryo ^sddhdyo^ Htardya pard^arydyd ^sad/ia^ iUtarah para- 

^aryo vlpagcite ^akunifnitraya pdrd^rydya vipa^clc chaktmi- 

mitrah pdrd^aryo jayantdya pdrd^arydya jayantah pdrdgnr- 

yah — 116, 

saptame ^nuvdke caturthaJj, kharj^^^* 

III. 42. 1. — pydmajayantdya Iduhitydya gydmajayanto Idu- 
hityah palliguptdya Iduhitydya paUigupto Iduhityas satyapravase 
Iduhitydya^ sa^yagravd Iduhityah krsnadhrtaye sdtyakaye krsna- 
dhrtis sdtyakiQ gydtnaaujayantdya Iduhitydya gydma^sujayanto 
Iduhityah krsnadattdya Iduhitydya krsnadatto Iduhityo niitra- 
bhiUaye Iduhitydya mitrabhutir^ Iduhityap pydmajayantdya 
Iduhitydya pydmajayanto Iduhityas triveddya krsnardtdya Idu- 
hitydya trivedah krsnardto Iduhityo yapasvine jayantdya Idu- 
hitydya* yagasvl jayanto Iduhityo jayaJcdya Iduhitydya jayako 
Iduhityah krsnardtdya Iduhitydya krsnardto Iduhityo daksajayait' 
tdya Iduhitydya daksajayanto Iduhityo vipagcite drdhajayan- 
tdya Iduhitydya vipagcid drdhajayanto Iduhityo vdipapcitdya* 
ddrdhajayantaye drdhc^ayantdya Iduhitydya vdipapcito ddr- 
dhqjayantir^ drdhajayanto Iduhityo vdipapcitdya ddrdhajayan- 
taye guptdya Iduhitydya, a. tad etad amrtam gdyatram at ha 
ydny anydni gltdni kdmydny eva tdni kdmydny eva tdni. 117, 

saptame *nuvdke paHcamah khamfaJj^, saptamo 'nuvdkas samdptafy, 

Asadha Uttara Para9arya ; Asadha Uttara Prira9arya to Vipa9cit 

J'akunimitra Para9arya ; Vipa9cit 9*^""^"^^^'** Para9arya to 
ayanta Prira9arya ; Jayanta Prirri9arya — 

III. 42. I. — to ^yjiniajayanta Lauhitya; ^yamajayanta Lau- 
hitya to Palligupta Lauhitya ; Palligapta Lauhitya to Satya9ra- 
vas Lauhitya ; Satya9rava8 Lauhitya to Krsnadhijrti Satyaki ; 
Krsnadh|-ti Satyaki to ^yamasu jayanta Lauhitya ; ^y^*'™^^^' 
jayanta Lauhitya to Krsnadatta Lauhitya ; K^nadatta Lauhitya 
to* Mitrabhuti Lauhitya ; Mitrabhdti Lauhitya to (^ykmsLJSiy^nlSL 
Lauhitya ; ^y^^^^^ijayanta Lauhitya to Triveda K^snarata Lauhi- 
tya ; Triveda Rfsnarata Lauhitya to Ya9a8vin Jayanta Lauhitya; 
Ya9asvin Jayanta Lauhitya to Jayaka Lauhitya ; Jayaka Lau- 
hitya to K^snarata Lauhitya ; Krsnarata Lauhitya to Daksaja- 
yanta Lauhitya ; Daksajayanta Lauhitya to Vipa9cit Dydhaja- 
yanta Lauhitya ; Vipa9cit Dydhajayanta Lauhitya to Vaipa9cita 
Dfirdhajayanti Drdhajayanta Lauhitya; Vaipa9cita Dardhajayanti 
Dfdhajayanta Lauhitya to Vaipa9cita Dardhajayanti Gupta Lau- 
hitya. a. That is the 'immortaX gdyatra[-«aman]i and what other 
chants there are, they are optional only, they are optional only. 

41. '* A. sudattd; B. sudattaJt&ya, * A. o^- (I); B. d^-. 

42. ^/ofc-. - A. -<i. ^ insert gydmajayanto l&uhitydya, *vdivip-, *-d. 



Jdimmlya- Upanisad-BrdhmaTui, 201 

IV. 1. I. gvetd^vo dar^ato harimlo ^si harita^pf^as samdna- 
buddho rnd hirmh, ?ia mdm tvam vettha pradrava, 2. yad al>hy- 
nracarano^ ^bhyavdisi svapantam purusani akovidarn apna- 
niayena^ varmand varuHo ^ntar dadhdtu rnd, 3. yad ahhyami' 
carano^ ^bhyavdisi svapantam purusatn akovidani ayasinayena 
vamia7id varuno ^ntar dadhdtu md. a. yad ahhyavacarano^ 
^hhyavdisi avapantani purusam akovidam lohamayena va'rrnand 
varuno *ntar dadhdtu ind, 5. yad abhyavacarano* ^hhyavdisi 
svapantam purusam,^ akovidam rajatam,ayena varmand varuno 
*ntar dadhdtu md, «. yad abhyavacarano^ ^bhyavdisi svapantam 
purusam suvarnamayena varmand varuno ^ntar dadhdtu md, 
7. dyur m.dtd^ matih pita namas ta dvi^osatia: 
graho ndmd ^si vi^vdyus tasmdi te vi^vdhd^ namo 
nnma^ tdtnrdya namo varundya^ namo jlghdnsate, 8. yaksnia 
rdjan ma^ mdm hinsih, rdjan yaksma md hinsih, tayos samvidd- 
nay 08 sarvam dyur ay any* aham. 118, 

prathamo *nuvdkas samdptah, 

IV. 2. I. puruso vdi yajfiah, a. tasya ydni caturvin^atir^ 
varsdni tat jyrdtassavanam, caturvingatyaJcsard ydyatrt, gdya- 

IV. 1. 1. Possessing white horses, conspicuous, yellow-blue art 

thou, do not harm. Thou knowest me not ; run away. 

1. When moving down against [him] thou descendest against 
the sleeping man unknowing, let V aruna cover me with a stone 
armor. 3. When moving down against [him] thou descendest 
against the sleeping man unknowing, let Varuna cover me 
with a brass armor. 4. When moving down against [him] thou 
descendest against the sleeping man unknowing, let Varuna 
cover me with a copper armor. 5. When moving down against 
[him] thou descendest against the sleeping man unknowing, let 
Varuna cover me with a §ilver armor. «. When moving down 
against [himl thou descendest against the sleeping man un- 
knowing, let Varuna cover me with a golden armor. 7. Life is 
the mother, thought the father. Homage to thee, O drying one. 
Thou art seizer by name, possessing all life. Unto thee then 
homage for ever. Homage to the copper-red one, homage to 
Varuna, homage to him who desires to slay. «. Consuraution 
king, do not hurt me. King consumption, do not hurt. These 
two being harmonious, may I go to complete life. 

IV. 2. 1. Man is the sacrifice, a. His [first] twenty-four years 
are the morning-libation. The gdyatri has twenty-four syllables. 

1. * -^. * B. iti manmamayena, * in the following the MSS. abbrevi- 
ate. * B. Indiana, * -vdhdya, ' A, rundya, * aii, * 

2. *.«. 

VOL. XVI. 27 



202 H. Oertd, 

tram pratassavanam, t. tad vaaundm. prand* vdi vasavah, 
prdnd hi ^darh sarvarh vasv ddadate. 4. sa yady enam etasmin 
kola upatapad upadravet aa hruydt prdnd* vasava idam me prd- 
taasavanam, mddhj/a?idinena savanend ^nuaarktanyte '*tL a^ndo 
hdi ^va bhavati. 5. atha ydni catu^atvdrihgatam varsdni* tan 
rnddhyandinam savanam,, catupcatvdrin^adaksard tristup. trdi- 
stubham, rnddhyandinam savanam, 6. tad rudrdndm., prdnd 
vdi rudrah. prdnd hi ^dam sarvarh rodayanti, 7. aa yady enam 
etasmin k<Ua upatapad upadravet sa bruydt prdnd rudrd idam 
me rnddhyandinarh savanam trtlyasavanend ^nusaTrUanute ^ti, 
agado hdi ^va bhavati, 8. atha ydny astdcatvdrinpatarh varsdni 
tat trtlyasavanam. astdcatvdrin^daksard jaga€%. jdgatam trfp- 
yasavanam, 9. tad dditydndm, prdnd vd dditydh, prdnd hi 
^darh sarvam ddadate. 10. sa yady enam etasmin kola upatapad 
upadravet sa bruydt prdnd ddityd idam me trtlyasavanam 
dyusd ^nusarhtanute Hi. agado hdi ^va bhavati, 11. etad dha tad 
vidvdn brdhmana uvdca mahiddsa ditareya upaiapaii kim idam 
upatapasi yo ^ham aneno ^patapatd na presydml Hi. sa ha soda- 
^^tarh varsdni jijiva. pra ha sodapa^atam varsdni jlvati ndi 
^nam prdnas sdmy* dyuso jahdti ya evarh veda. 119. 

dvitlyo 'nuvdkas samdptal},. 

The morning-libation is connected with the gdyatrl. a. It be- 
longs to the Vasus. The breaths are the Vasus ; for the breaths 
take to themselves all this that is good (vasu). 4. If in that time 
an illness should attack him, he should say ; " Ye breaths, ye 
Vasus, continue this morning-libation of mine by the noon-lita- 
tion." Verily he becomes well. 6. His [next] forty-four years 
are the noon-libation. The tristubh has forty-four syllables. 
The noon-libation is connected with the tristubh, «. It belongs 
to the Rudras. The breaths are the Rudras ; for the breaths 
cause the whole [universe] to wail (^rud), 7. If in that time an 
illness should attack him, he should say : '^ Ye breaths, ye Rudras, 
continue this noon-libation of m.ine by the evening-libation." 
Verily he becomes well. b. Moreover his [next] forty -eight 
years are the evening-libation. The jagatl has forty-eight sylla- 
bles. The evening-libation is connected with the jagatl. 9. It 
belongs to the Adityas. The breaths are the Adityas ; for the 
breaths take to themselves (y'cto-f a) this all. 10. If in that time 
an illness should attack him, he should say : *' Ye breaths, ye 
Adityas, continue this my evening-libation by my life-time." 
Verily he becomes well. 11. Now the Brahman Mahidusa Aita- 
reya, knowing this, said in [his] illness : ^^ Why dost thou now 
attack me, who am not to die of this illness ?" He lived a hun- 
dred and sixteen years. He lives on to a hundred and sixteen 
years, [his] breath does not leave him in the midst of his life- 
time, who Knows thus. 

2. '-^. ' insert t;dt. *var^mAni, ^sdmy. 



Jdiminvyar Upani^ad-Brdhmana. 203 

IV. 3. 1. trydyiaam^ ka^apasya jamadagnes trydyusam} : 
triny amrtasya puspdni trlny^ dyHnsi^ me ^krnoh. 
s. 8a no mayobhilh pitav* dvi^asva pdntiko" yaa* tanuve syonah, 
8. ye ^gnayah purlsydh pravistdh prthivlm anu : 

tesdrh' ivam asy uttamdhpra^ no jivdtave suva, 120, 
tftlyo *nuvakas samdptal),'. 

IV. 4. I. aranyasya vatso ^si vi^vafidtnd^ vipvdbhiraksano^ 
*pdm pakvo *«« varunasya duto ^ntardhindma,* a. yaihd ivam 
amrto tnartyehhyo* ^ntarhito ^sy evarh tvam asmdn aghdyubhyo 
*ntar dhehi. antardhir aai stenebhyah, 121, 

caturtho ^nuvakas saindptiify, 

IV. 5. 1. vyusi savitd bhavasy udesyan visnur udyan pumsa^ 
udito brhaspatir abhiprayan maghave ^ndro vdikuntho mddhyan- 
dine bhago ^pardhna^ ugro devo lohitdyann astamite yamo 
hhavcui. a. apnasu aomo rdjd nipdydfn pitrrdjas* svapne manu- 
sydn pramgaai paycLSd papfm, a. virdtre bhavo bhavasy aparard- 
tre ^ngird agnihotraveldydm bhrguh. a, tasya tad* etad eva man- 

IV. 3. 1. The threefold life-time of Ka9yapa, of Jamadagni 
the tiireefold life-time, the three flowers of immortality, three 
life-times thou madest for me. s. Enter into us, O thou bene- 
ficent food, which, tranquilizin^, art pleasing to the body, 
s. What dirty fires are entered into the earth along, of them 
thou art the highest ; impel us unto life. 

IV. 4. 1. Thou art the calf of the forest, possessing all names, 
all -defending; ripe of the waters art thou, Varuna's messenger, 
concealment by name. a. As thou, immortal, art concealed from 
mortals, so do thou conceal us from the wicked. Thou art con- 
cealment from robbers. 

IV. 5. I. When it dawns, thou becomest Savitar ; when about 
to rise, Visnu ; rising, Purusa ; risen, B^haspati ; ascending, the 
bounteous one ; at noon, Indra Vaikuntha ; in the afternoon, 
Bhaga ; growing red, the formidable god ; having set, thou 
becomest Yama. a. In the stones king Soma, in the night the 
king of the Fathers. In sleep thou enterest into men ; with the 
milk, into cattle, a. In the middle of night thou art Bhava ; in 
the after-part of the night, Angiras ; at the time of the Agni- 
hotra, Bh^gu. 4. This disk is its udder, speech and breath are 

3. ^triydy-. * frin. ^dytiihk^, *-to, ^ cathihtokd, *ya, '-o?ii. ^prd, 

4. ' vigvon-d, * -k^amd. ' A. ^rddhafindvia, * ta, • marttebhyo, 

5. ' -o. * A. pardher^, * -ja, * ta. 



204 //. Oertel, 

dalam udhah, taaydi Hdu standu yad vdk ca prdnap ca, tdhhydm 
me dhuksvd '*dhydyam hrahmacaryam^ prajdm pa^n svargam 
lokam sajdtavana^ydm, 5. etd dpisa* d^dse. bhTir bhuvas svah. 
udite gukram ddi^a,'' tad atman dadhe. 122, 

pancamo ^mivdkas samdptaff,. 

IV, 6. I. hh<igeratho hdi '*^ksvdko rdjd kdmapretm yc^fieua 
yaksyamdna dsa, a. tad u ha kurupaficdldndm^ brdhniand ucur 
hhageratho ha vd ay am diksvdko rdjd kdmaprena yajflena yaks- 
yamdnah.^ etena* kathdm vadisydma iti, a. tarn hd '^hhyeyuh, 
tebhyo* hd ^bhydgatebhyo ^pacit'i^ cakdra. 4. atha hdi ^sdrh sa 
bhdga dvavrdjo '*ptvd^ ke^apma^runi nakhdn nikrtyd ^''jyend^ 
^bhyajya dandopdnaham bibhrat. ft. tdn ho ^vdca brdhvumd 
bhagavantah katam>o wow tad veda yathd '*'^ ^dmtapratyd^rdvite 
d^min gacchata iti, «. atha ho ^vdca kcUamo vas tad veda yad- 
vldusas sudgdtd suhotd svadhvaryua aumdnusavid djdyata iti, 
7. atha ho ^vdca katamo vas tad veda yac chanddnsi prayuj- 
yante yat tdni sarvdni safhstutdny abhisampadyanta iti. s. atha 
ho ^vdca katamo vas tad veda yathd gdyatryd uttatne aksare 

these two teats. From them milk for me the lesson, Vedie 
studentship, offspring, domestic animals, the heavenly world, the 
prayer for supremacy over [my] fellows. 6. These wishes I wish. 
JShtiSj bhiivaSy svar. When [the sun] hath risen, show brightness. 
I place that in [my]8elf. 

IV. 6. 1. King Bhageratha Aiksvaka was about to sacrifice 
with a wish-fulfilling sacrifice, s. Then the Brahmans of the 
Kurupaucalas said : '^ Verily this king Bhageratha Aiksvfika is 
about to sacrifice with a wish-fulfilling sacrifice. With him we 
will have a talk." s. They went to him. To them having come 
to [him] he paid honors. 4. Now he came to their place having 
cut the hair of his head and his beard, having cut his nails, hav- 
ing anointed himself with sacrificial butter, bearing a staff and 
sandals, ft. To them he (Bhageratha) said: "Reverend Brahmans, 
who of you knoweth this : how address and response go to the 
gods ?" 6, Then he said : " Who of you knoweth what he 
knoweth (= must know) of whom a good iidgdtar, a good hotar, 
a good aahvaryu, one who knoweth men well, is born ?" e. Then 
he said : " Who of you knoweth this : how the metres are ap- 
plied, to what all of them when used in praise together are 
equivalent ?" s. Then he said : " Who of you knoweth this : 



5. ^ -ya, • dsi^a, ' ddi^a, 

6. ' B. -pdHC', * yak^am-, *etatena, * insert bJia, ^ upattHl, *jyd. 



Jdiminlya' Upanisad-Brdhmana. 205 

pujMr yajfiam apigacchcUa iti, 9. atha ho ^vdca katamo vas tad 
veda yathd daksindh pratigrhUd na hinsantl Hi. 12S, 

9<X9the *nuvdke prathamafy khandaJi. 

IV. 7. 1. etdn hat ^ndn pafLca prapidn j>apraccha, a. tesdm 
ha kunipaUcdldndm^ boko ddJhhyo ^nucdna dsa, s. sa ho hn'tca 
yathd '*'*grdvitaj>ratyd^dvite devdn gacchatu iti prdcydm^ vdi 
rOjan di^y dp'dvitapratydprdvite devdn gacchatah. tasmdt^ prdu 
tisthann d^dvayati prdfi tisthan pratyd^dvayatt Hi. 4. atha 
ho ^tjdca yadvidttsas sudgdtd suhotd svadhvaryus sumdnusavid* 
djdyata iti yo vdi manusyasya sambhutirh vede Hi ho hmca tasya 
sudgdtd suhotd svadhvaryus sumdnusavid djdyata iti prdnd n 
ha vdva rdjan fnanusyasya sambhutir* eve Hi, 5. atha ho ^vdca 
yac chanddnsi prayujyante yat tdni sarvdni sarhstutdny abhi- 
sampadyanta iti gdyatrlm u ha vdva rdjan sarvdni chanddnsi 
sarhstutdny abhisampadyanta iti, ». atha ho ^vdca yathd gdya- 
tryd uttame aksare punar yajfiam apigacchata iti va^satkdreno 
ha vdva rdjan gdyatryd uttame aksare punar yajnain apigac- 
chata iti. 7. atha ho* ^vdca yathd daksindh pratigrhltd na 
hinsantl Hi — 124, 

§a>9fhe *nuvdke dvitlyaJi khan(fah, 

bow the last two syllables of the gdyatrl go again unto the sac- 
rifice ?" 9. Then he said : " Who of you knoweth this : how 
the sacrificial fees, being received, do not injure ?" 

IV. 7. I. These five questions he asked of them. a. Of these 
Knrupaiicalas Baka Dalbhya was learned, s. He said : '^ ' How 
address and response go to the gods ?' — verily in the eastern 
quarter, O king, do address and response ffo to the gods. There- 
fore standing towards the east one maketh address, [and] stand- 
ing towards the east one maketh response." 4. Then he said : 
" * What he knoweth (=must know) of whom a good udgdtar, a 
good hotar, a good adhvaryu, one who knoweth men well, is 
bom ?' — verily he who knoweth the origination of man," he said, 
" of him a good udgdtar^ a good hotar, a good adhuaryu, one 
who knoweth men well, is born. And the breaths, indeed, O 
king, are the origination of man." 5. Then he said : " * How the 
metres are applied, to what all of them when used in praise 
together are equivalent ?' — verily to the gdyatrl, O king, all the 
metres when used in praise together are equivalent." e. Then 
he said : " * How the last two syllables of the gdyatrl go again 
unto the sacrifice ?' — verily by means of the vasatkdra, O king, 
the two last syllables of the gdyatrl go again unto the sacrifice." 
7. Then he said : " * How the sacrificial fees, being received, do 
not injure ?' — 

1, ^B. 'pdfiC', *a^m; ^sam-, * A, sambhatiddhura ; B. sambhutir 
ddhara, */idi. ^prdc-. 



206 n. OerUl, 

IV. 8. I. — yo vdi gdyatryai mukham vede ^ti ho ^vdca tarn 
daksind pratigrhltd na hinsantl Hi. «. agnir ha vdva rdjan 
gdyatrlmukham, tasmdd yad agndv^ abhyddadhdti bhuydn* eva 
sa tena hhavati vardhate. evam evdi ^varh vidvdn hrdhmanah 
pratigrhnan bhuydn eva bhavati vardhata u eve ^ti, i. sa ho 
^vdcd ^nucdno vdi kild ''yam brdhmana dsa. tvdm aham anena 
yajflendi "m* Hi. 4. ta^ya vdi te tatho ^dgdsydml Hi ho ^vdca 
yathdi '*kardd eva bhittvd svargam lokam esyasi Hi. fi. tasmd 
etena gdyatreno^ '^dgUfieno ''jjagdv. sa hdi '^kardd eva bhfUvd 
svargam lokam iydya. tena* hdi Hendi ^kardd eva bhutvd svar- 
gam lokam eti [ya evam veda^. e. orh vd iti dve aksare. orh vd 
iti caturthe. orh vd iti scathe, hum, bhd om vdg Uy astame. 
7. tena hdi Hena pratldar^o* *sya bhayadasyd ^^samdtyasyo 
]jjagdu. 8. tarn ho ^vdca kim ta dgd^ydmt Hi. sa ho ^vdca hari 
me devd^vdv dgdye Hi. tathe Hi. tdu hd ^smd djagdu. tdu hdi 
''nam djagm^tuh. 9. sa vd esa udgUhah kdmdndm sampad^ om 
vdSc om vdSc om vdSc hum, bhd om vdg iti. sdngo hdi 'va sata- 
nur amrtas sambhavati ya etad evam vedd Hho yasydi ^vath 
vidvdn udgdyati. 125. 

^a^fhe ^nuvdke tftiyaJi kfiaiufah. §a.^tho ^nuvdkas samdptah. 

IV. 8. I. — Verily whoso knoweth the mouth of the gdyatriy*^ 
he said, " him the sacrificial fees, being received, do not injure. 
2. Verily Agni, O king, is the mouth of the gdyatri. Therefore 
in that one puts [things] in the fire, it thereby becometh greater, 
it increaseth; even so a Brahman knowing thus, receiving [sacri- 
ficial fees], becometh greater [and] increaseth." s. He (Bhage- 
ratha) said : " Verily this one was a learned Brahman. I come to 
thee with this sacrifice." 4. " Verily, I will sing for thee its 
udgithay'* he (B.) said, " in such wise that thou shalt go to the 
heavenly world having become sole king." s. For him he sang 
the udgitha by means of the gdyatra-udgUha. He (Bhageratha) 
having become sole king went to the heavenly world. By means 
of this same \udgttha\ he goes to the heavenly world, having 
become sole king, [who knows thus]. «. Om, vd are two sylla- 
bles, om vd the third and fourth, om vd the fifth and sixth, hum 
hhdy om vdc the seventh and eighth. 7. With this same [udgitha] 
Pratidar9a sang the udgitha for this Bhayada Asamatya. 8. He 
said to him : " What shall I sing into thy possession ?" He said: 
'* Sing for me the two bay steeds of the gods." " Yes," he said. 
He sang the two into his possession. They both came unto him, 
9. This same tidgltha is the success of wishes, viz. om vdc, om 
vdCy om vdc, hum hhd^ om vdc. Verily he comes to life with 
limbs, with a body, immortal, who knows this thus, and he for 
whom one knowing thus sings the udgitha. 

8. ^ a^'. ^ -y&n. ^gdyatraso. * tona. * A. -f€. * A. savad. 



Jdiminlya- Vpomisad-BrdUrruma. 207 

IV. 9. I. puruso vdi yqjfiah puruso ho ^dglthah, athdi Ha eva 

mrtyavo yad agnir vdyur dditya^ candramdh. a. te ha puru- 

sarh jdyamdnam eva mrtyupdpdir abhidadhatL tasya vdcam 

evd* ^gnir abhidadhdti prdnarh vdyu^ caksur ddityap ^otram 

candramdh, s. tad dhus sa vd udgdtd yo yajamdnaaya^ prdne- 

bhyo Ulhi mrtyupdpdn unmuHcatV Hi, 4. tad yasydi ^varh vidvdn 

prastdiUi ya e^m ^sya vdci mrtyupdpas tarn evd ^syo ^nmuficati, 

«. atha yasydi ^varh vidvdn* udgdyati ya evd ^sya prdne mrtyu- 

pd^a tarn evd '*syo ^nmuflcati, «. atha yasydi ^varh vidvdn pra- 

tiharati* ya evd ^sya caJcsusi* mrtynpdpaa tarn evd ^syo ^mnuflcati. 

7. aiha yasydi ^varh vidvdn nidhanarn' upditi* ya evd ^sya protre 

mrtyupdpas tarn evd ^syo ^nrnuficati. e, evam vd evamvid tidgdtd 

yajamdnasya prdnebhyo ^dhi mrtyupdpdn unmuficatL^ ». tad 

dhus sa vd udgdtd yo yajamdnasya prdnebhyo ^dhi mrtyupdpdn 

unmucyd Hhdi ^nam sdngarh satanurh sarvamrtyos sjyrndtl Hi. 

126, 

saptame ^nuvake prathamaJj. kharuiah, 

IV. 10. 1. tad yasydi ^vam vidvdn hinkaroti ya evd '^sya 
lomasu mrtyupdpas tasmdd evdi ^nam sprndti. 9. atha yasydi 

IV. 9. 1. Verily the sacrifice is man, the tidgltha indeed is 
man. Now these are the deaths, viz. Agni, Vayu, the sun, the 
moon. 3. They put upon man, when he is being born, the fetters 
of death. Agni puts [them] upon his speech, Vayu upon his 
breath, the sun upon his sight, the moon upon his hearing. 
». This they say : " Verily it is the udgdtar who releaseth the 
fetters of death from the breaths of the sacrificer." 4. For 
whom one knowing thus sings the prastdva, for him he releases 
that fetter of death which is in his speech. ». And for whom 
one knowing thus sings the udgitha^ for him he releases that 
fetter of death which is in his breath, e. And for whom one 
knowing thus sings the pratihdra, for him he releases that fetter 
of death which is in his sight. 7. And for whom one knowing 
thus enters upon the nidhana, for him he releases that fetter of 
death which is in his hearing, e. Thus an udgdtar knowing thus 
releases the fetters of death from the breaths of the sacrificer. 
9. This they say : ** He is an udgdtar who, having released the 
fetters of death from the breaths of the sacrificer, rescueth him 
then with his limbs, with his body, from every death." 

IV. 10. 1. Now for whom one knowing thus utters the hinkdra^ 
him he rescues from that fetter of death which is in his hairs. 
9. And for whom one knowing thus sings the prastdva^ him he 

9. * avd. • yajd'. ' umun^, * -dvd, * B. udgdyati, • B. prdne, ' B. 
cm. • B. pratiharati. 



208 H. Oertel 

'^varh vidvan prastduti ya evd '^sya tva^:^ mrtyupd^as tasrndd 
evdi ^narh sprndti. %, atha yaaydi ^varh vidvdn ddim ddatte ya* 
evd ^sya indiisesu ynrtyiqyd^ds tasrndd evdi ^nam sprndti, 4. atha 
yasydi ^vam vidvdn udgdyati ya evd ^sya sndvasu mrtyupd^as 
tasmdd evai ^nam sprndti, ft. atha yasydi '*vam vidvdn prati- 
harati ya evd ^syd Yigesu mrtyupd^as tasmdd evdi ^nam sprndti, 
6. atha yasydi '*vam vidvdn upadravati ya evd ^syd ^sthisu 
mrtyupdpas tasindd evdi ''nam sprndti. i, atha yasydi ^vam 
vidvdn 7iidhanam upditi ya evd ^sya majjasu mrtyupd^as sa 
tasmdd evdi ^nam sprndti, e, evarh vd evamvid udgdtd yajamd- 
nasya prdnehhyo ^dhi tnrtyupd^dn unnmcyd ^thdi ^nam sdngam 
satanum sarvamrtyos sprndti, 9, tad dhus sa vd udgdtd yo 
yajamdnasya prdnehhyo ^dhi mrtyupd^dn unmucyd Hhdi ''nam 
sdngam satanum sarvamrtyos sprtvd svarge loJce saptadhd da- 
dhdtl Hi, 10. sa vd esa indro vdimrdha itdyan bhavati savito 
^dito mitras samgavakdla* indro vdikiirUho m^adhyandine samd- 
vartamdna^ parva ugro devo lohUdyan prajdpatir eva samve^* 
^stamitah, w, tad yasydi ^vam vidvdn hinkaroti ya evd ^syo 
^dyatas* svargo lokas tasmifin evdi ^nam dadhdti, la. atha 
yasydi ^vam vidvdn prastduti ya evd '*syo ^dite svargo lokas 
tasminn evdi ''nam dadhdti, it, atha yasydi ^varh vidvdn ddim 

rescues from that fetter of death which is in his skin. t. And 
for whom one knowing thus begins the ddi, him he rescues from 
that fetter of death which is in his flesh. 4. And for whom one 
knowing thus sings the udgUha^ him he rescues from that fetter 
of death which is in his sinews. &. And for whom one knowing 
thus sings the pratihdra^ him he rescues from that fetter of 
death which is in his limbs. «. And for whom one knowing thus 
sings the upadravay him he rescues from that fetter of death 
which is in his bones. 7. And for whom one knowing thus enters 
upon the nidhana, him he rescues from that fetter of death 
which is in his marrow. 8. = IV. 9. 9. ». This they say : "Verily 
he is the udgdtar who, having released the fetters of death from the 
breaths of the sacrificer, having then rescued him with his limbs, 
with his body, from every death, placeth him in seven parts in 
the heavenly world." lo. That same one, rising, is Indra Vfiimrdha; 
risen, Savitar ; Mitra at the time when the cows are driven to- 
gether ; Indra Vaikuntha at noon ; when returning, ^^rva ; when 
it is becoming red, the formidable god ; Prajapati when it has gone 
home to lie down. ii. Thus for whom one knowing thus utters the 
hinkdra, what heavenly world there is of him rising, in that he 
thus places him. la. And for whom one knowing thus sings the 
prastdva, what heavenly world there is of him when he has 
risen, in that he thus places him. is. And for whom one know- 

10. 'fci^. ^yd, ^sambhavak'. *-e prim, m., corrected to -o. *-a. 



Jmminlyor Upmiisad-Brahmcma, 209 

ddcUte ya evd ^sya samgavakdle* svargo lokas tasminn evdi ^narh 
dadhdti. 14. cUha yasydi ^vam vidodn udgdyati ya evd ^sya 
madhyandine* svargo lokas tas7ninn evdi ''nam dadhdti. \b. atha 
yasydi ^vam vidvdn pratiharati ya evd '^syd ^pardhne svargo 
lokas tasminn evdi ^narh dadhdti. )«. atha yasydi ^varh vidvdn 
upadravati ya'' evd* ^syd ^stamyatas* svargo lokas tasminn evdi 
^narh dadhdti, n. atha yasydi ^vam vidvdn fiidhanam upditi 
ya evd ^syd ^stamite svargo lokas tasmin7i evdi hiam dadhdti, 
18. evarh vd evamvid udgdtd yajamdnasya prdnebhyo ^dhi 
mrtyupdpdn unmticyd Hhdi ^nam sdfigam satanum sarvamrtyos 
sprtvd svarge loke saptadhd* dadhdti, 127, 

saptame 'nuvdke dvitiyafy khan4afy, saptamo *nuvdkas samdptah, 

IV. 11. 1. sad* dha* vdi devatds^ svayamhhuvo 'g7iir vdyur 
asdv ddityah prdno ^nnarh vdk, 2. tap* p'disthye* vyavadantd* 
^ham presthd* '^smy ahaiii presthd* ^smy mdrh priyam upddhvam 
Hi, 8. td anyonyasydr presthatdydi nd Histhanta, td abruvan 
na vd anyonyasydf presthatdydi tisthdmaha* etd* samprabravd- 
niahdi yathd presthds* sma iti, 4. td agnim abruvan katharh 

ing thus begins the ddi, what heavenly world there is of him at 
the time when the cows are driven together, in that he thus places 
him. 14. And for whom one knowing thus sings the uagitha, 
what heavenly world there is of him at noon, in that he thus 
places him. 15. And for whom one knowing thus sings the pra- 
tihdra^ what heavenly world there is of him in the afternoon, in 
that he thus places him. is. And for whom one knowing thus 
sings the upadrava, what heavenly world there is of him going 
home (setting), in that he thus places him. 17. And for whom 
one knowing thus enters upon the nidhana, what heavenly world 
there is of him when he has set, in that he thus places him. 
18. Even so an udgdtar knowing thus, having released the fetters 
of death from the breaths of the sacrificer, having then rescued 
him with his limbs, with his body, from every death, places him 
in seven parts in the heavenly world. 

IV. 11. I. Verily there are six self -existing divinities, viz. 
Agni, Vayu, yonder sun, breath, food, speech. 2. These disputed 
regarding their preeminence [saying] : " I am the best, I am the 
best ; worship me as excellence." s. They did not recognize 
each the other's preeminence. They said: "Verily we do not 
recognize each the other's preeminence. Let us therefore explain 
together how we are best." 4. They said to Agni : " How art 



10. • B. mddh', • B. sa, • A. divd, • sapta, 

11. ^ f€ujlh, ^ifa, *-d. *'iihe, *pxivad-, "jrfiij-. Mnyd-. ^-hm, *eta, 

VOL. XVI. 28 



1ft 
1« 



210 E. Oertet., 

tvarn^* ^estho *8l Hi. ft. so ^bravld aharh devdndm* mukham 
aamy aham anydsdm prajdndm. mayd "^^hutayo huyante. aharh 
devdndm annam vikaromy^^ oAam manusydndm, «. aa yan na*^ 
sydm amukhd eva devds stjur amukhd anydh prajdh. nd "hutayo 
huyeran.^^ na devdndm annam vikriyeta** na manusydndm, 
7. tata idarh sarvam pardbhavet tato na kirn cana paripisyete 
Hi. 8. evam eve Hi ho ^^cur 7idi 'v6 'Aa" kim cana paripisyeta yat 
tvam na syd iti, o. atha vdyum abruvan katham u tvarh prestho 
*8l Hi, 10. 80 ^bravtd aharh devdndm prdno *smy aham" anyd- 
sdm prajdndm, yasmdd aham, utkrdmdmi tatas sa praplavate. 
i\. sa y ad aharh na sydrh tata idarh sarvam pardbhavet tato na 
kirh cana paripisyete Hi, la. evam eve Hi ho ^^cur ndi ^ve ^ha kim 
cana paripisyeta yat^* tvarh na syd iti. 128, 

a^fame 'nuvdke prathama^ khatf^aJlf^. 

IV, 12. I. athd^^dityam abruvan katham u tvam prestho *«* Hi, 
i. so ^bravld aham evo ^dyann ahar bfiavdfny aJiam astarhyan 
rdtrih, mayd caksusd karmdni kriyante. sa yad aharh na sydrh 
ndi 'wa Via** sydn na rdtrih, na karmdni kriyeran, 8. tata 
idam sarvam pardbhavet tato na kirh cana paripisyete Hi, 
4. evam eve^ Hi ho ^cur ndi ^ve ^ha kirh cana paripisyeta yat tvam 
9ia syd iti. ft. atha prdnam abruvan katham u* tvam prestho ^s\ 
Hi. «. so 'bravU prdno bhiUvd ^gnir dipyate. j^^^o bhtUvd 

thou the best ?*' a. He said : ** I am the mouth of the gods, I of the 
other creatures ; by me offerings are offered ; I transform the 
food of the gods, I [that] of men. 6. If I were not, the gods 
would be mouthless, mouthless the other creatures ; no offerings 
would be offered. Neither the food of the gods would be trans- 
formed nor [that] of men. 7. Thence this all would perish ; 
thence nothing at all would be left." s. "Just so," they said; 
" nothing at all would be left if thou wert not." ». Then they 
said to V5yu : " And how art thou the best ?" lo. He said : " I am 
the breath of the gods, I of the other creatures. From whom I 
go out, he then drifts away." ii. =7. la. = e, 

IV. 12. I. Then they said to the sun : "And how ar£ thou the 
best?" a. He said : "I, rising, become the day ; I, setting, the 
night. By me as sight deeds are done. If I were not, there 
would be no day, no night ; no deeds would be done." s. = 1 1. 7, 
4. = 11. 8. 6. Then they said to breath : "And how art thou the 
best?" «, He said : "As breath, Agni shineth ; as breath, Vayu 



11. »• tvd. ^ ^ 'kdr-, " a, " hHyente (!) corrected to huyaran (1). " prim. 
m. -e. "-^«. "ya. ^'^ahaham, ^^^vaha. 

12. ^hafina. *e, *uk. 



Jdiminvyor Upanisad-BrdhmaTia. 211 

vdyur dkd^m* anuhhavati, prdno bhiUvd ^^ditya udeti. prdndd 

annam prdndd vdk, 7. sa yad ah am na sydm tata* idam* sar- 

vam pardbhavet tato na kim cana paripisyete Hi. e. evam eve 

Hi ho ^cur ndi ^ve Via kim cana parigisyeta yat tvarh na syd iti, 

». aihd ^nnam abruvan katham u* tvarh ^estham om Hi. lo. tad 

abramn mayi pratisthdyd ^gnir dlpyate. mayi pratisthdya vdyur 

dkd^m anuvibhavati. rnayi pratisthdyd ^^ditya udeti. inad eva 

jtrdno mad vdk. n. aa yad aharh na sydm tata^ idam'' sarvam 

pardbhavet tato na kim cana pari^isyete ^ti. la. evam eve Hi ho 

^^cur ndi 'we 'Aa kim cana parigisyeta yat tvarh na syd iti 

i«. o^Aa vdcam abruva7i katham u* tvam presthd '«i Hi. u. sd 

^bravln maydi ^ve ^dam vijndyate mayd ^dah. sa yad aharh na 

sydm ndi ^ve ^dam vijfldyeta nd ^dah, 10. tata* idam sarvam 

pardbhaven ndi ^ve *ha kim cana pari^isyete* ^ti. le. evam eve 

Hi ho ^^cur* ndi ^ve ^ha kim cana pari^isyeta yat tvam na syd 

iti. 129. 

a^tame 'nuvdke dvitiyah kJian^dfj" 

IV. 1 3. 1. td abruvann eta vdi kiln sarvd devatdh. ekdi ^kdm 
evd ^nu snuih.^ sa yaji nu nas sarvdsdm devatdndm ekd cana na 
sydt tatn idam sarvam pardbhavet tato na kim cana paripisyeta. 
hanta sdrdham sametyci^ yac chrestham tad asdme Hi. a. td etas- 
min prdna* okdre vdcy* akdre samdyan. tad yat samdyan tat 
sdmnas sdmatvam. s. td abruvan ycini no martydny anapaha- 

permeateth space; as breath, the sun riseth; from breath [cometh] 
foody from breath speech. 7. If I were not, then this all would 
perish, then nothing at all would be left.'' 8. = 11. a. 9. Then 
they said to food : ** And how art thou the best ?" 10. It said : 
*^In me standing firm, Agni shineth ; in me standing firm, Vayu 
permeateth space in various directions ; in me standing firm, the 
sun riseth ; from me [cometh] breath, from me food." n. = 11.7. 
la. = 1 ] . B. i«. They said to speech : "And how art thou the best ?" 
u. It said : " By me this is distinguished, by me that. If I were 
not, neither would this be distinguished nor that." ift. = 11. 7. 

If. = 11. 8. 

IV. 13. 1. They said: "Verily these are complete divinities. 
We are dependent each upon each. Now if of us complete 
divinities any one were not, then this all would perish, then noth- 
ing at all would be left. Come, coming together let us be that 
which is best." a. They came together in this breath, in the sound 
Of [and] in speech, in the sound a. Because they came together 
{^i + 8am)y therefore the sdman is called so. s. They said : 



12. ^aihk'. * tat (!). * abbreviate, omitting the rest down to sa (! for 
syd iti. ' abbreviate : t . . . . Yy (I). * -^ifya. *• A. tur. 
18. '-a. ^M&m-. »-9€. *v&cc. 



212 E. Oertel, 

tapdpmdny dksardni tany uddhrtyd^ ^mrtesv* apahcUapdpmasu 
^uddhesv aksaresu gdyatram gdydmd ^gndu vdydv dditye prdne 
*nne vdci. tend'' ^pahatya* fnrtyum apahatya pdpmdnam* svar- 
gam lokam iydme Hi, a, e Vy agner amrtam apaJuztapdpma 
Quddham aksaram. gnir ity asya martyam anapahatapdpmd 
^ksaram, 5. ve Hi vdyor amrtam apahatapdpma puddham 
aksaram, yur ity asya martyam anapahatapdpmd ^ksaram, 
«. e Hy ddityasyd ^mrtam apahatapdpma puddham aksaram, tye 
'<y" asya martyam anapahatapdpmd ^ksaram. 7. pre Hi prd- 
nasyd ^mrtam apahatapdpma puddham aksaram,^^ ne '^y" asya 
martyam anapahatapdpmd ^ksaram, s, e Hy annasyd ^mrtam 
apahatapdpma puddham aksaram, nam ity asya martyam ana- 
pahatapdpmd "^ksaram, ». ve Hi vdco ^mrtam apahatapdpma 
puddham aksaram, g ity asydi m>artyam anapahatapdpmd ^ksa- 
ram, 10. td etdni martydny anapahatapdpmdny aksardny 
uddhrtyd ^mrtesv apahatapdpmasu^* puddhesv aksaresu gdya- 
tram dgdyann agndu vdydv dditye prdne *nne vdci, tend 
Apahatya mrtyum apahatya pdpmdnam svargarh lokam dyan, 

'' Removing those syllables of us which are mortal, whose evil is 
not smitten away, let us sin^ a gdyatra in the syllables [which 
are] immortal, having evil smitten away, pure : in Agni, in Vayu, 
in the sun, in breath, in food, in speech. Thereby having smit- 
ten away death, having smitten away evil, may we go to the 
heavenly world." 4. A is the syllable of Agni [which is] immor- 
tal, having evil smitten away, pure; gnis is his syllable [which 



is] mortal, not having evil smitten away. 6. Vd is the syllable 
of Vayu [which is] immortal, having evil smitten away, pure; 
yus is his syllable [which is] mortal, not having evil smitten 
away. e. A is the syllable of the sun [which is] immortal, hav- 
ing evil smitten away, pure; tya. is his syllable [which is] mor- 
tal, not having evil smitten away. 7. Prd is the syllable of 
breath [which is] immortal, having evil smitten away, pure; na 
is his syllable [which is] mortal, not having evil smitten away. 
8. A is the syllable of food [which is] immortal, having evil 
smitten away, pure; nam is its syllable [which is] mortal, not 
having evil smitten away. ». Vd is the syllable of s])eech 
[which is] immortal, having evil smitten away, pure; c is its 
syllable [which is] mortal, not having evil smitten away. 10. They, 
removing those syllables [which are] mortal, not having evil 
smitten away, sang the gdyatra in the syllables [which are] 
immortal, having evil smitten away, pure : in Agni, in Vayu, 



18. »-f«d. •awi-<I). "^yena, '-ta. *-na. ^^ tya ity, " A. adds vedt- 
vdco nifta, cancelled in red. "t^^ ity, ** -mdsu. 



Ja/iminlyor Upamisad- Br ohm ana, 21 3 

11. apahatt/a mrtyum apahatya pdpindnam svargarh lokam eti 
ya evarh veda. 130, 

a^tame *nuvdke tftlyah khan^aJ),. 

IV. 14. 1. td brahmd ^bnivan tvayi pratisthdydi Hain udyac- 
chdme ^ti, td brahmd ^bravtd dsyena^ prdnena yusnidn^ dsyena 
prdnena mdni updpnavdthe Hi, 2. td etena prdnendxi "^kdrena 
vdcy akdram abhinimesyantyo^^ hinkdrdd bhakdram okdrena 
vdcam anusvarantya ubhdbhydm prdndbhydih gdyatram agd- 
yann ovdSc ovdSc ovdSc hum bhd vo vd iti, a. aa yatho "^bhayd- 
padl pratUisthaty* evam eva avarge loke pratyatisthan, prati 
svarge loke tisthati ya evarh veda, 4. ya u ha vd evamvid asmdl 
lokdt prditi sa prdna eva bhutvd vdyum apyeti vdyor adhy 
abhrdny abhrebhyo ^dhi vrstim* vrstydV ^ve ^marh lokam annvi- 
bhavati, a. rsayo ha aattram^ dsdm cakrlre, te punah-punar 
bahvlbhir-bahvlbhih pratipadbhia avargaaya lokaaya dvdram nd 
^nu carta bubudhire, «. ta u ^ramena tapaad vratacaryene ^ndram 
avarurudhire, 1, tarn ho ^^cua avargarh vdi lokam dipaisma,* te 
punah-punar bahvlbhir-bahvibhih* pratipadbhia avargaaya loka- 
aya dvdram nd ^nu cand ^bhutamahi,'^ tathd no hiu^ddhi yathd 

in the sun, in breath, in food, in speech. Thereby having smit- 
ten away death, having smitten away evil, they went to the 
heavenly world, n. Having smitten away death, having smitten 
away evil, he goes to the heavenly world who knows thus. 

IV. 14. I. They said to the brahman: "Standing firm in thee 
we will hold this one up." To them the brahman said : " With 
the breath in the mouth ye shall obtain yourselves, with the 
breath in the mouth me." 2. They, by this breath, the o-sound, 
being about to settle the a-sound in speech, and by the o-sound 
sounding the Ma-sound as speech after the hinkdra^ sang the 
gdyatra with both these breaths: ovdSc ovdSc ovdSc hum, b)id vo 
vd, 3. As one with both feet stands firm, even so they stood firm 
in the heavenly world. He stands firm in the heavenly world 
who knows thus. 4. And he who knowing thus departs from 
this world, he, having become breath, goes unto Vayu, from 
Vayu unto the clouds, from the clouds unto rain. With rain he 
extends over this world. 6. The sages {rsi) sat a session (aattra). 
They again and again with many, many introductory stanzas did 
in no way perceive the door of the heavenly world, e. And they 
with exertion, with penance, with the performance of vows, got 
possession of Indra. 7. They said to him: ** We have desired to 
obtain the heavenly world; yet again and again with many, many 
introductory stanzas have we in no way perceived the door of the 

14. > dsycjinena, ' A. -d ; B. -dhn. * -at, *p-, » -tr-, • A. dipai^tu, 
'' B, inaeTta hahvibhir, ^^bhilt-, ^'^me^ant-. 



214 H. OeHel, 

8vargMt/a lokasj/a dvdram anuprajUdya ^nartds svaati sarhvaUa- 
roByo ''dream gatvd svargam lokam iydme ^ti. 8. tan ho ^vaca 
ko vas sthaviratama iti.* 131, 

Of tame *nuvdke caturthaJi khandaJ^. 

IV. 15. 1. ahatn ity aga^tyah. a. aa vd ehi Hi ho^vdca tasmdi 
vdV te ^ham tad vaksydmi* yad vidvdnsas svargasya lokasya* 
dvdram annprajfidyd ^ndrtds svaati aamvatsaraayo ^drcarh gatvd 
svargam lokam esyathe Hi. «. tasmd etam gdyatrasyo ^dgitham 
upanisadam amrtam uvdcd ^gndu vdydv* dditye prdne^nne vdci. 
4. tato vdi te svargasya lokasya dvdram anuprajfidyd ^ndrtds 
svasti samvatsarasyo ^drcam gatvd svargam lokam dyan. 
6. evam evdi ^vam vidvdn svargasya lokasya dvdram anupra- 
jfidyd *ndrtas svasti samvatsarasyo \lrcam gatvd svargam lokam 
eti. 132, 

a^tame *nuvdke paHcamaJi hha'i}4^1i, a^tamo *nuvdka8 samdptaJ}, 

IV. 16. I. evarh vd etam gdyatrasyo ^dgltham* upanisadam 
amrtam indro 'gastydyo* ^vdcd ^gastya isdya pydvdpvaya isap 
pydvdpvir gdusuktaye gdusuktir jvdldyandya* jvdldyanap pdtyd- 
yanaye* pdtydyanl rdmdya krdtujdteydya vdiydghrajyadydya* 
rdmah krdtujdteyo vdiydghrapadyah — 133, 

navame *nuvdke prathamdfy khaiyf^' 

heavenly world. Teach us so that we, perceiving the door of the 
heavenly world, unharmed^ having gone successfully to the end 
of the year, mav go to the heavenly world." 8. He said to them: 
" Who of you IS the oldest ?" 

IV. 16. I. "I," said Agastya. a. "Then come," he said; "1 
will tell thee that which knowing ye, perceiving the door of the 
heavenly world, unharmed, having gone successfully to the end 
of the year, shall go to the heavenly world." s. To him he told 
this udgitha of the gdyatra['Sdman\ the upanisad, the immor- 
tal, in Agni, in V&yu, in the sun, in breath, in food, in speech. 
4. Verily they then, perceiving the door of the heavenly world, 
unharmed, having gone successfully to the end of the year, went 
to the heavenly world. 5. Even so one knowing thus, perceiving 
the gate of the heavenly world, unharmed, having gone success- 
fully to the end of the year, goes to the heavenly world. 

IV. 16. I. Verily thus Indra told thiH udgitha of the gdyatra 

i'Sdman^^ the upanisad, the immortal, to Agastya, Agastya to 
sa Qyava9vi, Isa 9yi*vri9vi to GausCLkti, Gausdkti to Jvalayana, 
Jv&l&yana to (/fityayani, Catyayani to Kama Kratuj&teya Vai- 
yfighrapadya, Rama Kratuj&teya Vaiyaghrapadya — 

14. * Add aham ity {\). 

16. * A. om. • 'k§dm%. • B. inserts dvdram avdi *vafh. • vdy. 

16. * -git', * 'dvo, » B. bvd-. * -dye, * vdyyd-. 



Jaiminlyor- Upcmisad-BrahniaTia. 215 

IV. 17. I. — ^nkhaya bdbhravydt/a ^ankho hdhhravyo dak- 
sdya kdtydyanaya^ dtreydya daksah kdtydyanir dtreyah kansdya 
vdraleydya* kanso vdrakyaa suyajfldya ^dndilydya suyajfla^ 
pdndilyo ^gnidattdya ^dndilydyd ^gnidattaQ ^dndilyas suyajfldya 
^dndilydya suyajna^ fdndilyo jayantdya vdrakydya jayanto 
vdrakyo jana^rutdya vdrakydya jana^uto vdrakyas^ sudattdya 
pdrd^rydya. a. 8di 'aa* ^dtydyanl gdyatrasyo ^panisad evum 
updsitavyd. 134. 

navame *nuvdke dvitiydh khan^^^j,, navamo 'nuvdkas samdptalf,. 

IV. 18. I. kene ^sitam paiati presitam manah 

kena prdnah prathamah prditi yuktah : 
kene ^sitdrh vdcam imdm vadanti 

caksup p'Otram ka u devo yunakti. 
a. ^otrasya protram manaso 7nano yad 

vdco ha vdcam sa u prdnasya prdnah : 
caksusap caksur atimucya dhlrdh 

pretyd ^smdl lokdd amrtd hhavanti. 
%. na tatra caksur gacchati na vdg gacchati no manah : 

na vidma^ na vijdnimo* yathdi* Uad anupisydt.* 
4. anyad eva tad viditdd atho aviditdd adhi: 
Ui ptpruma* purvesdm ye nas tad vydcacaksire, 

IV. 17. I. — to_9ankha Bubhravya, ^^nkha Bfibhravya to 
Daksa Kfityayani Atreya, Daksa Katyayani Atreya to Kansa 
Varakya, Kansa Varakya to Suyajfia 9«D4*ly*> Suyajiia ^andilya 
to Jayanta Varakya, Jayanta Varakya to Jana9rnta Varakya, 
Jana^ruta Varakya to Sudatta Prira9arya. That 8ame upanisad 
of the gdyatra [sdman^ of ^i^tyayani is to be worshiped thus. 

IV. 18. 1. Sent by whom does the mind, sent forth, fly? 
Yoked by whom does the first breath come forth ? By whom is 
this speech sent which they speak ? And which god yokes sight 

Sand] hearing ? 3. Released from the hearing of the hearing, 
rom the mind of the mind, from the speech of speech — and that 
is also the breath of the breath — from the sight of the sight, the 
wise departing from this world become immortal. 3. Sight does 
not go there, speech does not go there, neither [does] mind. 
We do not know, we do not distinguish, how one might teach that. 
4. "It is different from the known and likewise from the unknown;** 



17. ^ -dya. ^p-, * -o, and insert janoQrutdya vdrakydya jana^rute (!) 
vdrakuas, * -o. 

18. * ridu. • -a. • B. inserts *vdu • -^ifh^-. * -fru-. 



216 77. Oertel, 

6. yad vdcd "^nahhyuditam yeiia vdg c^hyudyate : 

tadeva brahma tvam viddhi ne ^dam yad idam upascUe, 

6. yan manasCi na manute yend ^^hur mano* matarn' : 

tad eva brahma tvam viddhi ne ^dam yad idam updsaie. 

7. yac caksusd na pa^yati yena caksunsi pa^ati : 

tad eva brahma tvam viddhi ne ^dam yad idam updsate. 
9. yac chrotrena 7ia* ^rnoti yena grotram idam pnUam : 

tad eva* brahma tvam viddhi ne ^dam yad idam updscUe, 
9. yat prdnena na prdnitV" yena prdnah prantyate : 

tad eva brahma tvam viddhi ns ^dam yad idam, updsate. 135, 

da^me ^nuvdke prathanuify kharyfafy. 

IV. 19. I. yadi manyase su vede Hi dahram evd ^pi nunam 
tvam vetfha brahmano rupam yad asya tvam yad asya devesu. 
atha nu mlmdnsyam eva te manye ^viditam. 

2. nd ^ham manye sv vede Hi no na vede Hi veda ca : 
yo nas tad veda tad veda no na vede Hi vedu ca, 

3. yasyd ^matam tasya matam matam} yasya na veda sah : 
avijndtam vijdfiatdm vijfidtam avijdnaidm, 

thus we heard from those of old, who explained it to us. 5. That 
which is not declared by speech, that by which speech is de- 
clared, only that know^ thou as brahman^ not that which they wor- 
ship here. e. That which one does not think with the mind, 
that by which they say the mind is tliought, only that know thou 
as brahinauy not that which they worship here. 7. That which 
one does not see with sight, that by which one sees sights, only 
that know thou as brahman, not that which they worship here. 
8. That whicli one does not hear with hearing, that by which 
this hearing is heard, only that know thou as brahman, not that 
which they worship here. 9. That which one does not breathe 
with breath, that by which breath is led forth, only that know 
thou as brahman, not that which they worship here. 

IV. 19. 1. If thou thinkest : "I know [it] well," little dost 
thou even then know the form of the brahman, what of it thou 
[art?], what of it [is] among the gods. Now then I think 
what is unknown is to be pondered upon by thee. 9. I do not 
think: "I know [it J well," neither do I know: "I know [it] not." 
He of us who knows this knows it (the brahman), and he does 
not know : " I know [it] not." s. Of whom it is not thought, of 
him it is thought; of whom it is thought, he knows it not. Not 
understood [is it] of those who understand ; [it is] understood 

18. • A. manyo. '' B. tnateni, ® iiag. * MSS. abbreviate. *" -ntti. 

19. ^am-. 



JdiminiyO' Upanisad^Brdhmana, 217 

4. prcUibodhaviditam* matam amrtatvam hi vindate : 
dtmana vindate vlryam vidyayd vi?idate ^mrtam. 
b, iha ced avedld atha aatyain asti, na ced ihd ^vedin inahatl 
vina^tih. hhntesu-hhutesu vivicya dhlrdh pretyd '^smdl lokdd 
amrtd hhavanti. 136, 

m 

dagame *nuvdke dmtlyaJi khar^^^i. 

IV. 20. I. hrahina ha devebhyo vijigye, tasya ha hrahmano vi- 
jaye devd amahlyanta. ta diksantd ^sfndkam evd ^yam vijayah. 
astndkam evd ^yam rnahime V?. a. tad dhdi ^sdrh vijajndu, tehhyo 
ha prddur bahhnva, tan na vyajdnafita} kirn idaih yaksam iti. 
8. te ^f/nim ahnivafl jdtaveda etad vijdnlhi kini etad yaksatn iti. 
tnthe ^ti. 4. tatP ahhyadravat, tain ahhyavadat ko ^sl ^ti. agiiir 
va aluwi^ as ml Hy abravlj jdtauedd vd aham asml Hi, 5. tas- 
itiins tvayi kim vlryam iti, api ''dam sarvaih daheyatn yad idam 
prthivydm iti. e. tasmdi trnaih nidadhdv etad dahe Hi. tad 
npapreydya sarvajavena. tan na pa^dka dagdhuin. sa tata eva 
nivavrte ndi ^nad a^akam vijiidtuyh yad etad yaksavi iti, 7. at?ia 
n^nyu/n alfTuvan vdyav etad vijdnlhi kim etad yaksam iti, tathe 
Hi. 8. ta<r ahhyadravat. tarn ahhyavadat ko *«I Hi. vdyur vd 

of those who do not understand. 4. It is thought to he known 
in awakening (?), for one finds immortality ; hy the self one 
finds strength, hy knowledge one finds immortality, ft. If one 
has known [it] here, then it is true; and if one has not known 
[it] here, [there is] great loss. The wise, having separated [it] 
m the several beings, departing from this world become immor- 
tal. 

IV. 20. I. The brahman won a complete victory for the gods. 
By the complete victory of this brahman the gods were exalted. 
They considered : " Oars is this complete victory, ours is this 

E greatness." a. Now it (the brahman) became aware of this 
thought] of them. It manifested itself to them. They did not 
recognize it [saying]: "What is this spectre?" a. They said to 
Agni : " O .Jfitavedas, find that out, what spectre this is." 
"Yes." 4. He ran to it. It said unto him: "Who art thou?" 
" I am Agni," he said ; " I am Jatavedas." 6. " What strength 
then is in thee ?" ** I could burn even everything which is here 
on earth." •. It put down before him a blade of grass [saying]: 
"Burn this." Approaching it with all his might he could not 
bum it. Thereupon he returned [saying] : " I could not find 
out what spectre this is." 7. Then they said to Vfiyu: " O Vfiyu, 
find that out, what spectre this is." " Yes." s. He ran to it. It 



19. *A. -ri7-. 20. '-a/a. »-m. >7mm. ^B.-in. 

VOL. XVI. 29 



218 n. OerUl 

aham asml Hy abravln mdtari^vd vd ahafn* aaml Hi. •. tasmina 
tvayi kim mryam iti. apt ^darh sarvam ddadlya yad idam prthi- 
vydm iti. lo. tasmdi trnarh nidadhdv etad ddatsve Hi. tad upa- 
prey ay a sarvajavena. tan na papdkd ^^ddtum. sa tata eva niva- 
vrte* ndi ^nad a^karh vijfidtum yad etad yaksam iti. ii. athe 
'*ndrani abruvan maghavann etad vijdnlhi kifn etad yaksam iti. 
tathe Hi. tad^ ahhyadravat. tasmdt tiro ^dadhe. n. sa tasminn 
evd ^^kdpe striyam djagdrna bahn pobhamdndm umdm hdima- 
vatlm. tdm ho ^vdca kim etad yaksam iti. 137. 

dagame *nuvdke tf^iyafy khatufa^. 

IV. 21. I. brahme Hi ho ^vdca brahmano vd etad vijaye ma/tl- 
yadhva iti. tato hdi '*va viddrh cakdra brahme Hi. a. ta^snidd vd 
ete devd atitardm ivd ^nydn devdn yad agnir vdyur indrah. te 
hy enan nedistham* paspr^us sa* hy enat^ prathamo viddrh 
cakdra brahme Hi. z. tasmdd vd indro Hitdrdm ivd ^nyd?i devdn. 
sa hy enan nedistham pasparpa sa hy enat prathamo viddih 
cakdra brahme Hi. a. tasydi ^sa ddepo yad etad vidyuto vyadyu- 
tad* dS iti^ nyamisad'' dS. ity adhidevatam. t. athd ^dhydtmam. 
yad enad gacchatl 'va ca mano ^nena cdi ^nad upasmaraiy abhl- 

said unto him: ** Who art thou?" "I am Vayu," he said; "I 
am Matari9van." ** What strength then is in thee ?" ** I could 
take even everything that is here on earth." ». It put down 
before him a blade of grass [saying]: "Take this." Approach- 
ing it with all his might he could not take it. Thereupon he 
returned [saying]: "I could not find out what spectre this is." 
10. Then they said to Indra: "O Maghavan, find that out, what 
spectre this is." " Yes." He ran to it. It was concealed from 
him. 11. In that same space he encountered a woman, greatly 
shining, Uma HfiimavatL He said to her: "What spectre is 
this ?" 

IV. 21. 1. " The ^aA/rian," she said ; " through the ^aAman'« 
complete victory ye are exalted." Then he knew: "[It is] the 
brahman.'*'* .3. Therefore indeed these gods — viz. Agni, Vayu, 
Indra — are as it were greatly above the other gods. For they 
touched it nearest ; for he first knew it to be the brahman. 
«. Therefore indeed Indra is as it were greatly above the other 
gods. For he touched it nearest ; for he first knew it to be the 
brahman. 4. Regarding it [there is] this direction: " What of the 
lightning bath lightened : ah ! hath winked : ah !" Thus with 
regard to the divinities. 5. Now with regard to the self. That 
which both goes as mind, as it were, and through it (mind) 

20. *" nivavrfita. •m(I). 

21. * A. nedi^md; B. nedijWm. ^ te. ^an-. ^B.tndyu-. * itlS. 'mlit' 



Jdiminlyd- Upanisad-Brdhmana. 219 

ksnam samkcUpah.* e. tad dha tadvanam ndma, tadvanain ity 
updsUavyam. aa ya etad evam vedd ^bhi hdi ^nam sarvdni hhu- 
tdni samvdnchanti,* 7. upanisadam hho hruhl Hi uktd ta npa- 
nisat brdhmlm vdva ta upaniaadam abrume Hi, s. tasydi tapo 
(lamah karme ^ti pratisthd^'^ vedds sarvdngdni aatyam dyatanam. 
9. yo" vd etdin eiam vedd ^pahaiya pdpmdnam anante svarge 
lake ^jyeye praiitisthati. 138. 

dagame *nuvdke caturthal}, khaiitfafy, daQamo *numkas samdptafy. 

IV. 22. I. dpd vd^ idam agra dsxd bhavisyad^ eva, tad abhavat. 
td dpo ^bhavaji. a. tds tapo Hapyatita. tds tapas tepdnd htisa ity 
eva prdclh prd^vasan, sa vdva prdno *bhavat. s. tdh prdnyd 
^pdnan, aa vd apdno ^bhavat, 4. td apdnya* vydnan^ aa vdva 
vydno ^bhavat. 5. td vydnya aamdnan. aa vdva aamdno ^bha- 
vat, «. tda aamdfiyo ^ddnan, aa vd uddno ^bhavat, 7. tad idam 
ekam eva aadhamddyam* dald aviviktam. e. aa ndmarupam* 
akuruta. tendi ^nad vyavinakJ^ vi ha pdjymano v icy ate ya evam 
neda. 9. tad aadu vd dditynh prdno ^gnir* apdnd^ dpo vydno 

imagination continually remembers it (the brahman), e. Verily it 
is tadvana by name. As tadvana it is to be worshiped. Who 
knows this thus, unto him all beings desire together. 7. ** Sir, tell 
the upanisad,^^ " The upanisad has been told thee. Verily, we 
told thee the upanisad of the brahman,'*'* e. Penance, restraint, 
action are its foundation, the Vedas all its limbs, truth its abode. 
9. Verily he who knows this [iipanisadl^ thus, having smiitten 
away evil, stands firm in the endless heavenly world that is not 
to be injured. 

IV. 22. I. Verily this was in the beginning space, being about 
to become. It became. It befcame the waters, a. They per- 
formed penance. Having performed penance [uttering] huas^ 
they breathed forth forward. That became breath, s. Having 
breathed forth, they breathed out. That became exhalation. 
4. Having breathed out, they breathed asunder. That became 
the vydna, ft. Having breathed asunder, they breathed together. 
That became the aamdna, e. Having breathed together, they 
breathed up. That became the nddna, 7. This [all] was one, 
associated, not distinguished. s. He made name and form. 
Thereby he distinguished it. Distinguished from evil is he who 
knows thus. 9. Verily yonder sun is breath, Agni is exhalation, 
the waters are the vydna^ the quarters are the aamdna, the moon 

21. ^ A, 8uk', * aamvdthk^anti, ^'-o. "-c. 

23. * repeat dQd vd, * yed, « apdna, *p-, • -rnddam. • -raipam, 
' 'Vinot, • A. 'im, * A. upd-. 



220 n. O&rid, 

di^as saindna^ cdndnwia uddnah. lo. tad vd eiad ekani ahha- 
vat prdna eva. sa ya evain etad ekam hhavad veddi '^vam hdi 
Had ekadhd bhavatl Hy ekadhdi ^va ^esthas svdndni^^ bhavatu 
II. tad afffiir vdi prdno vdg iti prthivl vdyur vdi prdTio vdg ity 
antariksam ddityo vdi jyrdno vdg iti dydur dipo vdi prdfio vdg 
iti ^otrarh candramd vdi prdno vdg iti manah pumdn vdi 
prdno vdg iti strl, la. tasye ^dam srstam pithilam hhuvanam 
dsld aparydptam, is. sa manorupani akuruta, tena tat parydjh- 
not. drdharh ha vd asye ^darh srstam a^ithilam hhuvanam 
parydptam hhavati ya evarh veda. 1S9, 

ekddage *nuvdke pratharMify khan4oi" 

IV. 23. I. sdi '««* caturdhd vihitd* prir udgUhas sdmd ^rkyarh 
jyesthabrdhmanam. a, prdno vdvo ^d vdg gl* sa udgUhah, 
». prdno vdvd ^mo vdk sd tat sdma. a, prdno vdva ko vdg rk 
tad arkyam, a. prdno vdva. jyestho vdg brdhmanath taj jyes- 
thabrdhmanam, e. upanisadam, bho bruhV Hi. tiktd ta upanisad 
yasya te dhdtava uktdh,^ tridhdtu visu vdva ta upanisadam* 
abrum,e Hi, 7. etac chuklam krsnam tdmram sdmaoarna iti ha 

• • • • 

snid ^^ha yaddV 'va* puklakrsne tdmro varno ^bhyavditi sa vdi te 

is the uddna, lo. Verily that became one, viz. breath. He who 
thus knows this as becoming one [saying]: "Verily this thus 
becometh onefold," he becomes at once the first among his own 
people. II. Verily now Agni is breath, speech is the earth; 
Viiyu is breath, speech is the atmosphere; the sun is breath, 
speech is the sky; the quarters are breath, speech is hearing; 
the moon is breath, speech is mind; man is breath, speech is 
woman. 12. That creation of his, when created, was unsteady, 
not fully completed, is. He made the form of mind. By it he 
completed it. Verily stable becomes this creation which was 
created, not unsteady, completed, for him who knows thus. 

IV. 23. 1. This is the fortune divided into four parts, viz. the 
udg'Uha, the sdman, the arkya, the chief brdhmana. a. Verily 
breath is ud, speech is gl; that is the udgltha, s. Verily breath 
is lie {ama)y speech is she (sd) ; that is the sdnian. 4. Verily 
breath is ka, speech is rk; that is the arkya. a. Verily breath 
is the highest, speech is the brdhmana; that is the highest 
brdhmana. «. "Sir, tell the upanisad." "The upanisad has 
been told thee, since the elements have been told thee. With 
three elements separately (?) verily we told thee the upanisadJ^ 
7. " That white, black, copper-red is the color of the sdmany" he 
used to say; "when the copper-red color descendeth into the 

22. ^^8vd'. '~~' 

23. » *sdg. * tdhitd. * B. a^giff, ; A. gV),. * hrii'. • -^ify. • -?ad. ^ -da 
* ve. 



Jdiminlya- IJpanisad'Bvdhmarui. 221 

vrfUe* dnQania^^ mdniisani iti tridhdtu, sa diksata kva nii ma uttd- 
fidf/a*^ ^(f/dndf/e ^nid devatd haUih hareynr iti. IJfi, 

ekdda^ *nuvdke dvitiyaJi khwj^h, 

IV. 24. I. sa purusam eva ^>r<//>a<f<m<ii/a ^vrnlC(f.^ 2. t(nn 
jnirastdt jn'atyancani prdvi^at, ta^rnd iimr adhanat, tad nrasa 
uraMvam. «. tasmd atrasada etd devatd balim haranti, 4. jHt- 
cam aniiharafitltn agnir asjndi balim harati. 6. inauo hiuharac 
candramd a^mdi halim harati, e. caksur anuharad ddityo ^smdi 
baiirh harati. 7. ^rotram attuharad difo^ ^stndi balim haranti. 
8. prdnarn anuharantam vdyur aamdi balim harati. 9. tast/di 
He niskhdtah^ jmnthd balivdhand* ime prdndh. evam hdi '*tam 
niskhdtdh panthd balivdhands sarvato ^piyantV prdnd ya evam 
Deda. 10. 8d hdi ^sd brahmdsandim drddhd. d hd ^smdi brahmd- 
sandlrh harafUy* adhi ha brahtndsandim rohati ya evam veda. 
11. tad etad brahmaya^fi* ^riyd parivrdham. hrahma ha. tu san 
ya^asd priyd parivrdho bhavati ya evam veda. 12. tasydi \sa 
dde^o* yo ^yam daksine ^ksaiin antah. ta^ya yac chuklam tad 
ream rupam yat krsnam tat sdmndm yad eva tdmram iva 
babhrur* iva tad yajusdrn.^ i«. ya evd ^yam caksmi puruaa em 

white and black, it snatcheth these two unto itself " He 

considered: " Where now may these divinities bring tribute to 
me lying supine ?" 

IV. 2-4. I. He chose man for a resort. 2. He entered him from 
the front (east), turned toward him. For him he became wide 
(uru). Therefore the breast (uras) is called so. «. To him 
Hitting there these divinities bring tribute. 4. Agni brings to 
him as tribute speech bringing after. ». The moon brings to 
him as tribute mmd bringing after. 6. The sun brings to him 
as tribute sight bringing after. 7. The quarters bring to him as 
tribute hearing bringing after. 8. Vayu brings to him as tribute 
breath bringing after. •. These are his dug-out paths, carrying 
tribute, [viz.] these breaths. Thus dug-out paths, carrying 
tribute, ai)proach from all sides him who knows thus. 10. That 
[divinity} is seated on the 6raAman-throne. Unto him they 
bring the 6raAma/*-throne, he mounts the 6ra/iman-throne, who 
knows thus. 11. That same brahman-gloxj is encompassed by 
fortune. But being the brahman he is encompassed by glory 
[and] by fortune who knows thus. 12. Regarding it [there is] 
this direction which is here in the right eye. What of it is 
white, that is the form of the rc^s ; what is black, that [is the 
form] of the admans; what is copper-red, as it were, brownish, 
as it were, that [is the form] of the yajiiaes. is. What this per- 

23. * A. 'ta. ^^ dag^-; before the g an illegible letter, perhaps crossed 
out. ^^uktdndya. 

24. » A. adig. « -d. » balifh vdh-. * B. 'pay-. * harati. • -pa. ' -d. 



222 H. Oertely 

indra em prajdpatis safnah prthivyd sama dkd^ena samo 
divd samas sarvena hhiUena, esa paro divo dipyate, esa eve ^darh 
sarvam ity updsUavyafn, 1^1, 

ekddaqe *nuvdke iftlydl), kJiaiufal}^, 

IV. 25. 1. sac cd ^sac cd ^sac ca sac ca vdk ca nianap ca [rnanap 
ca] vdk ca caksu^^ ca ^rotram ca ^rotrarh ca caksv^ ca praddhd 
ca tapa^ ca tapa^ ca praddhd ca tdni sodapa. s. sodapakalam 
brahma, sa ya evain etat soda^kalam brahnia veda tarn evdi 
^tat sodapakidatn hrahind '^pyeti, s. vedo brahma tasya scUyam 
dyatanam pamah pratisthd damap ca. a. tad yathd pva-h prdi- 
syan pdpdt karmano jugupsetdi ^vam evd ^har-ahah pdpdt kar- 
7nano jugupsetd ^^kdldt •. athdi ^adrh dap-apadt virdL •. dapa 
puruse svargajiarakdni. tdny enarh svargam gatdni svargam 
gamayanti narakarh gatdni narakam ganiayanti. H2. 

ekddage *nuvdke caturtJiah khan4oJy' 

IV. 26. I. niano narako vdii narakah prdno narakap caksur 
narakap protram narakam tvan narako hastdu narako gudam 
narakag pipiam narakah pdddu narakah, a. nianasd parVca- 
ydnV vede Hi veda, a. vdcd rasdn vede* Hi tfeda. 4. prdnena 

son in the eye is, that is Indra, that is Prajapati, the same 
with the earth, the same with space, the same with the sky, the 
same with all existence; he shines beyond the sky. One should 
worship him [saying]: " He is this all." 

IV. 25. I. Being and non-being, non-being and being, speech 
and mind, [mind and] speech, sight and hearing, hearing and sight, 
faith and penance, penance and faith : these arc sixteen, s. Six- 
teenfold is the brahman. He who thus knows this sixteenfold 
brahman, him this sixteenfold brahman comes unto. 3. The 
Veda is the brahman, truth is its abode, tranquillity and restraint 
its foundation. 4. As one about to decease the next day would 
guard himself against an evil action, evqn so he should day by 
day guard against an evil action, until the time. 6. Now of 
these the virdj is ten-footed. •. There are ten heavens and hells 
in man. They, having gone to heaven, cause him to go to 
heaven; having gone to hell, they cause him to go to hell. 

IV. 26. 1. Mind is a hell, speech is a hell, breath is a hell, 
sight is a hell, hearing is a hell, the skin is a hell, both hands 
are a hell, the rectum is a hell, the penis is a hell, both feet are 
a hell. a. He knows: " With the mind I know those things 
which are to be examined," a. He knows : " With speech I 
know savors." 4. He knows : " With breath 1 know odors." 

24. ""'ur, 25. ^-af. 26. » -&iJd-. ^vad-. 



Jdhninlyor Upanisad' Brdhmaria, 223 

gandhdn vede Hi veda. 5. cakstisd rupdni vede Hi veda, «. ^o- 
trena ^abddn vede Hi veda. i. tvacd samspar^n vede Hi veda, 
8. hastdbhi/drh karmdni vede Hi veda, 9, udarend ^panai/dm 
vede Hi veda, lo. pipiena rdjndn vede Hi veda, ii. pdddbhydm 
adhvano vede Hi veda, n. 2^^<'^sasj/a prdsravanasya prddepa- 
nuUrdd udak tat prthivydi inadhyam, at ha yatrdi He aapta 
rsayas tad divo madhyatn, is. atha yatrdi ^ta nsds tat prthivydi 
hrdayam. atha yad etat krsnaih candramasi tad divo hrdayam, 
u. 8a ya evam efe dydvdprthivyor madhye ca hrdaye ca veda nd^ 
^kdmo* ^smdl lokdt prditi, i«. namo HisdmdydV Huretdya* dhrta- 
rdstrdya pdrthupravasdya* ye ca prdnarh raksanti te 7nd rak- 
mntu, s^vasti, karme Hi gdrhapatyap ^ania' ity dhavanlyo dama 
ity anvdhdryapacanah. iJtS, 

ekdda^ *nuvake paHcamah khaiidah, ekadaqo 'nuvakas samdptaJi, 

IV. 27. I. kas savitd, kd sdvitr'i, agnir eva savitd, prthivi 
sdvitr'L -2, sa yatrd ^gnis tat prthivi yatra vd prthivi tad agnih, 
te dve yorii. tad ekam mithunani, s. kas savitd, kd sdvitri, 
varuna eva savitd. dpas sdvitri, *, sa yatra varunas tad dpo 

». He knows: " With sight I know forma." «. He knows: "With 
hearing I know sounds." ?. He knows: "With the skin I know 
contacts." 8. He knows: " With both hands I know works." 
». He knows: " With the belly I know hunger." lo. He knows: 
"With the penis I know delights." ii. He knows: "With both 
feet I know roads." la. Just one span to the north of the Plaksa 
Pnwravana is the middle of the earth. And where these seven 
sages ( Ursa major) are, that is the middle of the sky. is. And 
where these salts are, that is the heart of the earth. And what 
is black in the moon, that is the heart of the sky. u. He who 
thus knows the two centers and the two hearts of the sky and 
the earth departs not unwilling from this world, is. Homage 
to Atisaraa Etureta {?), to Dhrtarastra, to Pfirthu9ravasa, and let 
those who protect breath protect me. Hail. ' Action ' is the 
householders fire; Hranquillity ' is the dhavanlya fire; * self- 
restraint ' is the a nvdhdryapacana fire. 

IV. 27. I. What is Savitar ? What is Sfivitrl ? Agni js Savi- 
tar, earth Savitri. 2. Where Agni is, there is earth ; or where 
earth is, there is Agni. These are two wombs. This is one 
couple. 3. What is Savitar ? What is Sfivitri ? Varuna is Savi- 
tar, the waters are Savitri. 4. Where Varuna is, there the waters 

26. *komo. * A, -sdmaya; B. "Sdmdya. * eiur-. •corrected from 
pdrnjugr-, ' -may. 



224 H. Oertd, 

yatra va* "/?fw tad vartmah. te dve yonl, [tad ekam mithunam,'] 
6. kas^ savitd, ka advitru vdyur eva savitd, dkd^as sdvifrJ, 
6. sa yatra vdyua tad dkd^o yatra vd ^^kdpas tad vdyu/i, te dve* 
yo7H, tad ekam mithunam. 7. kas* savitd. kd advitrl. yajfia era 
savitd, chanddnsi sdvitrl. 8. sa yatra yc0fUis tac chanddnsf 
yatra vd chanddiisi tad yajnah, te dve^ yonl, tad ekam mithu- 
nam.. 9. kaa^ savitd. kd sdvitrl. stanayitnur eva savitd. vidynt 
sdvitrl. 10. sa yatra stanayitnus tad vidyud yatra vd vidyut* 
tat stanayitnuh. te dve^ yonl. tad ekam mithunam. n. kas* 
savitd. kd sdvitrl. dditya eva savitd, dydus sdvitrl. i3. sa 
yatrd ^^dityas tad dydur yatra vd dydus tad ddityah. te* dve yonl. 
tad ekam mithunam. is. ka^* savitd. kd sdvitrl. candra eva 
savitd. naksatrdni sdvitrl. u. sa yatra candras tan naksatrdni 
yatra vd naksatrdni tac candrah. te dve* yonl. tad ekam mithu- 
nam. 15. kas* savitd, kd sdvitrl. mana eva savitd. vdk sdvitrl, 
16. sa yatra manas tad vdg yatra [ra] vdk tafi man<ih. te? dve 
yonl. tad ekam mithuna?n. n. kas* savitd. kd sdvitrl. purusa 
\eva\ savitd. strl sdvitrl. sa yatra purusas tat strl^ yatra vd strl 
tat purusah. te dve yonl. tad ekam mithu7iam. m. 

dvdda^e ^nuvdke prathamaJ}. kharypiTy, 

are ; or where the waters are, there is Varuna. These are two 
womhs. [This is one couple.] 6. What is Savitar ? What is Savi- 
tri? Vfiyu is Savitar, space Savitri. «. Where Vayu is, there 
is space ; or where space is, there is Vayu. These are two wombs. 
This is one couple. 7. What is Savitar ? What is Sfivitri ? The 
sacrifice is Savitar, the metres are SfivitrL s. Where the sacri- 
fice is, there the metres are ; or where the metres are, there is the 
sacrifice. These are two wombs. This is one couple. ». What 
is Savitar? What is SavitiT? Thunder is Savitar, lightning 
Savitri. lo. Where thunder is, there is lightning; or where 
lightning is, there is thunder. These are two wombs. This is 
one couple, n. What is Savitar ? What is Savitri? The sun 
is Savitar, the sky Savitri. la. Where the sun is, there is the sky ; 
or where the sky is, there is the sun. These are two wombs. 
This is one couple, is. What is Savitar ? What is Savitri ? The 
moon is Savitar, the asterisms are Savitri. u. Where the moon 
is, there the asterisms are ; or where the asterisms are, there is the 
moon. These are two wombs. This is one couple. i». Wliat is 
Savitar ? What is Savitri ? Mind is Savitar, speech is Sfivitri. 
16. Where mind is, there is speech ; or where speech is, there is 
mind. These are two wombs. This is one couple, n. What is 
Savitar? What is Savitri? Man is Savitar, woman Savitri. 
Where man is, there is woman ; or where woman is, there is man. 
These are two wombs. This is one couple. 

27. ' />-. * abbreviate here and in the following. • B. -iin. * ih (I). 



'/ 



Jdiminl/ijOr Upanisad-Brdhrnana, 225 

IV. 28. 1. tasyd esa prathamah pddo bhils tat savitur varen- 
yam Hi, agnir vdi varenyam, dpo vdi varenyam. candramd 
vdi varenyam. a. tasyd esa dvitlyah pddo hhargainayo hhuvo 
hhargo devasya dhlmahl Hi. agnir vdi bhargah. ddityo vdi bhar- 
gah. candramd vdi bhargah. t, tasyd esa trtlyah pddas svar 
dhiyo yo nah pracodaydd iti. yajno vdi pracodayati. stri ca 
vdi pnrusa^^ ca prajanayatah. 4. hhur bhuvas tat savitur va- 
renyam bhar go devasya dhlmahl Hi. agnir vdi bhargah. ddityo 
vdi bhargah. candramd vdi bhargah. 6. svar dhiyo yo nah pra- 
codaydd iti. yajfio vdi j>racodayati. stri ca vdi purusa^ ca praja- 
nayatah. «. bhur bhuvas svas tat savitur varenyam bhargo 
denasya dhlmahi dhiyo yo nah pracodaydd iti.* yo vd etdrh sdvi- 
tr'un evam vedd ^pa punarmrtyurh tarati sdvitryd eva salokatdm 
jayati sdvitryd eva salokatdm jayati. H5. 

dvddage *nuvdke dvitlycU^ khanijlalji.. dvddago *nuvdkas samdptalj.. 

ity upanisadbrdhmanam satndptam. 

m 

IV. 28. I. This is its first pdda: ^^ Bhus ; that desirable 
[splendor] of Savitar." Fire indeed is what is desirable. Waters 
indeed are what is desirable. The moon indeed is what is desir- 
able. 3. This is its second pdda, made up of splendor: " Bhuvas; 
may we obtain the god's splendor." Fire indeed is splendor. 
The sun indeed is splendor. The moon indeed is splendor. 
«. This is its third pdda: ^^ Svar ; who may impel our devo- 
tion." The sacrifice indeed impels. Woman and man propa- 
gate. 4. " BhiXSy bhuvas ; may we obtain that desirable splendor 
of god Savitar." Agni is splendor. The Sun is splendor. The 
Moon is splendor. 6. " Svar ; who shall impel oar devotion." 
The sacrifice impels. Woman and man propagate. 6. '' Bhus^ 
bhuvasy svar ; may we obtain that desirable splendor of god 
Savitar, who may impel our devotion." He who knows this Savi- 
tri thus overcomes second death, he wins the same world with the 
Sfivitri itself; he wins the same world with the Sfivitri itself. 



29. ' -Ban. ' insert yajfio vdi pracodayati. stri ca vdi purumq ca 
prajanayatah. 

VOL. XVI. 30 



226 H. Oertd, 



NOTES. 



The MSS. have this heading : tcdav(ikQ,rahrahma'Qe (I) upani^adJbrah' 
ma^am. 

In the numbering of the paragraphs the MSS. are careless and incon- 
sistent. A. omits the anuvdka and khan^ divisions, but numbers suc- 
cessively the paragraphs of each book. I have not thought it worth 
while to record simple omissions or inaccuracies of B. and C. in the 
anuvdka and khanijla divisions, or of all three MSS. in the paragraph- 
numbers. With book ii. 1, A. and B. begin a new set of numbers 
(at the end of the paragraphs), omitting however the first three para- 
graphs (ii. 1-8), and numbering ii. 4 as 2 ; but after this regularly 
ii. 5 = 5, etc., to the end of book iii., iii. 42 = 57. There are remnants 
of a still different system of numbering in B., where the first three 
paragraphs of book m., in addition to the other figures, are numbered 
as 56, 57, and 58 respectively ; iii. 18. has in B. the additional number 
70 ; iii. 22. has 78 ; iii. 82. has 79. The numbering of these last three 
chapters is clearly at variance with that of the first three of the book, 
and also with the order of the paragraphs in our text. 

I. 1. 1 ff. Cf. 8. 1 ff. 

I. 1. 8. Cf. GB. i. 6, aa {prajdpatiJIf) khalu pfthivyd evd ^gniih nira- 
mimatd ^ntarik§dd vdyuth diva ddityam. The rest is different. — prd- 
nedat : cf . JB. i. 854, tasya (i. e. yajfUisya) yo rasdfy prdnedat . . . 

I. 1. 7. Cf. Mait. U. vi. 28, athd *nyatrd ^py uktath ydfy ^abdaa tad 
om ity etad ak^aram, 

I. 1. 8. tdny . . . a^fdu: i. e. pf^him, agni; antarik^, vdyu; dyu, 
dditya ; vdc^ prdna, — The whole paragraph is repeated at i. 6. 6 ; and, 
omitting etdny, i. 88. 11 ; 84. 2. — a^t^l^gaphdh pagava^: cf. JB. iii. 241, 
247, a^tdk^ard vdi gdyatri, a^tdgapfidfy pa^vah ; TMB. iii. 8. 2 (QB. vi. 
2. 2. 15). Elsewhere— €. g. TS. vi. 1. 6. 2 ; iii. 2. 9. 4 ; AB. i. 21. 15 ; 28. 
11 — ^the jagail is connected with the domestic animals. 

I. 2. 3. ovdSe . . . ovd: cf. iii. 89. 1 (i. 8. 1). 

I. 2. 4. pardU: here 'to no purpose,' as AB. iii. 46. 2, 8, 4. In para- 
graphs 5 and 6 it has its ordinary meaning. The -dii for -dk also in 
nyan i. 6. 1 : cf. Kafh. IT. ii. 4. 1 (and Bohtlingk's note) ; Ait. U. iii. 8 ; 
Mait. U. vi. 17 (avdfi) ; butpard^ and arvdk at i. 9. 5. 

I. 2. 6. sa 8arvd . . . ^nvsaihvdti : cf. TB. ii. 8. 9. 6, sarvd digo */iu«arJi- 
vdti ; iii. 10. 4. 2, sarvd digo ^nuaaihvdhi. 

I. 8. 1. etdbhydm : scil. devatdhhydm : cf. below, 8, etdbhir devatdbhir, 

I. 3. «. aa yathd . . . : cf. ^B. xiv. 6. 1. 8 (=BAU. iii. 1. 8) ; ix. 8. 8. 6 ; 
JB. ii. 418, sd yathd vfk^am dkramaijuir dkramamdna iydd evam eva 
. . . avargath lokam rohanto yanti (AB. iii. 19. 6-7). 

I. 3. 3. mTtyu is also identified with agandyd BAU. i. 2. 1, and below 
iii. 12. 2. The peculiar d is suported by 4 ; iii. 12. 2 ; iv. 24. 9 ; and JB. 
i. 186 (three times) ; but agandyantiJf, and agandyeyuhi, JB. i. 117. 




Jamhirwyor UpcmisddrBrdhm ana, 227 

I. 3. 4. annam , . . candrataaJf. : cf. KBU. iv. 2, candrama»y annam; 
M&it. U. vi. 5. 

I. 3. 4, B. Cf. JB. i. 136, annend ^ganaydtii ghnanti. tdth'tdm agana- 
yam annena hatvd avargarh lokam drohan. 

I. 8. c. The emendation rathasya is made certain by RV. viii. 91 (80). 
7, khe rathasya khe 'naac^^, 

I. 3. 7. The meaning of atha yad . . . pratihdrdt is obscure. 

I. 8. 8. yathd 'gnind . . . aaihafjyeta : cf. JB. i. 81 (tw^ice) yathd ^gndv 
agnin abhigamddadhydt tddfk tat. The precative dsicydd (AQS. ii. 8. 5, 
dsiHeydd) among these optatives is very surprising, and calls perhaps 
for an emendation {dsiflced ?). 

I. 4. 1 flf. Cf . iii. 39. 8 ff. 

1. 4. •• ativyadhi , , , gunify: a Vedic reminiscence : cf. VS. xxii. 22, 
r6jany<il^ gura i^avyo 'tivyddhi; TS. vii. 5. 18, rajanya ^avyah guro 
mahdratho jdyatdm ; QB. xiii. 1. 9. 2, rajanyafy gUra i^avyo *tivyddhi 
mahdratho jdyatdm, 

I. 4. t. dagavdji: perhaps 'of tenfold strength.* 

I. 4. 4. On the inferiority of the ass to the horse cf. TS. v. 1. 2. 2 ff. : 
gB. vi. 4. 4. 7. 

I. 4. B. kubhra occurs again at iii. 89. 5. Neither this nor MS. ii. 5. 8 
(p. 50. 16, 18) cast light on the exact meaning of the word. — andryaa : 
the emendation is doubtful, but a change from ryy to rthy would be 
easy in a Devanagari MS. Instead of rajfla1,ij rajyam would be ex- 
pected : cf . TS. ii. 6. 6. 5, ya evarh veda pra rajyam annddyam dpnoti ; 
QB. ii. 4. 4. 6, rdjyam iha vdi prdpnoti ya , , , 

[. 4. n, hith vo : him bhd would be expected, as in 1. 

I. 5. 1. lie: read so with the MSS. ; ri ^^ below iii. 8. 1 ; 14. 8, -nir- 
bhii^na ; iv. 8. 8 ; 21. 8, aarvdHgdni ; iv. 1. 8 MSS. aydny ; AB. i. 18. 4 ; 
80. 5 : cf. T&it. Prat. vii. 4. 

I. 5. t. satyam : the emendation is doubtful, the whole chapter ob- 
scure. 

I. 5. B. ydvati , , . pfthivi : cf. TS. ii. 6. 4. 8 ; 5. 2, etc. 

I. 5. : i^grh + ud of the lifting up of a cup, as AB. vii. 83. 2, tdn 
(L e. camasdn) yatro ^dgrhniyus tad PMam upodgfhniydt, — m^inasd : 
i. e. ' in silence,* opposed to vdcd, as i. 58. 6, etc. 

I. 6. 1. tena vd etam , . . nidadhydd iti : the text as it stands is unin- 
telligible, the chapter obscure throughout. 

I. 6. 9, ragmin . . . vyuhati: cf. I^a U. 16, yama 8urya prajdpatya 
vyuha ragmin . . . 

I. 6. 4. andlayanam : formed from diaya as anUayana (Tait. U. ii. 7) 
from nilaya, and meaning the same. 

I. 7. 1 . There is no indication of a lacuna between te and karoti in 
any of the MSS. 

I. 7. t. catvdri vak . . . vadanti, = RV. i. 164 45 ; repeated below, at 

i.40. 1. 

I. 7. •. sa yathd ^gmdnam . . . : the same comparison occurs again 
below at i. 60. 8 and ii. 8. 12-13 ; in all three passages read lo^fo (for 
loftho) : cf . Ch&nd. U. i. 2. 7, 8, yathd ^gmdnam dkhanam ftvd (Bdhtlingk 
inserts mj^pin(/o) vidhvansata evaih hdi *va aa vidhvansate ya , , , ; 



228 77. Oertel, . 

BAU. i. 8. 8, sa yatha 'gmdnam f/ini losfo vidhvansetai 'raw hdi 'va 
vidhvaiisamand vinvaHco vine^tU),, 

At the end B. and C. have Hi gvarakhan<fali, 

I 8. 1 flf. Cf. I. 1. 1 ff. 

I. 8. 4, 5 = iii. 19. 3, 4. 

I. 8. 7. dravantam: it is barely possible to support the reading of 
the MSS. dravam by RV. iv. 40. 2 6. 

I. 8. 10. niartmfgitva: the exact meaning is as doubtful here as it is 
gB. iv. 5. 1. 10 : cf. Eggeling's note, SBE. xxvi. 388. 

I. 8. 11. tendi *nam . . . : cf. JB. i. 822, aa yathd madhunO, Idjdnpra- 
y^iydd evam evdi Hend ^k^rei^a sdmdn (I) rcisarh dadhdti; and ii. 77, 
yathd madhv dsicya Idjdn dvapet tad anyathdi *va sydt tddrk tat. 

I. 8. It. aydSm : the clause is so much abbreviated as to be obscure. 
The peculiar position of the plufi-mark in the MSS., though repeated 
twice, is very probably due to a mistake. Cf. Schroeder, MS., i., intro- 
duction, p. XXX, and ZDMG. xxxiii. 187. 

I. 9. «. vdg ity fk: cf. Chand. U. i. 8. 4 ; 7. 1 ; BAU. i. 5. 5. 

I. 9. 4. diftdu: those enumerated in 2. — hahur bhuya8 : cf. RV. i. 188. 
5, bahvig ca bhuyaaig ca. 

I. 9. 6. vyomdnto vdcah: 1 have taken vyomdntah here in its pri- 
mary sense ; see below, note to i. 10. 4. 

I. 10. 8. yathd sucyd . . . : cf. JB. ii. 10, yathd aueyd paldgdni sath- 
tfnndni syur evam etend ^k^arei/^ *me lokds samtpnidfy ; Chand. U. ii. 
23. 4, tad yathd gankund sarvdni panidni aaHitftiT^ny evam orhkdrena 
aarvd vdk aathtpjnd. These parallel passages show that ^nku in the 
Chand. U. may be taken in its ordinary meaning of 'pin' (AB. iii. 18. 6). 

I. 10. 4. dagadhd . . . : the same series of numerals is repeated at 
i. 28. 8 and 29. 5. Cf . Weber, ZDMG. xv. 182 flf. The series at TMB. 
xvii. 14. 2 is very similar to this ; the chief difference is badva (cf. AB. 
viii. 22. 4) tor padma ; vyomdnta occurs nowhere else, and the meaning 
given to it is purely conjectural. It occurred above, i. 9. 5, in its ordi- 
nary sense. 

I. 10. B. Cf. KB. viii. 9, td parovariyamr abhyupeydt, trin agre 
stayidn atha dvdv athdi *kam paraapara eva tdh lokdn variyaaah ku- 
rute ; AB. i. 25. 6, parovartydnao m ime lokd arvdg ahhlydiiaah. 

I. 10. 10. aatyam . . . dpa : cf. RV. x. 85. 1, satyeno 'ttabhitd bhumih. 

I. 11. 1. annakdginir : it would be easy to emend to -kdnk^uir or -kd- 
minlr, were it not for the fact that the word occurs twice again, with- 
out any variants, in a similar story, JB. i. 88, prajdpatify prajd aai'jata. 
td enath s^f^td annakdginir abhitaa aamantam paryavigan, tdbhyo him- 
kdremi ^nnddyam, aaijata . . . tarn etat prajd annakdginir abhitas aa- 
mantam pariviganti. tdbhyo hiiiikdrendi 'm 'nnddyaih afjate : also 
JB. ii. 148, td enam annakdgintff, prajd abhyupdvavf'dhuh ; and at JB. 
ii. 149, td enam antiakaginify (MSS. -gin') prajd abhyupdvartante.— The 
same tautological expression tarn . . . aarve devd abhitaa aamantam 
paryavigan occurs at JB. ii. 142. 

I. 11. i-f ; 12, i-», 4. Cf. Ch&nd. U. ii. 9. 2-8, where however the 
pratihdra is connected with the embryos, and the upadrava with the 
forest-animals. 



Jdiminlya- TJpanisad-Brdhmana, 229 

I. It. ». Cf. JB. iii. 218, prajdpaWi pagun dsfjata, te *8mat (MSS. 
-n) srsfd asaihjdndnd apdkrdman (MSS. -krd-), so ^kdmayatd ^bhi md 
poQavas sarhjdmran. na mad apakrdmejpir iti. sa etat sdmd ^pcu^at 
tend *8tuta, tato vdi tarn pagavo ^hhisaviajdnata (MSS. -samanj-) tato 
^smdd anapakramiiio *bhavan, tad u (MSS. vi) hinkdram bhavati, hum 
iti vdi pagavaa aarfijdnate hum iti mdtd ptitram abhyeti hum iti putro 
mdtaram. 

I. 11. f. tanta^yamdnd : the emendation is doubtful. 

I. 12. 1. upadravarh gfhnanta : the pun here is not quite clear to uie : 
perhaps upadrava is to be taken as * mishap/ and reference is made to 
the harmful nature of the Gandharvas : cf. AV. viii. 6. 19 ; Pischel, 
Ved. Stud. i. 80. 

I. 12. 4. Cf. Chand. U. ii. 9. 1-8 ; ii. 14. 

I. 12. f. C^. Chand. U. ii. 9. 1, aarvadd samas tena sdma, 

L 12. 7. Cf. Chand. U. ii. 5. 1 ; 16. 1 ; SB. iii. I ; below i. 36. 2 ff. 

I. 12. »-13. 1. Cf. Chand. U. ii. 8. 1-2; 15. 1; QB. i. 5. 2. 18; ii. 2. 
3.8. 

I. 18. 1. yad vf^tdt . . . : cf. ^B. ii. 6. 8. 7, vf^tdd o^adhayo jd- 
yante. 

I. 18. i. Cf. Chand. U. ii. 7. 1 ; below, 38. 8. 

I. 15. ». anfcena sdmnd: cf. A. C. Burnell's Arseyabrdhmana (Msku- 
galore, 1876), Introduction, p. xi fit., ** by a sdman was intended a 
melody or chant, independent of the words ; . . . the earliest records 
that we have make a distinction between the chant and the words, and 
treat the tirst as of more importance." To the references there given 
may be added AQS. ix. 9. 9 (see Weber, Ind. Stud. x. 156, and Sitzungab, 
cf. Berliner A. d, W, (1892), p. 807), and below i. 18. 8 and 21. 9. 

I. 15. 4. prasdma, prasdmi : the former is not found elsewhere, the 
latter occurs in the likewise obscure passage QB. iii. 9. 1. 9, vdg vdi sa- 
rasvaty annath somas tasmdd yo vdcd prasdmy annddo hdi 'va bhavati ^ 
from which it would seem that prasdmi might mean * abundantly' 
rather than * imperfectly* (PW., pw., Eggeling): cf. Chand. U. ii. 8. 8. 

I. 16. 4. fci sdma gdydma: i. e. 'sing a f c to asdfrKin-melody': cf. 
BumelFs Arifeyabrdhmai^a, Introd. p. xii, '* A sdm^n is sung ijgdi) on 
(or, as we should say, to) a fc (fct). This idiom is an old one, for it 
occurs in the Brahma^as repeatedly ; if the fc (or words) really formed 
part of the sdman, this idiom would be impossible." 

I. 16. B. te : i. e. the chants of the noon and evening libations. 

I. 16. 9. The present kdm^yate of all MSS. has certainly crept in 
from 9. 

I. 16. ». On the redundant pronoun see Delbrfick, Altind, Synt., p. 
215 ; Whitney, AJPh. xiii. 804. 

I. 18. 1. Cf. JB. i. 288 flf. (partly translated by Whitney, Trans, Am. 
PhUol. Assoc, xxiii. 80), prajdpatir devdn asfjata. tan (A.B td) mftyvJj, 
{-uik^pdpmd ^nvasjjyata. te devdJjL prajdpatim (prajdm) upetyd 'bruvan 
ka»mdd (ctsmd) u no 'sr^ffid (sfi^fd) mftyufh cen naff, (na) pdpmdnam 
anvavasrak^yann irsvk^y-) dsithe Hi. tdn (A.B. td) dbravHc (A.B. br-) 
ehanddnsi sambharata tdni yathdyatanam pravigata tato mftyund 
pdpmand vydvarisyathe {'Vftsy-) ^H. vasavo {savo) gdyatrim samabha- 



230 H. OerUl, 

ran (saihbh-). tdth te prdvigan. tan ad (aa) ^cchddayat. vigoe devd anu- 
^tubhaih 8amcU)haran, tdih teprdviQan. tan 8d ^cchddapat (-n). martUai, 
paiiktifh aamabharan, tdih te prdvigan, tdn ad ^cchddayat, addhydg cd 
**ptydQ cd *ttcchanda8a7h (C. -dansam) aamabharan, tdrh te prdvi^n, 
tdh ad ^cch&dayat (C. -n). 384. aavandny eve ^ndrdgni anuprdvigatdm, 
tato vai tdn (td) mjiyufy pdpmd na nirajdndt. kuto hi tasya mfiyufy 
pdpme ^^gi^yate yath na nirjdndti, na hdi ^ndm mfiyuff, pdpmd 'nuvtn- 
dati ya evarh veda. chanddnai vdva tdn mftyofy pdpmano *cchddayan 
(C. -ddy-), tad yad endn {-nd) chanddhai mftyol}, pdpmano *cchddayana 
tac chandcudrh chandaatvam, chddayanti evdi ^ndih chandahai mfiyolf, 
pdpmano ya evarh veda, 

I. 18. 8-4. Cf. Chand. U. k 4. 2, devd vdi mftyor hibhyaiaa trayifh 
vidydm prdvigan, te chandobhir acchddayan, yad ebhir acchddayaiia 
ta>c chandaadfh chandaatvam. 

I. 18. 8. fcy asvardydm : cf. i. 21. 9, etdvad vdva adma ydvdn avaraf^, 
fg vd e§a rte avardd bhavati, whence it appears that a fc without mel- 
ody {adman = avara) is meant : see above, 1. 15. 8 ; 16. 4. 

I. 18. 9. The Chand. U. i. 4. 4 identifies avara and om, 

I. 19. 8. etena hd ^aya aarveno ^dgitam . . . : cf. i. 57. 9 ; 58. 10. The 
construction of i^vragc + d with the ablative (instead of dat. or loc.) 
is noteworthy. 

I. 20. 8. tad yathd . . . : cf. JB. i. 144, yathd vd cUcifeiia cakrdu in- 
^kabdhdv evam etene *mdu lokdu vi9kabd?idu ; RV. vii. 99. 8. 

6. The three dgda are described below, i. 87. 1. — The precise tech- 
nical meaning of dglta, vibhutij prati^pid, and pragd is obscure. 

I. 21. 4. The paragraph is not clear to me ; ahordtrd as feminine is 
verj irregular ; prdcir 1 have taken in the sense of pardnr (into which 
it should perhaps be corrected) * successive/ as AB. vi. 18. 6 ft. 

I. 21. 9, j'Q vd . , , : cf. above, i. 18. 8. 

I. 22. 8. Cf. TS. vi. 8. 1. 4-5, nd dhvaryur upagdyet. vdgviryo vd 
adhvaryufy. yad adhvaryur upagdyed udgdtre vdcath aamprayacched 
upaddaiAkd ^aya vdJe aydt. 

I. 28. 8. ta^d 'bhipilita^ya . . . : this is a clear contradiction of i. 1. 6. 

I. 24. 1. The same play between ak^ara and \^k^ar in Amrtanada U. 
24, yad ak^arath na k§arate kaddcit {Ind. St, ix. 82): cf. also QB. vi. 1. 
8.6. 

I. 24. a. The same plaj between ak^ara and ^k^ is repeated below, 
i. 48. 8. 

I. 25. B. atha yathd . . . ; i. e. as insignificant as a pail in comparison 
with a river. 

I. 25. 7. Cf. JB. i. 824, trdi9ftU}ho vd aadv ddityag qukHaih kf^nam 
puru^ah, 

I. 25. 8. yo ^gnir mftyua aafy: cf. QB. ii. 2. 4. 7, 9. agner mftyor 
dtmdnam atrdyata ; JB. i. 12, devd vdi mjrtyund aam^yatanta, aa yo ha 
aa mftyur agnir eva aafy. — Chand. U. iii. 1-4 and vi. 4. 2 are quite 
different from this paragraph. 

I. 25. 10. On the puru^a of the sun cf. KBU. iv. 8 ; Chand. U. i. 6. 6 ; 
iv. 11. 1 ; BAU. ii. 1. 2 ; iii. 9. 12. 

I. 26. 1. Cf. JB. i. 254, trivfc cak^ug guklaih kf^aiii kaninikd ; 824, 



Jdiminvyor Up<inisad'Brdh7ri(ma, 231 

tr6,i9tuibham idarh cakpiQ guklath kf^nam purufofy; QB. xii. 8. 2. 26, 
trivjd vd idarh oaX^^ui^ guklarh kf^narh kaninakd ; below i. 84. 1. 

I. 26. t. tad yds td dpo . . . ; cf . i. 29. 5 ; 88. 5 ; QB. ii. 1. 1. 8 : cf. AA. 
iii. 2. 2-4. 

I. 26. 4. On the jmru^a of the eye cf. KBU. iv. 18, 19 ; Chand. U. i. 
7. 5 ; iv. 15. 1 ; BAU. ii. 8. 5 ; iv. 2. 2 ; v. 5. 2, 4, etc. 

I. 26. B. The paragraph is obscure. 

I. 26. • ft. The Chand. U. vi. 4. 4. mentions rohitam, guklam and 
kjcpiaih rupam of the lightning. 

I. 26. s. On the puru^ in lightning cf. KBU. iv. 5 ; Ch&nd. U. iv. 
18. 1 ; BAU. u. 1. 4 : 5. 9. 

I. 27. 1. adhydste: very likely in the sense of * prevails,' which PW. 
assumes for it in RV. i. 25. 9. — annarh kjivd : because death is hunger : 
above i. 8. 8 ; BAU. i. 2. 1, 4. 

I. 28. i. sa e^ 8aptarafmir vf^abhaa tuvifmdn; the last three words 
are quoted from the fc below, 29. 7 (RV. ii. 12. 12a). 

I. 28. t. On these numerals see above, note to i. 10. 4. 

I. 29. T. The fc is RV. ii. 12. 12. 

I. 29. 8. e^a hy eva . . . f^abhah : cf. JB. ii. 87, indro vd akdmayata 
rfabhaa aarvdsdm prajdndth »ydm f^abhatdrh gaccheyam iti. aa etarh 
yajHam apagyat tarn dharat tend *yajata. tato vdi aa f^abJuia aarvdadm 
prajdndm abhavad f^abhatdm agacchat. — mahiyd here and below 
(46. 2 ; 48. 5) was certainly connected with mahant rather than with 
i^mah: cf. PW. s. v. i^mahiy; the commentator of TS. vii. 5. 10 ex- 
plains it by pujd, 

I 80. s. an^edhaik adma : ni^edha is the epithet of several admona, 

I. 80. B. = i. 45. 6.~AB. iv. 2. 8. states that the ndndanarh adma (SV. 
ii. 658) is abhrdtfvyam and bhrdtrvyahd : cf . also Ind. Stud, iii. 208, 208. 

I. 81. s. Very differently on the sevenfold adman, Chand. U. ii. 8 ff. 
— yd devatdJi : on the divinities of the different quarters see BAU. iii. 
9. 20ff. 

L 82. 1. The re is RV. viii. 70(59). 5. 

1. 88. *. tad yad vdi brahma aa prdnaJ}> : this is the doctrine of K&u- 
9itaki and Paiiigya (KBU. ii 1 ; 2.), of the sacrificial fires as revealed 
to Upakosala Kamal&yana (Chand. U. iv. 10. 5), and one of the expla- 
nations of Varu^a to Bhfgu (Tait. U. iii. 8. 1). The same was taught by 
Udaftka Qaulbayana (BAU. iv. 1. 2). For a refutation of it see BAU. v. 
18. 1. 

1. 88. s. Cf. i. 18. 5. — mana eva hiilkdraJf.: cf. Chand. U. ii. 11. 1. 
vdk praatdvah : cf. (I!hand. U. ii. 7. 1 ; 11. 1. 

I. 38. 4. karoty eva vdcd : cf. below ii. 2. 8 ; iii. 82. 9, aa esa prduo 
vdcd karoti ; QB. iv. 6. 7. 5, ad yatre 'yarh vdg datt aarvam eva tatrd 
'kriyata aarvam prdjfidyatd Hha yatra mana dain ndi 'va tatra kiih 
cand ^kriyata na prdJUdyata no hi manaad dhydyataff. kag cand ^'jdndti ; 
Mahanar. U. iv. 7, vdcd kfiarh karma kjftam ; VS. xlii. 58 and com- 
mflnt on it, QB. viii. 1. 2. 9. — gamayati manaad : cf . Chand. U. v. 10. 
2 (= iv. 15. 6), tat puriA^o manaaa endn brahma gamayati. — tad 
etan . . . tnandff, : cf . Mait. U. vi. 84, tdvan mano niroddhavyaih hfdi 
ydwU k^ayaih gatam. 



232 H. Oertel, 

1. 33. 6. agnU), prctstdvah: cf. Chand. U. ii. 2. 1. — dditya udgithah : 
cf. Chand. U. ii. 20. 1 (i. 8. 1). 

I. 38. 7. The same etymology recurs below, 40. 6; 48. 7; 51. 2; iv. 18. 2. 

I. 88. 8. For the identification of sun and moon with the 8dman cf. 
Chand. U i. 6. 3, 4. 

I. 34. 1. Cf. above 26. 1. 

I. 84. 8. sa e^a dhutim atimatya and ta eta dhutim atimatya in 5 
refer to pada c of the f c quoted in 6. 

I. 34. «. The stanza is A V. x. 8. 35, which reads aadhTridh for samicVf, 
in b, and dhutim in c. In b dadante (manuscript reading : see Whitney, 
Index Verb,) should be restored for dadate of the edition. For di^as 
samicVi cf. QB. vii. 8. 1. 24. 

I. 34. 7. The stanza is AV. x. 8. 86, which has e^dm for eko in c, and 
eke for anye in d. 

I. 34. 11. td etds . . . aniiddydya: obscure and probably corrupt. 

I. 35. 1. aarhvatsara: 86. 1, parjanye, 4, puru^, and 10, devatdsu, 
prove it to be locative. 

I. 85. 8 flf. Cf. above, i. 12. 7. 

I. 35. 4. A similar play on var^aJf. and var^dfy QB. ii. 2. 8. 7. 

I. 85. 6. nidhanakfta : nidhanlkrta would be expected, but cf. the 
similar passage SB. iii. 1, which ends hemanto nidhanam. taamdd dhe- 
mantam prajd nidhanakftd ivd **8ate nidhanarupam ivdi *tarhi, 

I. 86. 1. Cf. Chand. U. ii. 3. 1 and 15. 1 ; similarly TS. i. 6. 11. 3-4 ; 
gS. i. 5. 2. 18. 

I. 86. 8. pratyag: contrasted with urdhva in 4, as Kafh. U. i. 5. 8, 
urdhvam prdnam unnayaty apdnam pratyag asyati (cf. Chand. U. iii. 
18. 8, yo *8ya pratyan sti^i so *pdnah, 5, yo ^ayo ^WdhvaJ}. su^ sa 
uddnai). It corresponds to dvftta in Chand. U. ii. 2. 2, lokd urdhvdg 
cd "vfttdg ca. 

I. 36. «. Cf. Chand. U. u. 19. 

I. 36. 8. Cf. Chand. U. ii. 7. 

I 86. 10. Cf. Chand. U. ii. 20. 

I. 87. 1 ff. On this distribution of the savanas among the different 
divinities see Eggeling*s note, SBE. xii., p. xviii. 

I. 37. i. On the manner in which the gastras of the three satninas 
should be sung cf. AB. iii. 44. 5. Also below i. 51. 6 ff. — The term 
mandra is frequently connected with Agni in the RV. Differently 
('hand. U. ii. 22. 1, where the vinardi sdmnaJ^ is regarded as Agni's 
udgltha, — fdhnoti with accusative, like vpt*>». 

I. 37. 8. gho^nif upabdimati : these two adjectives are also combined 
JB. i. 258, yasmdd etad gho^ ^vo *pabdimad iva giyate tasmdd ghonl 'vo 
^pnbdiviad itm garbhd jdyante : cf . AB. iv. 9. 3, agvaratheyie 'ndnt djim 
adhdvat, tasindt sa uccdirgho^a upahdimdn k^atrasya rupam. dindro 
hi sail. The Chand. U. assigns to Indra the glakmam balavat sdmna^, 

I. 37. 5. uccd: i. e. * further on': cf. below 7. 

L 87. «. The Chand. U. also attributes the krduiicafh sdmnali to Bf- 
haspati, while in TS. ii. 5. 11. 1 it is assigned to the Asuras : yat krduH- 
cam anvdhd ^^surarh tad yan mandram mdnu^rh tat. As to its char- 



Jdiminlya- Upanisad-Brdhinana, 233 

acter, cf. comment, on TS. v. 5. 12. 1, krduHco ddrunaavanafy pak^ 

I. 38. 9. nitardm may mean * in a low tone.' The rest of the chapter 
is obscure and partly corrupt. 

I. 88. t. A loma sdman is mentioned TMB. xiii. 11. 11. The point of 
the pun between loma [adrnari] and lomagdni (perhaps * covered with 
herbs ') ^magdndni is not clear. 

I. 88. 4. galunasa : the exact form of the name is not quite certain ; 
at J.B. i. 816, A.B.C. read galdna, D. galena, — gdmidaparridbhydni : 
probably corrupt ; but I have not corrected the u into t, because gdmUa 
is only found as adjective, 'made of ^dmt^wood.' 

I. 30. 1. Pauluipita is probably the same person as Paulu^i, Chand. U. 
V. 11. 1 (QB. X. 6. 1. 1), who is (Chand. U. v. 13. 1) also addressed as 
Pracinayogya. 

I. 39. s. sdmnah prati^fhd : cf. BAU. i. 8. 39, tasya hdi ^tasya admno 
yah pratmhdih vedaprati ha ti^t?iati. ta^a vdi mg evapratmhd etc.; 
Samavidh. B. i. 12, yo ha vdi admnafy prati^thdrh vedaprati ha ti^fhaty 
asming ca loke 'mumming ca, vdg vdva admndfy prati^fha. yad v etad 
vdg Uy fgvedah saf^. fci 8dma prati^thitam, 

I. 89. 4. 8dmna8 suvaniam : cf. BAU. i. 8. 28, taaya hdi ^tasya 8dmno 
yaJf, suvarnafh veda bhavati hd ^sya suvarnam, taaya vdi svara (!) eva 
suvarnam etc.; Samavidh. B. i. 11, j^o ha vdi 8dmnaJ}> avaih yaffr suvar- 
naih veda styark ca ha vdi admncUj, suvarniafh ca bhavati. svaro (I) vdtxi 
8dmnalf, svarh tad eva 8uvarnam, 

I. 40. 1. The verse is RV. i. 164. 45. 

I. 40. ». vag eva 8dma : cf. BAU. i. 8. 24, vdg vdi 8dma, 

I. 40. s. The meaning of this paragraph is not quite clear. 

I. 40. 5 ff. Cf. KB. ii. 8. 

I. 40. 7. prdnd evd '«tt/i; cf. ^B. vi. 6. 2. 6, prdi^jovd asul),, 

I. 41. 4. The TO is RV. i. 89. 10. 

I. 41. 7. The same five puru§a8 are mentioned BAU. ii. 1. 2 (sun), 3 
(moon), 4 (lightning), 8 (waters) ; 3. 9 (eye) ; KBU. iv. 8 (sun), 4 (moon), 
5 (lightning), 10 (waters), 17 and 18 (eyes). Slightly different Chand. 
U. iv. 11. 1 (sun) ; 12. 1 (moon) ; 18. 1 (lightning) ; 15. 1 (eye), 6 (mind). 

I. 48. i. yat pagii^ii . . . : cf . Tait. U. iii. 10. 8 ; TB. iii. 8. 7. 2. 

I. 48. f. Cf. Mait. U. vii. \\,purw}ag cahfii^o yo 'yarh dak^ine ^h^iny 
avasthitaJi \ indro *yam . . . 

I. 48. 10 = iv. 24. 3. 

1. 43. 11. The list of adjectives, with the exception of jyoti^mdn, cor- 
responds to the qualities enumerated above, 42. 3 ff . 

I. 44. 1. The re is RV. vi. 47. 18. 

I. 44. tt. harayaJjL = ddityasya ragTnayaJf, : cf. Nirukt. vii. 24, ddi- 
tyasya JuirayaJi supurnd haraiyi ddityaragmayaa te. — For the etymol- 
ogy cf. SB. i. 1. 13, pilrvapak^dparapakHdu vd indraaya harl tdbhydfh 
hi ^darh aarvaih harati. 

I. 44. 6. The stanza is RV. iii. 68. 8. 

L 44. ». imdfy . . . aaihcakfdtjMll^ : cf. RV. vi. 68. 2. 

I. 46. 1. The metre of the verses in 1 and 2 is defective. The 
thought of the first gloka is similar to RV. i. 164. 46 (AV. ix. 10. 28). 

VOL. XVI. 31 



234 n. Oertel, 

p&da c of which ends like pada d here. For the end of pfida d of the 
second stanza, cf. below, iii. 2. 1. 

I. 45. 4. to the end is repeated verbatim at iii. 87. 6 ff., which has been 
used in emending the MSS. reading here. — leldyati : the verb, in the 
same sense, is repeated below at 51. 3 ; 55. 8 ; 58. 7 ; also JB. i. 299, pra- 
jdpatir yctamad yoneJ^ prajd asjjata so *leldyad eva sa dipyamdno hhrd- 
jamdno *ti^t?iat; MS. i. 8. 6 (p. 123. 12.), yad angdre^ vyavagdnteifu 
leldya vi 'va bhdti tad devdndm dsyam : cf . ApQS. vi. 9. 2. 

I. 45. 6. pdpmd nyangaii : pdpinanyafigaJIf. would be exfiected, but cf. 
below ii. 12. 1, and JB. i. 10, tdd yathd *hir . . . (MSS. anyedcUimdte) na 
hag carta nyangal^ pdpmd pariQi§yata evaih hdi 'vd ^smin na kag cana 
nyaHgah pdpmd parigi^yate ya evaih vidvdn agnihotrath juhoti, 

I. 46. >. On aajdta, see Eggeling's note on QB. v. 4. 4. 19. — mahiyd : 
cf. above, i. 28. 8. 

I. 46. 6. caturdkd: the conjecture is uncertain ; perhaps the reading 
was paficadkd, 

I. 48. s. The paragraph is not clear. 

I. 48. T. aam/iitat : it would be easy to regard this form and afivditat 
(iii. 38. 10) as due to dittography of the following tat, were it not for 
AV. xviii. 8. 40, anvditat, which is protected by the metre. 

I. 48. 8. janitd: so emended after Chand. iv. 3. 7. Perhaps it would 
be better to correct it into janayitd : cf. below, iii. 88. 8, and JB. ii. 886, 
prajdpatify prajdndm prajanayitd, 

I. 50. Cf. below, 58 ff., 56 flf. 

I. 50. 4. sunoti is the MSS. reading throughout, although one would 
rather expect aanoti. But cf . AB. iv. 17. 3, where asunvan (so all MSS. 
and Aufrecht ; P W. emeods to aaanvan) corresponds to as^dsatyas in 2. 

I. 51. 1. dUabena : I emend so hesitatingly after AV. vi 16. 8 etc. 

I. 51. «. Cf. below, i. 58. 8. 

I. 51. » flf. Cf. above, i. 87. 1 flf. 

I. 52. 8. apadhvdntam: emended after Chand. U. ii. 22. 1, apadhvdn- 
tam varunasya, 

I. 58. 1. At Chand. U. vi. 2, Q^etaketu^s father strongly maintains 
that in the beginning there existed the sat only, without a second : cf. 
also Chand. U. iii. 19. 1 (identity of sat and asat). The T&it. U., on the 
other hand, holds (ii. 7. 1) that the sat was produced from the asat, a 
doctrine which Qvetaketu^s father mentions and refutes. 

I. 53. s. tasmdt . . . : the logical connection of the two sentences is 
obscure. For the second one, cf. (JB. i. 1. 1. 20 = ii. 5. 2. 17, evaih hi 
mithunarh klptam uttarato hi stri pumdnsam upagete ; vi. 3. 1. 80 = 
vii. 5. 1. 6, dakfinato vdi vf^d yo^dm upagete. The reason is very prob- 
ably the desire for male oflfspring : cf. Bphat S. Ixxviii. 24, dakftina- 
pdrgve puru^o vdm£ ndri yamdv nbhayasanisthdti. 

I. 58. 4 flf. On the superiority of the sdinan over the jrc and its 
chronological bearing see K. T. Telang*8 introduction to the Bhagavad- 
g!t&, SBE. viii. 19. — sdman is loosely treated as male and masculine 
{amafy ; 54. 2, sa) : cf. ^B. iv. 6. 7. 11, tad vd etad vr?d sdma yo^m fcafli 
sadasy adhyeti ; i. 4. 4. 3, var^ hi manaJf, ; AB. i. 28. 16, where vac is 
taken as masculine. 



Jdiininlya- Upanisad-Brahmarw . 235 

L 58. s. For the etymology, cf. e. g. BAU. i. 3. 24 ; Chand. U. i. 6. 1 ; 
AB. iii. 28. 1. 

I. 58. 8. inprd : the emendation is doubtful. 

I. 53. It. dddya na . , . : text and translation are doubtful. 

I. 54. 1. tasmad . . . : cf . ApDhS. i. I. 2. 23 ; GautDhS. u. 18. — fcd- 
mam . . . : cf . ApDhS. i. 1. 3. 82. From ApDhS. i. 1. 4. 5 ff. it would 
seem that students were at times offered forbidden food by their teach- 
ers : see Btihler's note. 

I. 54. i. bharaiufuke^r^na : correct form and meaning are unknown. 

I. 54. 8. On the intercourse of sdman and fc in the sodas and the 
prohibition of witnessing it (except through the door), see QB. iv. 6. 7. 
9ff. 

I. 54. •. amo *ham . . . : different versions of the formula AV. xiv. 
2. 71 ; gB. xiv. 9. 4. 19 (= BAU. vi. 4. 20); AB. viii. 27. 4 (for appoint- 
ing a purohita) ; TB. iii. 7. 1. 9 ; GB. ii. 8. 20 ; ApQS. ix. 2. 8 ; Ka. xxxv. 
18 ; gGS. i. 18. 4 ; AGS. i. 7. 6 ; PGS. i. 6. 3 ; MSnGS. 1. 10 ; BaudhGS. 
1. 12 ; BharadGS. i. 19 ; HGS. i. 20. 2. 

I. 54. 7. sambhavann atyaricyata : the emendation after i. 57. 5. 

I. 54. 8. hiiUcdra^^ ca . . . : cf . AB. iii. 23. 4, te vdipaHcd ^nyad bhutvd 
paflcd ^nyad bhutvd 'kalpetdm dhdvaq (? Aufr.-vdp) ca hinkdrag ca pras- 
tdvaq ca prathamd ca fg udgxthag ca nmdhyamd ca pratihdrag co *ttamd 
ca nidhanarh ca va^atkdrag ca, — vyadravatdjn, the emendation after 
gB. iv. 6. 7. 10, tasmdd yady apijdydpati mithunarh carantdti pagyanti 
vy eva dravata dga eva kurvdte, 

I. 54. 18. tad yathe . . . ; text and meaning of the clause are uncer- 
tain. 

I. 56. 7 ff. Cf. AB. iu. 33 ; GB. viii. 20 ff., and Hang's note, AB. ii. 
197. 

I. 57. 1. gdyatdm: for this pregnant use of the genitive see Weber, 
Ind. Stud. ix. 247. 

I. 57. 7. Cf . Chand. U. i. 3. 6-7 ; BAU. i. 3. 26. 

I. 57. ». Cf. above, i. 51. 3. 

1. 58. 1. Because the vdgitha {ud) is the sun : cf. above, 57. 7. 

1. 58. i. gdpayeyur : with the same meaning which the causative of 
^vad usually has. 

I. 58. •. prattig: the MSS. read here and iii. 6. 1, S pratig, as do five 
MSS. of TS. V. 4. 7. 2. — manasd * in silence,' as above, L 5. 6. 

1. 58. 7. hiranyam avikftam : cf. JB. iii. 1, sa (Praj&pati) idaih sarvaih 
vyakarot, yathd ha vdi hiranyarh rrUqrtam evam, 

I. 58. 8. Cf. i. 51. 3. 

I. 59. 8. sdmavdiryam: the meaning is uncertain. According to JB. 
i. 219, the nidhana is the virya of the sdman : tad u ho ^vdca Jdnagru- 
teyo viryaih vd etat sdmno yan nidhanam, 

I. 59. IS ff. The distribution of what follows among the several 
speakers is not clear ; tad etat sddhv . . . bruhy eva probably belongs to 
gftunaka, who approves of Brahmadatta's answer and urges him to 
continue. After this it seems as if Brahmadatta's reply was lost, in 
which he proposes to turn the tables and ask g&unaka and Abhipra- 
t&rin. To this either gaunaka or Abhipratarin object with me *dafh te 



236 H. OerteU 

namo 'karma (with reference to 11) . . . atiprak^. And in 14 Brahma- 
datta gives the questions which he proposed to ask them, together with 
the answers. As the text stands, however, it would seem that me *dam 
. . . atiprdk^is is spoken by Brahmadatta, although what he refers to 
by idaih namas is not clear. The text is not above suspicion, especially 
the absolute md = * don't,* for which B AU. v. 13. 2, sa (Pratrda's father) 
Jia smd *^ha pdnind md prdtj^a seems to be the only parallel case. 

I. 60. Cf. below, ii. 1 and 10; Chand. U. i. 2 ; BAU. i. 3(gB. xiv. 4. 1): 
cf. also JB. i. 269, manasd suhdrdasaih ca durhdrdasaih ca vijdndti 
prdiiena surabhi cd ^aurabhi ca vijdndii cak^u^ dar^niyafh cd ^dar- 
^aniyaih ca vijdndti grotretf^a gravaniyafh cd ^Qravanlyaih ca v^dndti 
vdcd svddu cd ^svddu ca vijdndti. 

I. 60. 5. apdnena jighrati: this peculiar conception occurs also at 
BAU. iii. 2. 2, so *pdnend ^tigrahena gfhitaJf.. apdnena hi gandhdii jigh- 
rati. In the latter passage Bdhtlingk has changed the reading, though 
supported by both recensions, into aa gandhend and prdnena respec- 
tively. It is possible that the confusion (for which, however, I am 
inclined to hold the authors themselves responsible) came about through 
passages like ii. 1. 16, apdnena pdparh gandham apdniti, which, occur- 
ring in connection with * perceiving by sight,' ' hearing with hearing,' 
etc., was thought to be equal to 'smelling bad odor,* instead of 'ex- 
haling ' it. 

I. 60. 7. Cf. above, i. 7. 6. 

After chapter 60 the MSS. have this very corrupt colophon : gandbhi- 
dhdnopani^adaih calani ^^fi^haxufakarh niyogddvinavd (B. -cd) ddhyd- 
yarh ^kf^nena (B. ge^ddrira) likhat (B. -n). muddgirivan hi samudra- 
kdnanakfanti rudrdk^ipaddgnayo gwiyah. kOQakarnagardQvi (B. -karna- 
kucdgni) sdgaragruti garhgdddhva gundrh gajesavah. 

II. 1. Cf. i. 60 and ii. 10. 

II. 2. 6. vdco bfhatydi patia : brhati as a name for t;dc and the same 
etymology of Bphaspati also Chand. U. i. 2. 11 ; BAU. i. 8. 22. 

II. 2. e. tasya . . . prajdh: cf. below, iii. 32. 9. 

II. 2. 8. yad vdva . . . : cf. i. 33. 4. 

II. 3. ». svddu . . . vandme^ti: the emendations are not quite certain. 

II. 3. 6. The chanee from paryddatta in 5 and 6 to parydtta in 7, 8, 
and 9 (cf. below, ii. 13. 3) is noteworthy. 

II. 3. 1 « fit. Cf . above, i. 7. 6. 

II. 4. s. asya hy . , . vd sah : unclear. 

II. 6. 10. sahasraih . . . putrdJi : cf. ii. 9. 10. 

II. 6. 11. Cf. TS. V. 6. 5. 3, etafh vdi para dtndrah kakfivdh d%tgijo 
intahavyah grdya^a^ traaadasyufy pdurukutsyaJi prajdkdmd acinvata. 
tato vdi te aahasraTh-aaha^sram putrdn avindanta ; TMB. xxv. 16. 3, 
para dtndras trasadasyuh pnurukutso vitahavyah grdyasah kak^vdn 
dugijas ta etat prajdtikdmdh aattrdyanam updyahs te sahasraTh-saha- 
sram putrdn apu^yann evarh vdva te aahasram-aahaaram putrdn puf' 
yanti ya etad upayanti. 

II. 7. 1. The emendation of athcUydm to athalydm after JB. iii. 128 
(transl. Proceedings for May, 1883, p. x), atha ha cyavano bhdrgavaJ^ 
punar yuvd bhUtvd ^ga[cchac] charydtam mdnavam. tarn prdcydrh 9th€U' 



JdiTninlya- Upanisad-Brdhmana. 237 

^m dyajayat. In the AB. the name of the sage is (^aryata Manava, in 
the Q6. the a is short, as in our text. 

II. 7. ». For the different quarters assigned to gods, Fathers, etc., 
cf. e. g. ^B. iii. 1. 1. 2., 6, 7. — hambena is the correct reading: cf. 
below, 6, and TS. vi. 6. 8. 4. 

n. 8. i. etad dha nd . . . : cf . AB. i. 14. 5 [udici] dig aparajitd ; QB. 
iv. 6. 6. 1 ff. 

n. 8. 7. The same etymology below, ii. 11. 8 ff., and BAU. i. 3. 9, 22 ; 
Chand. U. i. 2. 12. 

n. 9. «. Five vydhftis are also mentioned at JB. ii. 354, pancabhir 
vdi vydhfiibhir idarh devd ajayan.— -For pra and d, cf. Chand. U. ii. 
8. 1, and Eggeling, SBE. xii. 101, note,— ud must be supplied: see 8. 

n. 9. 4, 6. The identification of jpra with prdna (but of d with itddwo) 
is also found QB. i. 4. 1. 5 ; differently Chand. U. ii. 8. 1. 

II. 9. 8. ud Hi 80 *«dr ddityah : cf. Chand. U. i. 3. 7, dditya evo H, 
The meaning of the following clauHe is obscure. 

II. 10. Cf. above, i. 60. 

n. 10. i. tasya . . . d8uh : the same phrase is repeated below, iii. 30. 
8 : cf. JB. iii. 190, atha ha vdi vdikhdnasd ity f^ikd indrasya priyd 
dsuh. 

II. 10. 4. hhuHjate : on account of the preceding vadati I have taken 
it as dd singular. 

n. 11. Cf. BAU. i. 3. 12 ff. 

n. 11. s. Cf. above, ii. 8. 7. 

II. 11. ». For the etymology cf. BAU. i. 3. 9, 21. 

n. 11. to. andmayatvam : the reading is probably corrupt. 

n. 12. 1. pdpmd nyaHgah : see above, i. 45. 5. 

II. 12. 7. alokatdydi = cUokyatdydi, BAU. i. 8. 88. 

II. 18. 8. yathd dhenum . . . : cf. TS. ii. 8. 6. 2, yathd vatsena prat- 
tdih gdfh duha evam eve *mdh lokdnprattdn kdmam annddyaih duhe, 

n. 14. 1. Tiediftham : cf. Aufrecht on AB. 1. 1 ; and ^B. i. 6. 2. 11. 

II. 14. 4. atha yad . . . pdddhhydm : cf . QB. iii. 1. 1. 7, tasmdd u ha 
na pratlcinagirdfy Qayita. ne 'd devdn abhiprasdrya gayd iti. 

At the end of the chapter there is the following colophon : 
^rutyantdQamahi devdggrlnivdsa iti grutaJj, : 
ekahtnakaldkhan4a7h garddhydyam alilikhat. 

in. 1. For this and the following chapter, cf. Chand. U. iv. 8. 1. On 
the grahas see Eggeling on QB, iv. 6. 5. 1 ; Vayu is similarly contrasted 
with the other divinities at BAU. i. 5. 33, sa yathdi Vdm prdndndm 
mndhyamah prdna evam etdsdfh devatdndrh vdyufy, mlocanti hy anyd 
deiKitd na vdytUlf,. sdi '{(d 'nastamitd devatd yad vdyufy, (Somewhat simi- 
lar is AB. viii. 28. 2 ff.). But at QB. iii. 9. 2. 5 we read sarvaih vd idam 
anyad Uayati yad idaih kiHicd 'p iyo 'yam pavate *thdi 'td (the waters) 
eoa ne *layanti, 

III. 1. 4. Cf. JB. ii. 48, yadd ^'dityo *8tam eti vdyum (MSS. -r) evd 
pyeH. 

in. 1. 7. Cf. JB. ii. 48, yadd vd agnir udvdyati vdyum evd ^pyeti, 
UL 1. It. kitsnam: supplied after 19. 

m. 1. 14. Cf. JB. ii. 49, yadd vdi tiS^lm dsteprdnam eva vdg apyeti • 
KBU. iu. 8. 



238 H. OerieU 

III. 1. ic. Cf. JB. ii. 49, yad& wapiti pr&i(f^m eva cak^r apyeti, 

III. I. to. Vayu enters man, QB. i. 1. 8. 2 ; v. 2. 4. 10. 

III. 1. »i. In the corresponding story of Ch&nd. U. iv. 8, the beg^gar 
is a brahmacdrtn. 

m. 2. ». The Chand. U. version in c reads t. k. nd ^bhipa^anti mar- 
tydh ; and, at the end of d, vasantam (b of the gloka at JB. ii. 26 ends ba- 
hudhd nitnjf^n); in b the MSS. of the Ch&nd. U.. as ours, read so for 8a. 

III. 2. 4. The Chand. U. version in a has janitd prajdndm tor via m, ; 
in by hiranyadafi.^tro babha^o 'nasHrify ; in d, anannam for adantam, 
— rapasa (from rapas, as raJbhasa from rabiuiB) is uncertain, and so is 
also the reading of the next two words. 

III. 3. 1. na : see note on i. 5. 1. 

III. 8. s. Breath is identified with the uktha in BAU. v. 14. 1. 

III. 8. 4. gagvad: Eggelingnow takes the word to mean 'probably* 
in the Brahma^as : note on QB. v. 4. 8. 2. — The end of this paragraph 
is not clear to me ; perhaps the na should be thrown out. 

in. 3. 6. Cf . a similar etymology of the name in AB. vi. 20. 8, 4. 

III. 4. 4. tri§ivbhd paridadhati : cf . AB. vi. 16. 5. 

III. 4. 10. nava-navd *k^ardni sampadyante: this statement is cor- 
rect for a^ni + prthivi + mahant + niahi, and dditya + dyu + brah- 
man •¥ brahmani ; but not for vdyu + aniarik^a + deva + devij which 
make ten syllables, unless vdyv is read for vdyu, 

III. 4. IS. For the comparison, cf. JB. ii. 248, yathd (MSS. gdha) vdi 
mandu manisutram otarh sydd evam e^u loke^u trirdtra otatf^ (MSS. 
oda^); gB. xli. 8. 4. 2 ; TMB. xx. 16. 6. 

III. 5. ». mufijas: corrected after SB. iv. 1. The rest of the chapter 
is obscure, the readings, especially the quotations in 5, doubtful. 

III. 5. B. The quotations are given as they appear in the MSS., with- 
out sathdhi at the end. — manoyuktam: it is uncertain whether this 
should be taken as a compound, or as two separate words. 

III. 5. 6. binibeiia: possibly * by means of the fruit of the JIfomordica 
monadelpha.^ 

III. 6. 4. hotur vd ^'jye . . . mditrdtxirunaaya vd : see Eggeling's note 
on QB. iv. 8. 2. 1 (SBE. xxvi. 825). 

III. 6. «, 7. The correction of abandhu (neuter) to the masculine 
'dhur seems necessary to bring out the contrast : cf. RV. viii. 21. 4, 
vayarh hi tvd bandhumantam aJbandhavo viprdsa indra yemima, — 
kasimdd vd . , , manthanti : these words are not quite clear to me. 

III. 8. s. anyatardm updgdd : I take this to be a euphemistic expres- 
sion, similar to QB. v. 1. 8. 18, sa kva tatah sydt. The actual bodily 
danger incurred by entering into a disputation with a superior is well 
known (e. g. Chand. U. i. 10. »-ll. 9 : gB. ix. 6. 8 ; BAU. iii. 9 ; JB. ii. 
76, 77, etc.). 

III. 8. 4. The construction of the clause as it stands is harsh, no 
matter whether ma be taken as dative or as genitive : see DelbrQck, 
Synt. 399 (end). — - suyamdn : the word is very appropriate in talking to 
a driver. 

in. 8. 7. In the following this much is clear, that Sudak^ip^a K^&imi 
by his unexpected arrival within the sacred enclosure succeeds in out- 



Jdiviinlyor- TJpan isad-Brdhtaana, 239 

witting Pr&cinaQ&li (iii. 7. 7) and making himself the udgdtar ; he par- 
ticulars are not clear to me. 

III. 8. 10. Possibly here and in the following paragraphs retobhuta 
should be taken as a cpd. : cf. havirbhuta, MS. iii. 4. 7 (p. 58. 18). 

m. 0. /. This paragraph is obscure. It must be inferred that the 
younger J&bala was not able to hear Sudak^i^a^s discourse, iii. 8. 9-9. 7, 
the substance of which is told him by his older brother in iii. 9. 10, yas 
traydndm . . . ativahati, — The transitive use of avddi is very remark- 
able. It is probable that avddi Hi should be corrected into avddlt, 
which would at the same time remove the superfluous iti. 

III. 9. 10. enaifo . . . yah katham avocad bhagava iti = the younger 
Jab&la. 

III. 10. 1-3 are obscure. It is uncertain who is the subject of uvdca 
in 1 and 8 ; also who is reproached in 3. 

III. 10. 0. avok^arjlyd dpas : cf. AGS. iv. 6. 14. 

III. to. It. The stanza is AV. x. 8. 28, where however b reads utdi 
*9dm pito *ta vd putra e^dm, and precedes a ; in c AV. reads prathamo 
jdtal} 8. u. g, antdfy. 

III. 10. IS. The readings of this paragraph are doubtful. Though 
the BiSS. have no indication of a lacuna, it is certainly defective, and 
lacks the verb on which iinam puru^am depends. 

III. 11. ». yad retas . . . abhisambhavati : cf. (^B, vii. 8. 1. 45, retalj, 
ftiktam prdiiam abhiaa^iibhavati. — dgdm abhijdyate : cf. Chand. U. vii. 
13. 1. dkdge jdyate. dkdgam abhijdyate, 

III. 12. 1. tmafiQ ca Jokdn: cf. QB. xiii. 1. 7. 2, trydvfta ime lokdJj. 

III. 12. i. CLQanayd : see note on i. 8. 8. 

in. 13. s. par^yanti : so far only found in P&n. iii. 1. 28 : cf. above, 
i. 88. 5, pandyydJ^, 

III. 18. B. Nfika Maudgalya (QB. etc.). — The bearing of yathd . . . 
tddrk tat on what precedes is not clear. The clause is so much abbre- 
viated as to be obscure. It is probable that ratham should be supplied 
as object to the causatives arpayitvd and arpayet (6) : viz. ' as one hav- 
ing caused one chariot to collide with a post (obstruction) would drive 
around the obstruction with the next chariot ' : cf . AV. x. 4. 1, ratha 
sthdnum drat. 

III. 13. •. The iti should perhaps be placed after arpayet. 

III. 18. 7. bradhnasya viffapam : this phrase occurs frequently in the 
JB : tad bradhnasya vi^fapaih gacchanti {ii, 387, 844. 351, 353, parallel 
passages) ; atha ydg catasras tad eva bradhnasya vL^tapam. tasminn 
etad devU sarvdn kdmdn duhre (iii. 328) ; tad etat svargyaih sdmd *gnute 
gvargaih lokarii ya evarii veda, tad yathd ha vdi bradhnasya vi^pipdny 
etxim etdni vigdlasya vi^t^pdni svargasya lokasya sama^tydi pra svar- 
gaih lokam dpnoti ya evaih veda (iii. 219) ; samudrasya (MSB. -d) vi^fape 
occurs JB. iii. 213 : cf. below, iii. 19. 7, trimfff pam, 

III. 14. 1-0. This is repeated, almost verbatim, JB. i. 18. where how- 
ever the text is unfortunately even more corrupt than here : viz. tarn 
hd ^'gcUam prcchati kas tvam (C. tasyam) asl 'ti (C ora. iti), sa (C. -e) yo 
ha ndmnd r>d (A.B. om. vd) gotretia vd prabrfUe (B. -braUe) taih hd "ha 
yas te 'yam mayy (C. for fid "Jia . . . mayy has bhd bha ye su ; for viayy 



240 E. Oertel, 

B. reads maryy, A. may) dtmd 'bhud (B.C. Tidfc?) e§a te aa (C. 8t) Ui. toM- 
min hd "tman pratipat (C. prativart) tarn (B.C. to) ftavaa (A. tavfu) 
sampaldyyapad (so A. and B. ; C. sampaldryya) gthitam apakar§anH, 
Then, with only a few orthographical differences, to the end of 5 (all 
MSS. read suvas, svargyam, svar, suvargah, suvar in 3 and 4). After 
this, sa etam eva sukftarasam (so C ; A.B. aaihlcxt') apy eti tasya 
piitrd ddyam upayanti pitaras sddhukftydm, — In the text the division 
pratipat. ta is purely conjectural, the MSS. reading pratipatta, which 
might be an ablative depending on apakar^ant% but it seems not im- 
probable that a past pple is hidden in the word. For sampaddryapad 
I have been unable to find an acceptable emendation. 

III. 14. R. sa yathd . . . eva: cf. JB. ii. 12, yathd ha vd idam di^4^ 
(MSS. -dn) nirbhidyerann evam evdi Haamdd ahho nirbhidyante ; Ait. 
U. i. 1. 4, tasyd *bhitaptasya mukhaih nirabhidyata yathd "n^am (cf. 
also RV. i. 104. 8, diufO' md no . . . nir bhet). — The nn in nirbhinnam 
is noteworthy : see above, note to 1. 5. 1. 

Ill, 15. «. Cf. SB. i. 5. Iff., indro ha vdi vigvdmitrdyo ^ktham uvdca 
vasi^ihdya brahma. vdg ity eva vigvdmitrdya mano brahma vasi^fhdya. 
2. tad vd etad vdai^^ham brahma ; also TMB. xv. 5. 24. Hence a Vasi^t^^ 
should be chosen as braA/iian-priest, TS. iii. 5. 2. 1 : vGM^tho brahmd 
kdryai>; cf. SB. i. 5. 3. 

III. 15. 4 ff. Cf . AB. V. 32 ; QB. xi. 5. 8 ; GB. i. 6 ; Chand. U. iv. 17. 

III. 16. 1 ff. Strikingly (at times verbatim) similar is AB. v. 33. 2 : 
cf. also GB. iii. 2 ; Chand. U. iv. 16 ; KB. vi. 11 : SB. i. 5. 4 ff. 

III. 16. 7. vbhaydpdd, iibhaydcakro : Qi. iv. 14. 3, ubhaydpadl (also 
ubhayddant) ; the AB. has ubhayataJ^pdt and ubhayatagcakra, 

m. 17. i-s. Cf. Chand. U. iv. 17. 4 ff. ; AB. v. 32. 5 ff. ; gB. xi. 5. 8. 
5 ff. ; SB. i. 5. 8 ; JB. i. 358, yan nu no 'dyd ^yarii yajfio bhre^ann iydt 
(MSS. iy-) kendi ^nam bhvfojydme *ti tan prajdpatir abravid yad vd 
cta^a trayasya vedasya t^a indriyam viryam rasa dsid idath vd ahaih 
tad va (MSS. vam) udayaccham (MSS. insert ity). etd vyahftih prdyac- 
cham. etdbhir enam bhi^ajyathe Hi. sa yadi yajna fkto bhre^am iydd 
(MSS. 1-) bhus svdhe Hi gdrhapatye juhavdtha. sdi ^va tatra prdyag- 
cittil}. atha yadi yajusfo bhuvas svdh^ Hy agnldhre juhavdtha. sdi ^va 
t. pr. atha yadi sdmatas svas si^dhe Hy ahavanlye juhavdtha. sdi ^va t. 
pr. atha yadi ^^t^pagitbandhe^i vd dargapdrnamdsayor vd bhuvas svdhe 
Hi anvdhdryapacane juhavdtha. sdi ^va t. pr. atha yady anupasm^tdt 
kuta idam ajani Hi bhur bhuvas svas svdhe Hy dhavaniye juhavdtha. 
sCii 'va tasya sarvasya prdyagcittify. 

III. 17. 8. tad yathd . . . : very similar is Chand. U. iv. 17. 7 ; the 
comparisons in AB. v. 32. 6 and QB. xi. 5. 8. 6 differ, especially in the 
latter: cf. also comm. on KBU. (Bibl. Ind. p. 4, line 4 ff.), baddhvd 
kd^t^ene *ya kd^t^arfi nilisaihdhibandhanam jaturajjulohddibhiti. 

III. 17. 4. tad dhur . . . : almost verbatim as AB. v. 34. 1 ff.; GB. iii. 8. 

III. 17. «. With c of the <floka cf. Muijc}. U. ii. 2. I, atrdi Hat sam- 
arpitam ^at prdnan nimi^ac ca yat. 

in. 19. 1. 8om>afy pavate and updvartadhvam : cf. below, iii. 84. 2 
gB. iv. 2. 5. 7, 8, and Eggeling's notes, SBE. xxvi. 807, 308. 

III. 19. 3. 4 = i. 8. 4, 5. 



Jdimimyor Upaiiisad-Brdhmcma, 241 

in. 20. \, yo *8nian . . . dvi^mal}. = KBU. ii. 8 (Mahanar. U. iv. 18) ; 
the phrase (without the ca after yaih) is very frequent in AV., e. g. ii. 
11. 8 ; 19. 1-28. 5. 

III. 20. t. apannd : cf. BAU. v. 15. 10 (QB. xiv. 8. 15. 10), apad asi 
na hipadyase, in an invocation of gdyatrt, 

in. 21. s. Text and translation are uncertain ; the last two words 
are emended after AV. vii. 85. 2 b, aham . . . bilam apyadhdm, 

III. 25. 4. nwdo . . . pramodo : as in Tait. (J. ii. 5. 1, modo dak^nal}. 
pakfoJ^ pramoda uttaraJf, paJe^aJf, (of the dtmd '^nandamayaljL). 

in. 27. 11. navo-navo . . . jdyamdno : a Vedic reminiscence, RV. x. 
85. 19, navo-navo hhavati jdyamdno . . . (= AV. ; T8. ; TB). 

in. 28. 1 ff. Similar, but differing considerably in detail, are BAU. v. 
12 and KBU. 1. 2 ff. 

in. 28. •. aira = loke *Qokdntare *hime (BAU. v. 12. 1). 

in. 29. s. There seems to be no other passage in Vedic literature 
where a dead man temporarily returns of his own accord to comfort and 
instruct a friend. Somewhat similar are the stories of Bhfgu (QB. xi. 
6. 1. 1 ff. ; JB. i. 42-44, JAOS. xv. 284 ff.) and Naciketas (TB. iii. 11. 8. 
1 ff. ; Kafh. U. i. 1), and, in later literature, that of Kadambari calling 
her lover back to life by her embrace (Weber, ZDWJ, vii. 588 = Ind. 
Streif, i. 867). Cf . also the Jainanstory of ajj' Asa4ha, Ind, Stud, xvii. 
109. 

ni. 29. 7. Cf. Hom. 11. t. 99 f., <^ &pa 0wj^af (Achilles) upi^aro xfpf^t 
^i?.^iv I av (T i?4ii3e • tfwx^ (of Patroclus) 6i Kara X^ovSCf rfirre Kanvdc, \ tfx^^ 
rrrpiyvia. 

ni. 80. s. prajdpater . , , dsa : the same phrase occurred above, ii. 10. 
2. — f>r!ndm is perhaps to be taken with sa, and devdndm in 4 with j^ra- 
jdpatir, 

ni. 31. 1. Cf. JB. iii. 7, prajdpatir jdyamdna eva aaha pdpmand 
'jdyata, so 'Tcdmayatd *pa pdp^ndnam hanlye Hi, sa etarh vyiUfha- 
chandasaih dvddaqdhaih yajflam apa^at, tarn dharat. tend ^yajata, tena 
viftxiflcam pdpmdnath vyduhata. sa ya^ pdpmagfhita iva manyeta sa 
etena vyii4hachandasd dvddagdhetia yajeta, vi^vaflcarh hdi \hi pdpmd- 
nafh vyuhate, 

ni. 81. s. The emendations of this corrupt passage are tentative only. 

III. 81. 10. I have not been able to restore a satisfactory text. 

ni. 82. s. tad atha yadd . . . : cf . QB. iii. 8. 8. 15 = 4. 5, yadd *smdt 
prdtio ^pakrdmati ddrv eva tarhi hhuto *narthyalf, gete; KBU. ii. 14, 
asmdc charirdd uccakramns tad dhd ^prdnat gti^kafh ddrubhutaih ^igye. 

in. 82. f. Ml ... sa : as is seen from 8. they refer to antardtmd, 

ni. 32. ». vdcd karoti: see above<i. 83. 4. — tasya svara . . ,pr(njdh: 
cf. above, ii. 2. 6 ; in Chand. U. i. 13. 2, svara and prdna are identified. 

III. 83. 1 . For the identification of agni and vac cf . Ch&nd. U. iii. 13. 
8, sd vdk so 'gnih. — ddityas svara . . . : cf. Chand. U. i. 3. 2, samdna 
u eva "yaHi cd -sdu ca. ntfno ''yam u^fno *sdu. svara iti 'mavi dcak^ate 
praiydsvara ity amum ; i. 5. 1, ity a^du vd dditya udgitha e^a prai^vailf., 
om iti hy e^ svarann eti : cf . i. 8.1, ya evd *8du tapati iam udgitham 
updsUa. udyan vd e^a prajdbhya udgdyati, 

VOL. XVI. 32 



242 H. Oertd, 

III. 88. 7. hrahmanyi avartdt^: cf. Ch&nd. U. iv. 15. 6, m&navam 
dvartam, 

III. 84. 1. tad etan , . . rksdme: cf. Chand. U. i. 1. 6, — dcaturam: 
to the passages from MS., KB., and EC&th., quoted by Bohtlingk (on 
Pacini viii. 1. 16) and Schroeder (Monataberichte d, Berl Akad,, July 
24, 1879, p. 688), must be added JB. ii. 276, decduraih ha khalu vdi 
mithunam prajananam ; iii. 42, dcaturam (MSS. dcatuh) mithunam 
prajananam ; iii. 87, dcaturath vdva m, p. 

III. 84. s. 8oniaff, pavate and updvartadhvam : see above, ill. 19. 1. 

III. 84. f. Cf. QB. vi. 6. 1. 6, yddfy vdi yondu retaljk ticyaie tddrg 
jdyate; vii. 4. 1. 1, yddf^dd vdi jdyate tddfiifi eva bhavati: Bfh. Saihh. 
Ixxv. 2. 

in. 86. 1. The verse is RV. x. 177. 1.— On maricindm in d see Weber, 
Tnd, StTid. iz. 9, note. 

III. 86. s. ati ratham udtk^te: these words are doubtless corrupt. 

III. 85. 6. marteyafy I have left unchanged, regarding it as one of the 
frequent instances of confusion of i-stems and i-stems. 

m. 86. 1. The verse is RV. x. 177. 2. 

in. 87. 1. The verse is BV. x. 177. 8 (=L 164. 81). 

III. 88. 3. prajdndih Janayitd : cf. i. 48. 8. 

III. 88. 4. A similar etymology of gdyatra is given at BAU. v. 16. 7. 

in. 88. «. upd 'amdi . . . nara : the first p&da of SV. ii. 1 and 113 (= 
RV. ix. 11. 1 etc.). The final of gdyatd is protracted also in SV. and RV. 
The second and third pftdas are given in 8, with the var. lect. devam 
for devdh (SV. RV.). They also differ from SV. and RV. in the pro- 
traction of the final of indave to -vdU and of the last three vowels of 
iydkfate (iydk^dtdi), and by the insertion of hum-bJid between the 
second and third syllable of the latter. The Bibl. Ind. gives the verse. 

48 r 4y4r 5 'SI?? 

yajndyajMyam, thus : upd *58mdi | gdSydHd ndrdfy \ pdSvdmdSnd \ 

yd^Sd I hummdyi \ ddSvdyi \ dbhi devdh iydShfotdii \\ te. 

III. 38. «. HO^ttqakalaikvdihrahma: cf. below, iv. 25. 2. 

ni. 38. 10. anvditat: cf. note on i. 48. 7. 

III. 89. 1. ^oijla^kalo vdipuru^a^,: cf. ^B. xi. 1. 6. 36, and the myetic 
explanations of Pra^. U. vi. 1 ff. 

III. 39. s. tad . . . dvfdydt : I have not been able to restore a read- 
able text. From what follows it would appear that parts of ovdc, as a 
and o. are commented upon and mystically explained. 

III. 89. s ff. are similar to i. 4. 2 ff. 

III. 40 ff. Only very few of these names occur in the Vahgabrdh- 
mana ; a number of names are repeated in the vafiqa at iv. 16 ff. 

After III. 42. the MSS. have this colophon : 

bahutvdd dhdraiidQoktd vismaranty alpabuddhayaJi : 
yam ahaih triiiqad adhydyam alikhaih tarn bjrhadganam. 

IV. 1. 1. haritaspfgas samdnabuddho : the correctness of the MSS. 
reading is doubtful, the meaning obscure. 

rV. 2. I ff. Cf. Chand. U. liL 16. The correspondence is very close, 
even to the misreading (uiturviiM^tivarfdni in 2. 
IV. 2. s. narvarii vasv ddadate : Chand. U. sarvarh vdsayanti (cf. QB. 



Jdirainlya- Upanisad-Brdhmana, 243 

xi. 6. 3. 6 ; BAU iii. 9. 4.) : cf. BAU. iii. 9. 4, etemi hi "darh viisu sarvaih 
hitam (= JB. ii. 77, JA08. xv. 240). 

IV. 2. •. For the etymolojjy cf. JB. ii. 77 ; ^B. xi. 6. 3. 7. 

IV. 3. 9. For the etymology cf. JB. ii. 77, idath aarvam ddaddnd 
yanii = QB. xi. 6. 8. 8 ; ii. 1. 2. 18 (of the sun), tasmdd ddityo ndma yad 
e^fh viryaih k^atram ddatta, 

TV. 8. 1. The AV. v. 28. 7 reads: trydyu^afh jamadagneh kagyapa- 
sya irydyu^am | tredhd ^mftasya cak§anaih triny ayuh^ te 'karam ; 
p&das a and 6, of the AV. verBion are also found VS. iii. 62. 

IV. 8. t. Cf. RV. i. 187. 1, upanafypUav dcara . . . | mayobhur . . . 

IV. 8. i. = TS. V. 5. 7. 5 ; also VS. xviii. 67, with these var. lect. : in 
a, p&neajanyd for purifydJjf.; in &, asydm pfthivydm abhi; in c, asi 
tvatn, — pur^ydlf,: see Eggeling's note to QB, vi. 3. 1. 88. — no: cf. 
above, 1. 5. 1. 

IV. 5. 1 ff. Cf. below, 10. 10 flf. 

IV. 5. i. virdtra, not so much **the end of the night*' (PW., pw.) as 
the second half, or after-part of the night : cf. vyadhva, — agnihotra- 
veldydm = after sunrise (AB. v. 31). 

IV. 6. 4. Tallies with the description given of a Vedic student return- 
ing after he has completed his studentship, gOS. iii. 1 ; POS. ii. 6 ; G08. 
iii. 4 ; dan<jiopdnahain occurs also QOS. iii. 1. 18. 

IV. 6. •. audg&td . . . : cf . TS. vii. 1, 8. 1, d '«ya catvdro vird jay ante 
suhotd audgdtd avadhvarytUjf, susabheyaf}., 

IV. 8. t. Cf. BAU. V. 15. 12. 

IV. 8. 7. For Pratidarga Aibhavata, see QB. xii. 8. 2. 3. 

IV. 9. t. v«pr follows the nd-class only here and below, 10. 1-8 : cf. 
e. g. stabhndtif atabhnoti ; sindiif CLsinot (JB. iii. 210 ter) ; skabhndti, 
skabhnuvant; lundti, lunoti; k^if^ti, k^ii^ti; atfifdti, atpff^ti, etc. 

IV. 10. t. aaptadhd: i. e. by means of the seven vibhdktis of the 
9dman enumerated in 1-7 ; cf. below, 18. 

IV. 10. 10. Cf. above, 5. 1. 

IV. 11. 10. Cf. iii. 32. 5. 

IV. 18. s. Chand. U. viii. 8. 5 ; KBU. i. 6 ; BAU. ii. 8. 1 similarly 
divide satyam into an immortal (sat) and mortal (ft) syllable. 

IV. 14. a. The paragraph is obscure. 

IV. 14. s. ubhaydpadi : scil. devatd, 

IV. 14. 4. It seems very probable that a negative should be supplied 
in the relative clause, in order to contrast this paragraph with the pre- 
ceding one. It would then correspond to KBU. i. 2, ye vdi ke cd 'smdl 
lokdt prayanti candramaaam eva te sarve gcuschanti . . . etad mi svar- 
gasya lokcLnya dvdraih yae candramafy, taih yafy pratydha tarn atisjjate. 
atha ya enath na pratydha tarn iha t^f^fir bhutvd var^atL sa iha . . . 
te^i-te^u sthdne^u pratydjdyante (B6htlingk, Ber, d, Sdchs, O. d. W, 
1889, p. 201 ff.). 

IV. 16 ff. Some of the names occurred above, iii. 40 ff. 

IV. 18-21. The Kena-Upani^ad. In Qafikara's recension it formed 
the ninth adhydya. One of Bomeirs MSS. of a fragment of JB. (i. 1- 
178) contains a commentary on this Upanifad, with the title Kfudravi- 
varana. 



244 H. Oentd, 

IV. 18. 1. Roer compares K&th. U. ii. 6. 8 ; Tftit. U. ii. 8. 1. 

IV. 18. 8. Roer compares K&th. U. ii. 6. 18; Tfiit. U. it 2. 4 (=1 

IV. 18. 4. Both the Bombay ed. and the ed. of Rder count para- 
graphs 8 and 4 as one. — The second half -stanza of 4 occurs also Iga U. 
10, 13 ; see also Weber, Ind, Stud. ii. 188. 

IV. 18. «. mano niatam: this was also the reading of the author of 
the K^dravivaraiia, 

IV. 18. 9. praniyate: for a similar pun between prdna and i/ni + 
pra see Prag. U. iv. 8, yad gdrhapatydt praniyate pranayanad dhava- 
niyah prdnafy ; also QB. vii. 5. 1. 21. 

IV. 19. 1. dahram : both edd. and the Kfudravitxirana read dabh- 
ram. The AV. recension reads daharam (Ind, Stud. ii. 182). — Both Q. 
and the Ki^. place a period after eva te and take manye viditam (so, with- 
out avagrahu^ all edd.) as a remark of the student, which is harsh and 
unnecessary ; by reading aviditam we obtain a fit transition to what 
follows. The AV. recension differs considerably here, and begins the 
second paragraph with viditam. 

IV. 19. 4. vidyayd . . . *mfiam: cf. Iga U. 11, vidyayd 'mffam agnute 
=Mait. U. viii. 9. 

IV. 19. 5. vivicya : Roer vicintya, Bombay ed. and the K^. vidtya ; 
but the latter explains dhirdi, by vivekiruify: cf. K&th. U. i. 2. 2, tdu 
samparttya vivinakti dhirah. 

IV. 20. 4. tad: both MSS. here tam; in 8, A. tod, B. tam; in 11, both 
m (!) ; the AV. recension has tam throughout.— m aham: the faulty 
reading of the MSS. vd *ham (here and once below, in 8) is found also 
in Chamb. 187 throughout (Tnd. Stud. ii. 182). 

IV. 20. «. ndi *nad agakam: the edd. here, and below in 10, 'tod for 
^nad. 

rV. 20. 9. ddadiya: the edd. and Q. ddadtyam. 

IV. 21. 1. The edd. insert «d before brahm^ Hi.-— For mahiyadhva the 
edd. have -dhvam. 

IV. 21. 9. paspfgvs: the edd. have the faulty form paspargus.—sa : 
our MSS. and the edd. te, but it is obvious that this reading is due to 
the ie of the following paragraph, and should be changed to sa, with 
Chamb. 187 {Ind, Stud. ii. 182). It is probable that the whole clause 
is a gloss. 

IV. 21. 4. vyadyutad dS iti nyami^d dS: Roer, vyadyutadd itl 'ti 
nyamimi^add ; the Bombay ed., vyadyutaddS iti 'ti nyamlmi^addS. 
The author of the K^. read nyamimi^ad. The d after the verbs is 
surprising ; both commentaries explain it as having the force of com- 
parison (K^. a ive 'ty upamdrtha dgabdah). After nyami^ad an iti 
seems to be wanting. 

IV. 21. 5. yad enad . . . cdi 'nod: the edd. twice etad. 

rV. 21. 7. Cf. 28. 6. 

IV. 21. 8. aarvdngdni: the edd. -ni: see note toi. 5. 1, 

IV. 21. 9. ^jyeye: the edd., Q., and theK?., jyeye (Q. =jydya8i; K9. 
= mahati aarvamahati ; both explanations are impossible). But there 



Javminlyor Upa/nisad-Brdhmarui. 245 

can be no doubt that the true reading is ^jyeye, as suggested by Mi\ller. 
Here ends the Kena-Upani^ad. 

rv. 22. 11. agnir vdi . . , vdg iti : the change from vdi to iti through- 
out this paragraph is noteworthy. In the similar passage i. 6. 2, iti vdi 
and iti are used for vdi. 

IV. 28. 1. arkyam : the same form is repeated below, 4. As the form 
occurs repeatedly in QB. along with arka (see PW.), I have not cor- 
rected it to arkam^ which would better fit the etymology here given. 

IV. 28. t. prdno vdvo 'd: cf. Chand. U. i. 8. 6 ; BAU. i. 8. 25.— iJdgr 
gt : cf . Chand. i. 8. 6 ; BAU. i. 8. 25 identifies vdc with glthd, 

rv. 28. a. Cf. ChSnd. U. i. 7. 1 ; BAU. i. 8. 22 diflfers. 

rv. 28. 4. BAU. i. 2. 1 derives arkya (so MSS.) from 4/fC * honor * and 
ha * joy.' 

IV. 28. •. Cf. above, 21. 7. The second half of this and the first half 
of the next paragraph are corrupt. The translation is purely tentative. 
^vi^ as independent word is unsupported, and calls for emendation. 

rv. 28. 7. The gyJelatn, Arp^am, and tdmram are the three dhdtus. 
The rest of the paragraph is obscure, and I have not succeeded in restor- 
ing a satisfactory text. In da(spsLce)gga of the MSS. perhaps dama^ 
gama are hidden. 

IV. 24. s = i. 48. 10. 

rv. 24. i«. Cf. note to i. 26. 1. — - In i. 25. 8, guklaifi rUpam is also 
assigned to the fc, but 9 connects kT^narh rUpam with the yajus, 

IV. 24. i«. Cf. note to i. 26. 4. 

rv. 25. t. Cf. above, iii. 88. 8. 

IV. 26. t flf. Similar are KBU. iii. 6 and BAU. iii. 2. — «. KBU. man- 
(ud sarvdni dhydndny dpnoti ; BAU. manaad hi kdmdn kdmayate, 

rv. 26. t. vdcd : i. e. jihvaydy as KBU. (jihvayd sarvdn annaraadn 
dpnoti) and BAU. (jihvayd hi rasdn vijdndti) read : cf. QB. viii. 5. 4. 1, 
sarve^dm aflgdndth vdcdi 'vd ^nna^a rasaih vijdndti; x. 5. 2. 15, na 
vdcd ^nnasya raaaih vijdndti. See further, TMB. xx. 14. 8 (PW.), and 
JB. i. 269, quoted in the note to i. 60. 

IV. 26. 7, f. There are no corresponding passages in KBU.; BAU. 
has tvcusd hi spargdn vedayate; for 9-11 there are no corresponding 
passages in BAU. 

rv. 26. 10. KBU. upasthend "natidaih ratim prc^dtim dpnoti. 

IV. 26. 11. KBU. pdddbhydrh sarvd ityd dpnoti. 

IV. 26. 15. atisdmaydi 'turetdya: the text seems to be corrupt. — 
dhartardft^a and prthuQrava^ are mentioned together at TMB. xxv. 15. 
8 ; A V. viii. 10. 29 reads dhftard^tra, and Kaug. 9. 10 and 17. 27 pdrtha- 
^ravcuta. 

IV. 28. The sdmtrl is here given (as directed e. g. by ApGS. iv. 11. 
10) pada by pada, hemistich by hemistich, and as a whole. 

IV. 28. •. apa . . . tarati: I have not corrected to ava . . . tarati 
on account of AV. vi. 6. 3 (RV. x. 188. 5 reads ava . . . tira in this 
verae). 



246 



H. Oertd, 



INDEX. 



I. Contains the aira^ eiprifikva and rarer words, together with such 
words and references as for one reason or another seemed note- 
worthy. An * indicates that the word, form, or meaning to which it 
is prefixed is wanting in the minor Pet. lex. A v. after a reference in- 
dicates that it is to a vanqa. 

II. Gives a list of the etymological explanations. 

III. Gives a collection of the more important grammatical points. 

IV. Gives a list of quotations. 



I. 



akdra, iv. 13. 2 ; 14. 2. 

akovida, iv. 1. 2, 8, 4, 5. 

ak^aya, i. 24. 2 (bis). 

ak^aram-akfaram, i. 17. 2. 
'ak^aravant, i. 48. 11. 

ak^iti, i. 9. 5 ; 10. 4 ; iii. 14. 9 ; 22. 
8 ; (*numeral) i. 28. 8 ; 29. 5. 

agada, iv. 2. 4, 7, 10. 

Agastya, iv. 15. 1 ; 16. 1 v. 
*agUa, i. 52. 9. Cf. gitdgita. 
•agrhatd, ii. 12. 7, 8, 9. 
*agnihotraveldy iv. 5. 8. 
*(ignyarci, iii. 29. 7. 

aghdyUf iv. 4. 2. 

^ac + 'abhi-pari, i. 85. 8. 

afijas (•* easy '), iii. 7. 4. 

anu {sdmnah), iii. 10. 8. 

atipum^af i. 27. 2. 

ativyddhin (quot.), i. 4. 2. 
*Ati8dina *Etureta (? a demon), iv. 

26. 15. 
*atyagra, iii. 5. 6. 
*atra8(id, iv, 24. 8. 

adhruva, i. 55. 8. 

adhvaryu, iii. 10. 7 ; 16. 2 ; 17. 4 ; 
19. 6. 

anantatdf i. 85. 8. 
*ananvdgama, ii. 8. 4. Cf. anvd- 
gama. 

ananvita i-afh sdma), iii. 35. 8. 
*anaparuddha, ii. 4. 8. 

anapahatapdpmarit iv. 18. 8, 4, 5, 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 



anavdnatn (adv.), i. 87. 7 (bis). 

anctsthika^ iii. 8. 4. 
'andmantrya, see ^nuintray + d. 

andmayatvay ii. 11. 10. 
*andlayana, i. 6. 4. 
^anifedha {-ath fid>'ma), i. 30. 2, 3. 
*anug%tay i. 55. 18 (bis). 

anucara, iii. 4. 11, 12. 

anupadf^ta (locat. •* secretly '), iii. 

7. 6. 
*antfpoumiffa, iii. 17. 1. 
^anumantra, iii. 17. 1: eeeekiuioma' 
bhdgdnumantra, 

anurupa, i. 27. 4 (bis); (noun) iii. 4, 

1, 2, 8. 
^AnuvakiT 'SdtyaHrta, i. 5. 4. 

anuvrata (fem.-fd), L 56. 6. 

anu^t^h, i. 18. 7. 

anu^thydt ii. 15. 6 ; iii. 88. 4. 

anukta, i. 51. 1 : 54. 2 ; 57. 3. 
*anutthatr, iii. 8. 7 (bis), 

anfva^ i. 15. 3. 

anta (-te, adv. locat.), ii. 10. 2. 

antardtman, iii. 82. 4, 5, 7, 8. 
'antarik^andman, i. 20. 2. 

antardhij iv. 4. 2. 
*antardhindman, iv. 4. 1. 
*antaryak§a, i. 20. 4 (bis). 

antideva, iii. 88. 8. 

andha^ iii. 9. 1. 
^annakd^nXi i. 11. 1. 

annamaya, i. 29. 5. 
*anna<^bha^ i. 10. 1. 



Jdvtmnlyor Upomisad- Brdhmana, 



247 



annada, i. 51. 6. 
^anyatodvdray i. 80. 2. 
'anvdgamay iii. 19. 2. Cf. ananvd- 

gama. 
anvdhdryapacana, iv. 26. 15. 
npakfa^ iii. 14. 9. 
apaciti, i. 39. 5 ; (plur. with \/kr) 

iv. 6. 3. 
apacitimant, i. 39. 5. 
apanna, iii. 20. 2. 
aparardtra, iv. 5. 3. 
aparddhUf i. 16. 5. 
apardhnay iv. 5. 1 ; 10. 15. 
aparimita, i. 46. 2 ; 47. 5. 
aparodha ('independent word), ii. 

4.8. 
aparydpta, iv. 22. 12. 
apagya, iii. 38. 1. 
apahatapdpman, iii. 27. 2 ; 39. 2 ; 

iv. 13. 3-10. 
apitva, ii. 7. 1. 
apUita, i. 8. 10. 
aputa, i. 50. 3 ; 53. 7. 
aprativdcya, i. 9. 5. 
aprati^tha, iii. 15. 4. 
*aprapa4!ya, iii. 38. 2. 
Abhayijda 'Aaamdtyay iv. 8. 7. 
Ahhipratdrin, iii. 1. 21 ; 2. 2, 3, 18. 
Abhipratdrin Kdk^aseni, i. 59. 1 : 

iii. 1. 21. 
^dbhraAiga, i. 30. 2. 
abhrdtfvya {-arh mma)^ i. 30. 5: 

45. 6 ; iii. 37. 8. 
ama, i. 53. 4, 6 (bis) ; 54. ^(bis) ; 56. 

2 (bis) ; 57. 4 (bis) ; iv. 23. 3. 
'amaldkdiyJMy i. 38. 6. 
amdnu^j iii. 9. 4. 
amdvdsya (-d rdtri), i. 33. 6 (bis). 
amukha, iii. 38. 1, 2 ; iv. 11. 6. 
ayana, i. 34. 2. 
'ayamdsya, ii. 8. 7 (bis). 
ayasmayttf iv. 1. 3. 
Aydaya, ii. 8. 7, 8 ; 11. 8 (ter). 
Aydsya AUgiraaay ii. 7. 2, 6 ; 8. 3. 
*ayutadhd i. 10. 4 ; 28. 3 : 29. 5. 
*ayutadhdraf i. 10. 1. 
arukfa, iii. 32. 6 (bis). 
arkya, iv. 23. 3. 
'ardhcuievatd, iii. 1. 1. 



ardhabhdjy iii. 17. 5. 
ardhodita, i. 12. 4. 
*arbudadkd, i. 10. 4 ; 28. 3 ; 29. 5. 
aldbhamdna, iii. 14. 1 (bis). 
atom, iii. 31. 9, 10 (quater). 
*alokatdy ii. 12. 7, 8, 9. 
avakdga (-aiii kf with dat.), i. 7. 2. 
avikfta, i. 58. 7. 
^avok^m^iiya, iii. 10. 9. 
'avydaikta, i. 37. 6. 
a^n, iv. 5. 2. 

^aganaydy i. 8. 8, 4, 5 ; iii. 12. 2. 
agithilay iv. 22. 13. 
a^mamaya, iv. 1. 2. 
*aQrumukha, iii. 8. 1. 
A^d^ha Uttara Pdrdqaryay iii. 41. 

Iv. 
o^tdcatvdrinQadak^ara, iv. 2. 8. 
a^tdgapha, 1. 1. 8 ; 6. 6 ; 9. 4 ; 38. 11; 

84.2. 
1 4/a« + anu, iv. 13. 1. 
asambhdvyam (adv.), ii. 8. 4. 
asidhdrd, iii. 13. 9. 
asumaya, i. 29. 3. 
vastly f iii. 31. 9. 
asvara (•* without melody,* sdnuni) 

i. 18. 8. 
ahordtra (dual), i. 25. 5 ; (neut. 
plur.) i. 46. 5; Cfem. plur.), i. 21. 4. 
d (one of the five vydhttt8), ii. 9. 3, 
5 ; (exclamation, *after the verb) 
iv. 21. 4 (bis). 
dkramana, i. 8. 2. 
dkrdntiy i. 26. 6. 

dkhana, i. 7. 6 ; 60. 8 ; ii. 8. 12, 18. 
dgd, i. 20. 6, 7 ; 37. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 ; 
52. 9, 10 (bis). 
I 'dglta, i. 20. 6, 8 (bis) ; 55. 13 (bis). 
' dgnidhray iii. 17. 2. 

AUgirasa, ii. 11. 9(ter): see Ayd- 
\ sya A, 

, dcaturaniy iii. 34. 1. 
*dcdryadatta, i. 54. 1. 
* deary okta, i. 22. 8. 
'Ajakegin (plur.), i. 9. 3. 
*Ajadvi§a, see Bamba A, 
djya, iii. 6. 4. 
Afndray see Para A. 
dtmavanty i. 48. 11. 



248 



H, Oertd^ 



Atreya^ see Dak^a Kdtydyani A,, 

QaUga Qdtydyani A. 
Mi, i. 11. 7 ; 12. 4 ; 19. 2 ; 31. 2, 5 ; 

58. 9 ; 59. 6 : {ddirh dd + d), ii. 2. 

9 ; iv. 10. 3, 13. 
'ddityaragmi, ii. 6. 10. 
ddhipatyaf iii. 6. 6, 8. 
\^dp + *upa-8amf ii. 3. 4-10. 
dpina^ i. 8. 12, 18 (bis). 
dbhutiy i. 46. 2, 5 ; ii. 4. 4 (bis) ; iii. 

20. 3, 11 ; 21. 5 : 27. 8, 12. 
dyatana, i. 58. 3 (bis) ; ii. 12. 8. 
Aruniy i. 42. 1. 
Aruneyaj ii. 5. 1. 
*Ark^dkdya'Qay see Ckdunasa A, 
dr^eya, i. 59. 10. 
'dlamydUdjodgdtf (?), iii. 81. 10. 
dlopa, see madhvdlopa, 
*Allakeya, see Hftsvd^ya A. 
dvarta, iii. 38. 7 (bis). 
dvigo^ana, iv. 1. 7. 
dvrt, iii. 11. 5, 6, 7 ; 12. 1. 
^avfttQaydna, iii. 81. 3. 
d^ravaniya (-d fc), iii. 38. 6. 
'dgrdvitapratydgrdvita (dual), iv. 6. 

5 ; 7. 8 (bis). 
\/d8 + adhij i. 27. 1. 
dsuThgavam (adv.), i. 12. 4. 
Asamdtya, see Abhayada A. 
dmira, i. 16. 2. 
dhavanlya^ iv. 26. 15. 
dkdvay i. 54. 8. 

yi + obhi-pra (of the sun), iv. 5. 1. 
VI + j^art, iii. 20.4, 12; 21. 6. ' 

\ i + pall J iii. 29. 8 ; 31. 3. 
\i + *8am'Ud-d, i. 36. 2. 
itihdsa, see ptirdnetihdsa. 
\^idh + 'ltd (conject.), ii. 13. 4. 
indriyavant, i. 43. 11. 
hidra^e^fhay i. 10. 1. 
Indrota Ddimpa Qdunaka, iii. 40. i 

1 V. 

Ista QydvdQvi, iv. 16. 1 t\ 

\nnkh + 'vi, i. 37. 4. 

iiktha, i. 40. 2 (bis) : 45. 1 (quot.); 

iii. 3. 2 : 6 {ixii^vdmitra u.), 9 flf.; 

4. 1. 
iigra {-aiii sdmnah), i. 51. 8 ; (-o 

devcUl), iv. 5. 1 ; 10. 10. 



Uccdig^avaa Kdupayeya, iii. 29. 1, 

2,8. 
ucchrdya^ i. 5. 7. 
ut (one of the five vydhfiis), iL 

9. 8, 8. 
utkrdnti, i. 26. 5. 

Uttaraj see ^^d^^a U. Pdrdgarya, 
udfc, iv. 14. 7 ; 15. 4, 5. 
tidgdif, i. 22. 2, 5. 8 ; 45. 5 ; 54. 4, 

5 ; 58. 4, 5 : ii. 1. 1 flf. ; 10. 2 flf. 

iii. 7. 7 ; 8. 8 ; 9. 8, 9 ; 10. 1, 2 

12. 8; 18.8,10,18: 14.9; 17.4 

19. 6 ; 84. 4 ; iv. 9. 8, 9 ; 10. 9, 18. 
udgita, i. 55. 18 (bis). 
udgltha, i. 11. 8 ; 12. 4, 7 ; 18. 1, 3, 

5 ; 19. 2 ; 21. 7 ; 81. 2, 6 ; 38. 8, 

5, 9, 10 ; 84. 1 ; 35. 4 ; 86. 1. 8, 5, 

6, 8, 9 ; 54. 8 : 58. 9 ; 59. 7 ; ii. 4. 
1. 8 ; 5. 12 ; 6. 1, 3 flf. ; 7. 1 ; 9. 
10; iv. 8. 5; 9. 1. 

upagdtf, i. 22. 5, 6 ; 45. 5 ; ii. 8. 2. 
upatapant (noun), iv. 2. 11. 
upadrava, i. 12. 1, 4 ; 19. 2 ; 81. 2, 

8 ; 58. 9 ; 59. 9. 
upadra^tr^ i. 54. 8. 
upani^ad, iv. 15. 8 ; 21. 7 ; 28. 6. 
upabdimantn i. 87. 3. 
upardm (adv.), i. 58. 3. 
upary-upariy iii. 6. 5 ; 38. 5, 6. 
upavasathiya, i. 54. 8 (bis), 5 (bis). 
upavd, iii. 20. 1. 
upd8tamayam (adv.), i. 12. 4. 
'ubhaydcakra, iii. 16. 7. 
"nbhaydpad, iii. 16. 7 ; iv. 14. 3. 
Umd Hdimavatlj iv. 20. 11. 
'Ulnkya (?) JdnoQruteya, i. 6. 3. 
Uganas Kdvya, ii. 7. 2, 6. 
'urdhvagaiia, i. 57. 2. 
urnih i. 56. 1 (bis). 
\/uh + •sam-wd, iii. 19. 7. 
Vf (cans.), iii. 13. 5, 6. 
fktaa, iii. 17. 1. 
*fkpada, i. 15. 5, 6. 
fksdma^ i. 54. 8, 5 : 56. 1. 
rksdmarif ii 2. 9 (bis), 10. 
xgvtda, i. 1. 8 ; iii. 7. 8. 
RgynQjiiga Kd^apa, iii. 40. 1 r. 
f^alpa, i. 4. 2. 
ekacakra, iii. 16. 5. 



Jdimmlyor Upani8a4j^Brdh7ncma. 



249 



ekapad, iiL 16. 5. 

ekapuira^ ii. 5. 2. 

ekaraj^ iv. 8. 4, 15. 

ekaviw^a {-aih sdma), i. 19. 1, 8 
(bis). 

ekavira^ ii. 5. 1. 

ekavrdtya, iii. 21. 3. 

ekasthd. i. 87. 6. 

^ekoMtomahhdgdnumantray iii. 18. 
6,7. 

i/^\ iii. 17. 6, 9. 

^etdvaddvdsa, ii. 12. 6. 

'Etureta (?), see ^Itisdma £^. 

Aikfvdka, see Bhageratlui A, 

Aik^dka Vdrttr^, 1. 5. 4. 

Aitareytty see Mahiddaa. 

Aindroti, see i)r^t -^. ^dttnafca. 

dUaba, i. 51. 1. 

(wh tti, iv. 8. 6 (ter). 

oih vdSc oih vdSc orh vdSc hum bhd 
aih vac, iv. 8. 9. 

okdra, iv. 18. 2 ; 14. 2 (bis). 

onif i. 1. 6, 7 ; 2. 1 (quater), 2 (qiia- 
ter) ; 8. 5 ; 9. 2 (quater), 8 (bis) ; 
10. 2, 7, 11 ; 18. 10, 11 ; 23. 7 ; 
24. 4 (bis) ; 80. 1 ; iii. 6. 2 ; 10. 10, 
11 ; 18. 8, 10, 12, 18 ; 14. 9 : 18. 5, 
7 ; 19. 1, 6, 7. Rule as to its pro- 
nunciation, i. 24. 8. — (*yes') iii. 
8. 5; 29. 6; 80. 2; 81. 6. 

ova ovdy i. 9. 1 ; 17. 1. 

ovd avd ova hum bhd ovd, i. 8. 1. 

ovd^c ovdSc ovdSc hum bhd ovd, i. 
2. 3 ; iu. 39. 1. 

ovdSc ovdSc ovdSc hum bhd vo vd, 
iv. 14. 2. 

kahsa (neuter !), i. 25. 5. 

Kaiisa *Vdraki, iii. 41. 1 r. 

Katisa *Vdrakya, iii. 41. 1 v, ; iv. 
17. 1 v. 

Kak^vant, ii. 5. 11. 

kathdy iv. 6. 2. 

^im (particle), i. 45. 2. 

kanmivant (•* active'), i. 43. 11. 

kald^xia, iii. 88. 8 ; 39. 1. 

kalydna (comparat.), iii. 34. 6 
(quater). 

Ka^yapa, iv. 3. 1. 

Kdkfoseni, see Abhipratdrin K, 
VOL. XVI.' 83 



Kdnifviya, iii. 10. 2 (bis). 

see Jana^^ruta K,, Na{farin 
Jdnagruteya K,, Sdyaka 
Jdnagruteya K. 
Kdtydyaniy see Dak^a K, Aireya, 
Kdpeya, iii. 2. 2, 12. 

see Qdunaka K, 
kdma (adv. accus.), i. 54. 1, 5. 
kdmacdra (noun), iii. 28. 8. 
'kdmaduglidk^ti, i. 10. 1. 
kdmapra^ iv. 6. 1, 2. 
'kdmdgdyin, ii. 5. 12. 
'Kdrirddi (plur.) ii. 4. 4. 
kdr^ndycuta, iii. 17. 8 (bis). 
Kdvya, see XJqanas K, 
Kd^apa, iii. 40. 2 v, 

seeRgya^lga K., Devataras 
Qydvasdyana, K,^ i^^rma 
Vdhneya K, 
kirlikdma, i. 11. 2. 
kiihdevatya, i. 59. 12. 
kukitiy i. 66. 1. 

Kiibera *Vdrakya, iii. 41. 1 v, 
kvbhra, i. 4. 5 ; iii. 39. 5. 
kumbyd, i. 50. 5 (ter) ; 58. 9. 
Kuru (sing.), i. 59. 1 ; (plur.) i. 38. 

1 : see kdurava, 
Kurupaflcdla (plur.), iii. 7. 6 ; 8. 7 ; 

30. 6, 9 ; iv. 6. 2 ; 7. 2. 
kugala (with dat.), iii. 8. 3. 
i/Ar + vi, u. 2. 9. 
Kr^iiadatta Lduhitya, iii. 42. 1 v, 
'Krmadhrti Sdtyaki, iii. 42. 1 v. 
^Kf^iardta Lduhitya, iii. 42. 1 v, 

see Tri'veda K. Lduhitya, 
Ar^wcytViaCposs. cpd.), iii. 8. 7. 
kegagma^TU Cplur.), iii. 9. 4; iv. 6. 4. 
Kegin Ddrbhya, iii. 29. 1, 2. 
Kdupayeya^ see Uccdiggravaa. 
kdurava, iii. 29. 1. 
kratu, iii. 39. 3-10. 
i^krand + abhi, ii. 2. 9. 
'Krdtujdteya, see Rdm<i K, Vdiyd- 

ghrapadya. 
krUd, iii. 25. 8. 
krdufica, i. 87. 6 ; 51. 12. 
^k^ar + ^abhi'Vi, i. 10. 1. 
Kfdimi, see Sudak^ua K, 
k»udra, iii. 28. 4. 



250 



H. OerteU 



k^uradhdrdy iii. 13. 9. 
khala (-d devatd)^ i. 5. 1, 4. 
'Oalunasa 'Ark^dkdyaria, i. 38. 4. 
Oandharvdpsaras (plur.), i. 41. 1; 

55. 10, 11; iii. 5. 1. 
\^gam + ami (of the fire), iii. 1. 7. 
\/gam + ad/tt (pass.), i. 39. 4 : 47. 4. 
X^garh (with genit.), i. 16. 11. 
i/grd (caus. ** play '), 1. 58. 2. 
i/gd + ltd, i. 2. 2 ; 10. 7 ; 14. 4 ; 18. 

11; 24.4; 27. 7; 30.6; 32.6; 38. 

1,3; 45.7; 54.4,5,13; 57.9; 58. 

1; 60. 1 ff.; ii. 7. 2, 4flf.; 8. 3, 9 ; 

iii. 17. 4; 30. 2-5; 31. 1, 6flf. ; iv. 

8. 7, 9 ; 9. 5. 
^gd + upa (* address * ?), iii. 2. 2. 
gdthd, 1. 50. 4 (ter) ; 53. 9 ; 57. 1. 
gddha^ iii. 9. 9. 
gdyatrUf i. 1. 8 ; 2. 3 ; 8. 7 ; 87. 7 ; iii. 

11.5; 38.4, 7,9; iv. 8. 5; 13,8, 

10 ; 14. 2 ; 15. 8 ; 16. 1. 
gdyatrt, i. 1. 8 ; 17. 2 ; 18. 4 ; 55. 2; 

57. 1 ; iv. 2. 2 ; 6. 8 ; 7. 6 ; 8. 

1, 2. 
^gdyatrimukha, iv. 8. 2. 

gdrhapatya, iv. 26. 15. 
*gitdgita (plur.), i. 52. 9. 

Oupta, see Vdipagcita DdrdJiaja- 
yanti O, Lduhitya. 

i^grh + udf i. 5. 6. 

\/grh + prati, iv. 6. 9 ; 7. 7 ; 8. 1,2. 

Vgrh + tn, iii. 19. 1. 

gotroy iii. 14. 1. 

goptf, iii. 29. 6. 

Gdbala Vdr^na, i. 6. 1. 
*gobhaga, i. 10. 1. 
*Oogru (a J&bala), iii. 7. 7. 

Odutama {p&tron. of Aruni), i.42.1. 

OCnmikti, iv. 16. 1 v, 

\/gld (with dat.), iii. 10. 3. 

cakmrniaya, i. 28. 7. 
'caksug^otra (poss. cpd.), i. 10. 1. 

caturangukLj iii. 33. 6. 
^caturvingatyak^ara, iii. 38. 9 ; iv. 

2. 2. 
*caturvingatyardhamdsa, iii. 38. 9. 
'catu^utra, ii. 5. 5. 
'catugcati^dringadak^ara, iv. 2. 5. 

\/car (with pple.), iii. 7. 5. 



i^car + anU'Sam, iii. 28. 2. 
\/car + ahhiravat iv. 1. 2 ff . 
\fcal + anu-vi, iii. 21. 4. 
\fcal + m, iii. 21. 4. 
cdtvdla, i. 5. 5. 
|/cdy (conject.), iii. 31. 3. 
citi, iii. 10. 8, 9. 

Cdikitdneya, i. 37. 7 ; ii. 5. 2 : 
(plur.) i. 41. 1. 

see Brahnuidatta C, Vdsi- 

Cditrarathi, see Satyddlnvdka C. 
jagatly i. 18. 6 ; 55. 2 ; 57. 1 : iv. 

2. 8. 
jan + ahhi (with accus.), iii. 11. 

2-7. 
Janagruta Kdn^mycL, iii. 40. 2 v. 
Janagruta *Vdrakya, iii. 41. Iv: 

iv. 17. 1 r. 
japya, iii. 7. 3. 

Jamadagniy iii. 3. 11 ; iv. 3. 1. 
Jayaka Lduhitya ^ iii. 42. 1 r. 
Jayanta, see Fo^Jcwrin t/. Lduhi- 
tya, 
Jayanta Pdrdgarya, iii. 41. 1 r. 
Jayanta *Vdrakya, iii. 41. It? 

(two persons of this name) ; iv. 

17. 1 %\ 
Jdnagruta, see Nagarin J. Kdn- 

(fviya. 
Jdnagruteya, see Ulukya «/., Sa- 

yaka J. Kdytf^Hya, 
Jdbdla^ iii. 9. 9 ; (dual) iii. 7. 2. 3, 

5, 7, 8 (bis). 

see OogrUf {hikra, 
jivana, i. 53. 8 ff. 
VJr + nis (•prim, conj.), iii. 33. 3. 
Jdivaiif i. 38. 4. 
^jye^ihabrdhmana, iv. 23. 1. 5. 
jyotismant, i. 48. 11. 
*Jvdldyanay iv. 16. 1 v, 
tathd (exclam.), iii. 6. 2, 4. 
taddevatya, i. 59. 12. 
tadvana^ iv. 21. 6. 
\^tan + anU'Sam, iv. 2. 4, 7, 10. 
\^tap + d (adv. locat. of pple.), iii. 

82. 7. 
\ftap + upa, iv. 2. 4, 7, 10, 11 (bis). 
*tapastanu, i. 10. 1. 



Jdiminlya- Upan^ad-Brdhmana, 



251 



tamra, iv. 1. 7 ; 28. 7 ; 24. 12. 
tjfiyasavana, i. 10. 5 ; 87. 4 (ter); 

iv. 2. 8 (bis), 10. 
itfp + ^anu-saniy i. 14. 4. 
tejasvin, i. 43. 11. 
trapu, iii. 17. 8 (biH). 
traya veda, i. 1. 1, 2 ; 8. 1, 3, 4, 10. 
trtiyi vidya, i. 18. 10 ; 19. 2 ; 23. 6 ; 

45. 3 ; 58. 2. 
'trayoda^'amdifa (i>os«. cpd.), \ 10. 6. 
Trafiadasyu, ii. 5. 11. 
tridhatu, iv. 23. 6, 7. 
'triputra, ii. 5. 4. 
trivistapa (neuter), iii. 19. 7. 
*Triveda 'Kf^nnrdta Ldiihitya, iii. 

42. 1 V. 
trij(tiU)h, i. 18. 5; 55. 2; 57. 1; iv. 2.5. 
tryayusa (quot.), iv. 8. 1 (bis). 
tryfwft, iii. 11. 5. 
Dak^a Kdtydyani Atreya, iii. 41. 

1 V ; iv. 17. I V. 
^DakMijayanta Lduhitya, iii. 42. 1 v. 
\dagh + prd (•future ind.), iii. 15. 4. 
^diuulopdmihay iv. 6. 4. 
\ladCi (exclam.), iii. 0. 2. 
dfidd lathd hantd him bhd ovd^ iii. 

6.4. 
dnt%'<ita, iv. 1. 1. 
'da^aputra, ii. 5. 9. 
da^'avdjin, i. 4. 8. 
^Ddrdhajaynnti, see Vdipai^cita D. 

Gupta Lduhitya, Vdipai^cita D. 

DrdJiajayanta Lduhitya. 
Ddriihya, see Kegin D. 
Ddlbhya (patron, of Brahmadatta 

Caikitaneya), i. 88. 1; 56. 3. 
Ddlbhya, see Baka D. 
'dirastambhana , i. 10. 9, 10. 
\dih + *vi, iii. 14. 11 (bis). 
'dlptdgra, ii. 4. 1, 3 (bis). 
'dnranijutamprdya, iii. 38. 2. 
'duranucdna, iii. 7. 5. 
durdhd, ii. 14. 6. 
'dUrup^t, iii. 38. 2. 
^dUredevatd, i. 14. 1. 
rfrfha, iv. 22. 13. 

'I>jr^ajayanta,9eeVipagcit D, Ldu- 
hitya, Vdipagcita Ddr^haja- 

yanta D. Lduhitya. 



Dfti Aindroti (Jdunaka, iii. 40. 

2t\ 
4/drp, iii. 29. 4 (bis). 
ffir^, i. 55. 4 ff . 
*Devataras "(^'ydvasdyana Kd^apa, 

iii. 40. 2 V. 
devagrut {sdman), i. 14. 2. 
devdgva, iv. 8. 8, 

Ddivdpny see Lidrota D. {'dunako. 
dydvtdprthivl, i. 50. 1. 
Vc/nt + *anu'sam, i. 25. 4. 
ydrw + upa {* sing the upadrava '), 

ii. 2. 9 ; iv. 10. 6, 15. 
i'dmi + in, i. 54. 8. 
dvddagdha, iii. 31. 1, 6. 
*dviputra, ii. 5. 8. 
Vrf/id + apa-niy i. 8. 6. 
ydM + abhi, iii. 31. 7. 
\dhd'¥ prati'sam (active), iii. 4. 6 ; 

23. 4 (bis), 8 ; 24. 4 (bis). 
\'dhd + m-a (pple.), iii. 28. 5. 
i^Sdhd (pple. dhlta), i. 38. 6. 
dhdyydy iii. 4. 1-3. 
d/il, i. 53. 8 (bis), 10 (bis) ; (plural) 

i. 67. 1 (bis). 
dhUtagarlra, iii. 30. 3, 4 ; 39. 2. 
Dhrtard^ira (a demon), iv. 26. 15. 
Nagarin Jdnagruteya Kdn4viya, 

iii. 40. 1 V. 
\nam + mm, ii. 12. 9. 

*navanitapiJujto, iii. 5. 3. 
*navaputra, ii. 5. 9. 
Ndka, iii. 13. 5. 
'ndmarUpa, iv. 22. 8. 
ndrdgaiisl, i. 50. 6 (ter) ; 53. 9 ; 

67. 1. 
'nikharvadhd, i. 10. 4 : 28. 3 ; 29. 5. 
\nij + atYf Cintens.), ii. 14. 4. 
nitardm, i. 38. 2 (bis). 
nidhana, i. 12. 2, 4. 7 ; 13. 1, 3, 5 ; 

19. 2 ; 21. 7 ; 81. 2, 9 ; 35. 6 ; 86. 

K 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9: 54. 8; 57. 5; 

58. 9 ; 59. 10 ; iii. 34. 3 ; {nidha- 

nam i + upa), ii. 2. 9 ; iii. 34. 

8 : iv. 9. 7 ; 10. 7, 15. 
*nidhanakxta, i. 35. 6. 
'nidhanasaihstha, i. 12. 2. 
*niyutadhd, i. [10. 4 ;] 28. 3 ; 29, 5. 
nivid, iii. 4. 1, 2 (ter), 8, 



252 



H. Oertel^ 



nigd, iv. 5. 2. 

ni^ka, i. 35. 7, 8. 

yni + dbhi-ati, i. 18. 7, 9; 18. 

8,5. 
ynt + viy iii. 29. 2, 6. 
1 \/ned + *pra, i. 1. 8-6 ; 28. 8-8. 
nyanga, i. 4. ^5 ; 45. 5 ; ii. 12. 1, 

2 ; iii. 87. 7 (bis). 
^nyarbudadhcLy i. 10. 4 ; 28. 8 ; 29. 5. 
*nv&va, i. 12. 8 ; 18. 2. 4 ; ii. 10. 9, 

13, 15, 18, etc. 
nvai, i. 4. 7 ; iii. 81. 10. 
*parlcaputra, ii. 6. 6. 

VpdndVi iii* 18. 8. 

pandyya, i. 88. 5. 

\/pat + 'upa-apa, i. 11. 7. 

Patailga Prajdpatya, iii. 80. 8. 

i^pad + «am (causat.), i. 51. 4 ; 

56. 10. 
padtna (numeral), i. 10. 4 ; 28. 8 ; 

29.5. 
parUy i. 9. 8. 
Para Atnara^ ii. 6. 11. 
paramapuru^a, i. 27. 2. 



*punas8ambhutif iii. 27. 18, 17. 
*purd7}et%hd8ay 1. 58. 9. 
purifya (quot.), iv. 8. 8. 
purodhd, iii. 6. 6, 7, 8. 
purovdtay i. 12. 9 ; 86. 1. 
Pulu^ PrdfAnayogya, iii. 40. 2 v. 
pu^pa (quot.), iv. 8. 1. 
\^pu + anti, i. 50. 8 ; 54. 2 ; 57. 2. 
puti, ii. 15. 2. 
\fppich + a<t, i. 69. 18. 
'pjihaksalilaj i. 10. 1. 
'piihiviprati^thaf i. 10. 9, 10. 
'pfihivyupara, i. 10. 1. 
Pfthu Vdinya, i. 10. 9 ; 84. 6 ; 

45. 1. 
Pdidti^, see Satyayajfia P. Prdct- 

nayogya, 
"Pdulu^ttty see Satyayajna P, 
pra (one of the five vydhttis), ii. 

9. 8, 4. 
*pragd, i. 20. 6 ; 21. 8. 
pragdtha, iii. 4. 1-8. 
prajdtikdma, iii. 18. 6. 
"prajdpatimdtraj i. 8. 12. 



Parame^ihin Prajdpatya^ iii. 40. prajdvant, i. 52. 2. 



2r. 
parafy'parovariyant, i. 10. 5 (bis). 
'pardkrdnti, i. 26. 5. 
pardn (* useless'), i. 2. 4, 5. 
paridhdniya, iii. 4. 1-8 ; 16. 6. 
parisady ii. 11. 13, 14. 
pari^fvangay iii. 29. 7 ; 80, 1. 
parvariy iii. 23. 4, 8 ; 24. 4. 
paldva ('sing.), 1. 54. I. 
'PaUigupta Lduhityay iii. 42. 1 v, 
i^pitg + anUy i. 8. 7 (bis). 
pagyatay i. 56. 6. 
i^prath (causat.), i. 87. 4. 
pdUcdlay iii. 29. 1. 
Pdrdgarya, seeAsddha Uttara P., 

Jayanta P., Vipai^cit (^'akuni- 

mitra P., Sudatta P. 
*Pdrthugrava8a {a,demon)yi\, 26. 15. | prabhutiy ii. 4. 6 (bis). 
*Pdri}na (^dilanay ii. 4. 8. ! pramoday iii. 25. 4. 



'prajiidvanty i. 48. 11. 
pratigrahtty i. 58. 6. 
pratipaty iii. 14. 2 (?) ; iv. 14. 5. 
pratibodhaviditay iv. 19. 4. 
pratirupay i. 27. 5 (bis) ; 47. 1. 
prati^tMy i. 20. 6 ; 21. 2. 
prati§thdvanty i. 48. 11. 
pratthdray i. 8. 7 ; 11. 9 ; 12. 4, 7 ; 

18. 1,8,5; 19.2; 21. 7; 31.2,7; 

35. 5 ; 86. 1, 8, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ; 37. 7 ; 

54. 8 : 58. 9 ; 59. 8. 
Pratidargay iv. 8. 7. 
praitiy i. 58. 6 ; iii. 6. 1, 2 (bis), 5. 
pratyaksam (adv.), i. 33. 5 ; ii. 2. 

7,8. 
^prathamanirbhinnuy iii. 14. 8. 
*prapatifnUy i. 48. 5 (bis). 



pitUy iv. 3. 2. 
pUfTdjay iv. 5. 2. 
'punyakft, i. 5. 1. 
punyakftydy 1. 80. 4. 
punarmi^tyUy iii. 85. 7, 8 (bin). 



'prayntadhdy i. 10. 4 ; 28. 3 ; 29. 5. 
pravdha C* carrying forth '), iii. 

28. 3. 
*prasdmay i. 15. 4. 
praadmi (adv.), i. 15. 4. 



Jdiniiniyor Vprniisad- Brdhrnana, 



253 



prastavii, i. 11. 6 ; 12. 4, 7 ; 13. 1, 3, 
5; 17.3; 19.2; 21. 7; 31. 2, 4 ; 33. 
3, 5, 9, 10 ; 84. 1 ; 36. 3 ; 36. 1, 3, 5, 
6, 7, 8, 9 ; 54. 8 ; 58. 9 ; 59. 5 ; iii. 
38.9. 
prastotr, iii. 18. 3, 6. 
Prdcinayogaf i. 39. 1. 

see Pulu^a P., Satyayajha 
Paulu^ P., Somagu^ma Sdtya- 
yajiii P. 
Prdcinaqdla (plur.), iii. 10. 1. 
'Pracmaqdli, iii. 7. 2, 3, 6, 7 ; 10. 2. 
Prdjdpatya, see Paraniesthin P. 
prdflc (•* successive * ?), i. 21. 4. 
prdnamaya, i. 29. 1. 
'prdiiasarhhitaf i. 10. 1. 
prdndp&na (dual), ii. 5. 3 ; 6. 2 ; 

iii. 21. 7, 10. 
prdtaranuvdka, iii. 16. 5, 6. 
prdtassavana, i. 16. 5, 12 ; 37. 1 

(ter) ; iv. 2. 2 (bis), 4. 
Prdtrda BhdUa, iii. 31. 4. 
prddegamdtray iii. 33. 5. 
Prdsravana, see Plak§a P. 
'Proifthapdda "VdYakya, uL 41. 1 t\ 
v'pyd + d (causat.), i. 8. 12. 
Plakna Prdsravana, iv. 26. 12. 
l7)/u + d, ii. 2. 9. 
V'piit + *nif i. 56. 7-9. 
\plu + *pard, i. 56. 4, 
lj:>/« + pra, iv. 11. 10. 
\plu + 9am (causat.), i. 36. 1. 
Baka DdJbhya, i. 9. 3 ; iv. 7. 2. 
bandhutdy i. 59. 19. 
Bamba ^Ajadvitta, ii. 7. 2. 6. 
*balivdhanay iv. 24. 9 (bis). 
balivarda, i. 4. 3. 
bahispavamdnay i. 5. 6 ; iii. 5. 5. 
bahupittra, ii. 5. 11 ; 9. 10. 
6a/it£to, iii. 20. 2. 
bdhvrca, iii. 4. 2. 
Bdhhravya, see (^'ankha B, 
bimba, iii. 5. 6. 
&i7a, iii. 21. 3. 
bfhant (fern, -huti), ii. 2. o. 
bradfina, iii. 13. 7. 
broAmo^txi, iii. 15. 2. 
Brahmadatta Cdikitdneya, i. 38. 
1 ; 09. 1. 



brahman, i. 1. 8 ; 25. 10 ; 26. 8 ; 88. 

2 ; 40. 3 ; ii. 13. 1, 2 : iii. 4. 5. 9 ; 

15.2,3; 18. 5,6; 17. 1 flf. ; 28. 1, 

2 ; 33. 4, 7 ; 38. 1, 2 ; iv. 14. 1 ; 

18. 5ff. ; 19. 1; 20. 1, 2 ; 21. 1 

ff. ; 24. 11 ; 25. 1 ff. 
brahmayagaSf iv. 24. 11. 
brahmavarcasakdma, i. 37. 6. 
*brahmdsandiy iv. 24. 10 (ter). 
brdJimanaktUa, iii. 28. 4. 
'brdhmanabhaktay i, 10. 1. 
brdhmani, iii. 4. 5, 9 ; 21. 7 (6. 

upani^ad), 
bha (exclam.) i. 4. 2 ff. 
bhakdrOy iv. 14. 2. 
Bhageratka Aik^vdka^ iv. 6. 1, 2. 
bhadrttf i. 46. 2, 3. 
bhandunuint {-mat adma), iii. 6. 6. 
bhara (epith. of the moon), iii. 27. 

11. 
^bharaiujtakeifna (?), i. 54. 2. 
bhdSbhdS, iii. 39. 1. 
bhd, iii. 10. 10 (or bhda ?). 
Bhdlla, see Prdtrda B. 
Bhdllabin (plur.), ii. 4. 7. 
*blmvanty i. 43. 11. 
bhlmay i. 57. 1. 
bhlmala^ i. 57. 1 (bis). 
'bhuvanddif iii. 17. 6, 7. 
bhuvasy i. 1. 4 ; 28. 6 ; iv. 28. 2. 
I j^bhH + anu^ i. 54. 7 ; iv. 12. 6. 
j \^bhu + aniMn, iv. 12. 10 : 14. 4. 
\'bhu + adhi, i. 55. 1 (bis). 
*bhutahany ii. 3. 4, 11. 
i bhuti, ii. 4. 7 (bis) ; iii. 20. 3, 11 ; 21. 

5 : 27. 3, 12. 
bhuman^ i. 46. 1. 
bhur bhutxut, iv. 28. 4. 
bhur bhuvas svar, ii. 9. 3, 7 : iii. 17. 

2 ; 18. 4 ; iv. 5. 5 ; 28. 6. 
bhuriJbhdra, i. 10. 9, 10. 
bhiis, i. 1. 3: 23. 6; iv. 28. 1. 
bhoga, i. 35. 7. 
\^bhres, iii. 16. ') (bis) : 17. 1. 
bhreifa^ iii. 10. 7 (bis). 
'madhudhdnay i. 22. 1. 
madhundR, i« 22. 1. 
madhuparka, 1. 59. 1-3, 11. 
'madhuputra, 1. 55. 1. 



254 



H. Oertd^ 



'madhvalopa, 1. 22. 8. 

ManUy iii. 15. 2. 
*manonetra, iii. 82. 9. 

tiianoinaya, i. 28. 5. 
*manoyukta (?), iii. 5. «'5. 
*inanoruj)a, iv. 22. V^. 

\'mantray + anu, iii. 18. 2, 3 (bis), 
4 (bis), 5, 6, 7 (bis); 19. 1, 7. 

\mantray + «. i. 59, 2, 3. 

viaiidra, i. 51. (5. 
'mamatvin^ i. 51. 3 ; 58. 8. 

mayobhu, iv. 3. 2. 
•martci, iii. 35. 6. 

inartydmrta (dual, 'copul. cpd.), i. 
25. 3. 

malQy i. 57. 1 (bis). 

mahdgrdma (•possess, cpd.), iii. 

13. 5. 
*mahdnivega, iii. 10. 5. 

mahdmaiisa (plur.), i. 48. 6. 

mahdgann, ii. 15. 2 ; (sui^erlat.), ii. 
15. 1. 

Mahiddna Aitareya, iv. 2. 11. 

niahina (conject.), iii. 20. 2. 

\mahiy, i. 48. 5. 

mahiyd, i. 29. 8 ; 46. 2 ; 48. 5. 

rnd (absolutely), i. 59. 13. 

Mdtari^ian, iv. 20. 8. 

-nidtra. see prajdpatimdtra. 

viddhyandina savaiia, i. 16. 5 ; 37. 
3 (ter.) ; iv. 2. 5 (bis), 7. 

Mdnava, see (^'arydta M, 
""mdnusanikdganaf iii. 14. 7. 
*md}idvx§a, iii. 40. 2. 

\mi + 'abhi-ni, iv. 14. 2. 
*Mitrabhuti Lduhitya^ iii. 42. 1 v. 

\mis + nif iii. 17. 6, 9 ; iv. 21. 4. 

\ muc + ^abhi-atiy i. 30. 4. 

Munja Sdma^avasa, iii. 5. 2. 
'viuhurdikifiny i. 39. 1. 

mutGy i. 20. 5. 

mfgayd {-diii car)^ iii. 29. 2. 

mftyupdgay iv. 9. 1, 3-9 ; 10. 1-9, 
18. 

$/mf(i + pra, ii. 1 1. 1. 

mfdu, ii. 3. 2. 

ymrp (intens.), i. 8. 10. 

X^rtifq + prati-abhi, i. 22. 6. 

mditrdvarunay iii. 6. 4. 



moday iii. 25. 4. 

yak^ma {rdjan)y iv. 1. 8. 

yajurveda^ i. 1. 4 ; iii. 15. 7, 8. 

yajtiiftaSy iii. 17. 1. 

yajflakdiilay L 14. 4. 
*yathdgttay i. 55. 13. 

yathnycUanam (adv.), i. 18. 3. 
'yaddevatytty i. 59. 12. 
*yadvidvdii8y iv. 6. 6 ; 7. 4. 

\/yam + vi-dy i. 37. 5. 

yaqasviriy i. 43. 11. 

Yagasvin Jayanta Lduhityay iii. 
42. 1 V. 

{^yas + *prati (conject.), i. 5. 7. 

ydtaydmariy i. 38. 6. 
*ydvaddvdsa, ii. 12. 6. 

i/fytt + pro, i. 8. 11 (bis). 

yukti, iii. 5. 4. 

yyu; + pray iv. 6. 7 : 7. 5. 

rajatamayay iv. 1. 5. 
*rapa8a (?), iii. 2. 4, 15. 

rahasi (adv.), ii. 13. 5. 

rdjakidtty iii. 28. 4, 

Rdma *KrdUijdteya Vdiydghrapad- 
ytty iii. 40. 2v; iv. 16. 1 t\ 

|/rM^, iii. 27. 2 (bis). 

I rwTi + *8am-udy iii. 3. 1. 

retoHviHy i. 43. 11. 

re^iaiiy i. 2. 6. 

rdt6/ii, i. 50. 7 ; 57. 1. 

rodhcLsly i. 25. 5. 

Bduhinay a demon (quot.), i. 29. 7, 
10. 

via6/i + ujJUy iii. 29. 7 ; 30. 1. 

IdjOy i. 8. 11. 

|V?/i, i. 45. 4; 51. 3: 54. 3; 58. 7; 
iii. 37. 6. 

lokajity iii. 20. 10. 

loma I'Samanf], i. 38. 3. 

lomagay i. 38. 8. 

/OiSfa, i. 7. 6 ; 60. 8 ; ii. 3. 12, 13. 

lohamaya, iv. 1. 4. 

lohdyasQy iii. 17. 3 (bi»). 
Uohitastokay iii. 9. 2. 

\lohitdyy i. 12, 4 ; iv. 5. 1 : 10. 10, 

Lduhityay see Kp?nadatta L., Kr^- 
n<irdta L,y Jayaka L., Triveda 
Kf^nardta L.y Dak^ajayanta £#., 
Palligupta L., Mitpabhuti L., 



JdvminlyOr Upanisad-EvahraaTut. 



255 



Yax^asmin Jaynnta L., Vipageit 
Df4^ajayanta L., Vdipagcita 
Ddnlfiajayanti Oupta L., Vdi- 
pagcita Ddrdhajayanti Dx^^ia- 
jay ant a X., Qydmajayanta L., 
i^ydmasujayanta £#., Satyagra- 
vas L. 

I rod (intens.)) Hi. 16. 8, 5. 

\ vad + apa, iii. 7. 5. 

vana (conject.). iii- ^l. 3. 
'varuuapariyatana. i. 10. 1. 

vartani, iii. 16. 1-3. 
'varnapavitra, i. 10. 1. 

var^iUca, i. 36. 2. 

valgu, i. 51. 10. 

vaga {-ge kf), ii. 4. 1,2. 

raJta{j iii. 17. 4 : va^afkara, i. 54. 8. 

i^YW + in (adv. locat. of pple), 
iv. 5. 1. 

vasantd (adv.), i. 35. 2. 
Vasistlui, iu. 2. 13; 15. 2; 18. 6 
(bis), 7. Cf, vdsistha, 

\^vd + ava, iii. 21. 2 (bis). 
'vdkprabhuta, i. 10. 1. 

vdgdeixitya, i. 59. 14. 

vdnmaya^ i. 28. 3. 

wic (one of the five vydhftis), ii. 9. 
3, 6; (exclam.), iii. 10. 10 ; 14. 9. 

vdcarhyama, iii. 16. 6. 
'Vdrxtki, see Kaiisa V, 
^Vdrakya, BeeKaiiaaV,, Kubera F., 
Janagruta V., Jayanta V., Pron- 
thapdda V. 

Vdrxmi, see AikmHika F., Golmla 

vV 

vdftvffhaj iii. 15. 2. 
Vusis(ha Cdikitdiieya, i. 42. 1. 
Vdhneya, see C^Vuxa F. Kdgyapa, 
\ vij + *prati (conject.), iii. 10. 5 

(bis). 
\ ind + arm (•*a.s8ent*). iii. 10. 1. 
Vipageit * Di'dhajayanta Lduhitya, 

iii. 42. 1 r. 
Vipageit '{'akiinimitra Pdrdgarya, 

iii. 41. 1 V, 
vipra (conject.), i. 53. 8. 
vibhH, iii. 27. 2. 
vibhiUi, i. 20. 6 ; 21. 1 : 42. 8. 
vibhatimanty i. 43. 11. 



virdtra, iv. 5. 3. 
vivdcana, i. 9. 5. 
vigvandman, iv. 4. 1. 
*ingvdbhirakfa)ia^ iv. 4. 1. 
Vigvdniitray iii. 3. 7 ; 15. 1 ; (plur.) 

iii. 15. 1. Cf. vdigvdmitra, 
vigvdy^if iv. 1. 7. 
Vfigvdhdj iv. 1. 7. 
Vt'i« 4- pari^ ii. 15. 3 ; iii. 1. 21. 
visu (?), iv. 23. 6. 

uisfapa, iii. 13. 7. Cf. trivis{apa. 
mndgdthin, i. 58. 2. 
vfkHdgra, iii. 10. 9 (bis). 
X'vrt + onu^ i. 40. 2. 
\vi't + *ahhi'parij iii. 13. 5. 
fvr^ + sani'dy iv. 10. 10. 
2>f.sfci, i. 13. 1. 
vedi, i. 5. 5. 

{/ve§t + wi ('prim, conj.), i. 2. 6, 7. 
Vdikuntha (Indra), iv. 5. 1 ; 10. 10. 
Vdinyaj i. 45. 2. 

see Pfthu F. 
Fdipafctfa * Ddrdhajayanti Ghipta 

Lduhitya, iii. 42. 1 v. 
Vdipagcita * Ddrdhajayanti *Di*' 

(jihajayanta Lduhityaj iii. 42. 1 v. 
VdinifdJia (Jwdra), iv. 10. 10. 
Vdiydghrapadya, see Rama Krd- 

tiijdteya F. 
vdigvdmitra^ iii. 3. 6. 
vdiaarjaniya (-d d^uh*), iii. 10. 7. 
rj/dp^i, i. 42. 7 ; 59. 18. 
vydptimant, i. 48. 11. 
vydhita, iii. 28. 5. 
vydhfti, i. 23. 6 ; 24. 4 ; ii. 9. 3. 
vyfidhacehanda^j iii. 31. 1, 6. 
*vyomdnta (numeral), i. 9. 5 ; 10. 4 ; 

28. 3 ; 29. 5. 
*vrataedrya, iii. 3. 7. 
\'vragc + d (with *ab1at.), i. 19. 3 ; 

57. 9 ; 58. 10. 
vrdtya (plur., divyd vrdtydh), i. 10, 

9 ; 34. 6 ; 45. 1. Cf. ekavrdtya. 
^(^'akunimitra, see Vipageit {\ Pd- 

rdgarya, 
(Jahkha Bdbhravya, iii. 41. 1 v; 

iv. 17. 1 V. 
*<^*anga (^Wfydyani Atreya, iii. 40. 

1 r. 



256 



IL Oertd, 



Qatcuanif i. 50. 4-7. 
Qarva, iv, 10. 10. 
(,'arydta Mdnava, ii. 7. 1 ; 8. 8, 5, 
i'atyayaniy i. 6. 2 ; 30. 1 ; ii. 2. 8 ; 
4. 3 ; 9. 10 ; iii. 13. 6 ; 28. 5 ; iv. 
16. Ir; 17. 1 r. 

see Qanga Q, Atreya, 
(^'av4ilya, see SuyajfUi <^\ 
gdntika^ iv. 3. 2. 
^gdntimant, i. 48. 11. 
^^'imulapatnia (dual), i. 38. 4. 
(^'dldvatya, i. 38. 4. 
githUa, iv. 23. 12. 
fwfcrrt, iii. 15. 6, 7 (bis), 8 (bis). 9. 
{'ukra (a Jabala), iii. 7. 7. 
i/Qii§ 4- *d'Vi, (pple.) iv. 1, 7. 
^udraka ('dimin.), iii. 9. 9. 
gii^a, i. 57. 6. 
(,'dilana (plur.), i. 2. 3 ; ii. 4. 6. 

see Pdr^na ^'., Sticitta {\ 
(Jdunaka^ i. 59. 2. 

see Indrota Dvdivdpa p., 
Dfii Aindroti f. 
{'duncika Kdpeya, iii. 1. 21. 
{rmagdna, i. 88. 3; (conject.), iii. 

31.8. 
'Qydmajayanta Lduhitya (two per- 
sons of this name), iii. 42. 1 1\ 
^(JydTnamjayanta Lduhitya, iii. 42. 

Ir. 
\'ydva8dyana, see Devataras (^\ 

Kdgyapa, 
(^'ydvd^^, see Isa {\ 
grimant, i. 43. 11. 
X^gru + d (causat.), iv. 7. 3. 
V jTu + prati-d (causat.), iv. 7. 3. 
i/gru -I- ^prati'Upa, i. 38. 3. 
(^*ru^a Vdhneya Kdgynpa, iii. 40. 

Ir. 
QreAfliatd, iv. 11. 3. 
grotramaya, i. 28. 9. 
Vt'^is + *ud, ii. 9. 8. 
gle^marif iii. 17. 3. 
{^vdjani (a Vaiyya), iii. 5. 2. 
gvetdgva, iv. 1. 1. 
'^afputraj ii. 5. 7. 
'^(xfcigaQataf iv. 2. 11 (bis). 
^§t^lv + 'adhi, i. 50. 3. 
*aafhgavakdla, iv. 10. 10, 13. 



aaikgrnkUf, iii. 7. 8 ; 8. 8. 
8aihve^f iv. 10. 10. 
8aihsadf ii. 11. 18, 14. 
safhsava, i. 9. 8. 
aafhstha, i. 20. 6; 21. 4. 
saihsparQa, iv. 26. 7. 
sajdta, i. 46. 2 ; 48. 3. 
sajdtavanasydy iv. 5. 4. 
Vsai^ + ahhi, ii. 15. 2. 
aatanu, iv. 8. 9 ; 9. 9 ; 10. 8, 9. 
Satyayqjiia Pdidu^a, i. 89. 1. 
Satyayc^fla Patdu^ Prdcinayogya , 

iii. 40. 1 V, 
Satyagravas Lduhitya, iii. 42. 1 r. 
*Satyddhivdka Cditrarathi, i. 89. 1. 
yi sad + tidf iii. 14. 6. 
sodas, i. 54. 3 (ter), 5 (bis). 
saptakfivas, iii. 34. 4. 
saptaputra, ii. 5. 8. 
saptaragmi (quot.), i. 28. 2. 
saptavidha {-aih sdma), i. 31 . 3 (bis) ; 

iii. 34. 4. 
sabhd, ii. 11. 18, 14. 
'samdnabuddha (?), iv. 1. 1. 
samdpti, i. 46. 2, 4. 
sampat, iii. 27. 2 ; iv. 8. 9. 
samprati, i. 5. 5 : 45. 3 ; iii. 31. 2, 

7. 
sambhu, iii. 20. 3, 11 ; 21. 5 ; 27. 3, 

12. 
sambhUti, i. 46. 2, 6 ; ii. 4. 5 (bis) : 

iv. 7. 4 (bis). 
saras, i. 25. 5, 
sanmjava, iv. 20. 6, 10. 
sarvatodvdra {-aih sdma), i. 30. 2, 3. 
sarvaprdyagcitta, iii. 17. 8. 
sarvamrtyu, iv. 9. 9 ; 10. 8, 9. 18. 
sarvarupa, i. 27. 6 (bis). 
*sahasraputra, ii. 6. 11 (bis). 
sahnsrdksara, i. 10. 1. 
sdnga, iii. 3. 3, 5 ; iv. 8. 9 : 9. 9 : 

10. 8. 9, 18. 
Sdtyaki, see Kf^nadhfti S. 
Sdtyaktrta (plur.), iii. 32. 1. 

see Anuvaktf S. 
Sdtyayajai (plur,), ii. 4. 5. 

see Somagii^ma S. Prdcina- 
yogya, 
sdmatas, iii. 17. 1. 



Jdiminlyor Upani^ad-Brdhmana. 



257 



Bdmany see ananvita, an^edha, 

abhtatxvya^ ekavihguy devagruty 

bandhwnant, lomay saptavidhay 

9arvatodvdra. 
3. «dman (masc), i. 34. 11. 
^MLmanviHy i. 43. 11. 
^samapathay i. 6. 1. 
udmaveday i. 1. 5 ; iii. 15. 7, 8. 
'9amavdiryay i. 59. 3, 12. 
Samagravasay see Mufija S. 
sdmi (with genit.), iv. 2. 11. 
Sayaka Jdnagruteya Kdmjl'^y^* iii* 

40. 2 V. 
\9ic + •ri-d, see avydsikta, 
^aukfiarasa, iii. 14. 6. 
*Sucitta ^dUanay i. 14. 4. 
Sudakifinay iii. 7. 8 ; 8. 6 (see Suda- 

kfina K^imi), 
Sudak^na K^dimiy iii. 6. 3; 7. 1, 

4, 5, 6 (see Sudak^iia). 
Sudatta Pdr&garyay iii. 41. 1 v; 

iv. 17. 1 V, 
8ud?uiy ii. 14. 6. 

*8uindnusavidy iv. 6. 6 ; 7. 4 (bis). 
Suyajria (^'di^ilya, iv. 17. 1. 
suyama, iii. 8. 4. 
stivaTy iii. 14. 3, 4. 
stivargay iii. 14. 4. 
9uvarna (epith. of hiranya), iii. 

34.6. 
suvarnamayUy iv. 1. 6. 
suhotfy iv. 6. 6 ; 7. 4 (bis). 
suktay iii. 4. 1-8. 
»uciy i. 10. 8. 

sudgdtr, iv. 6. 6 ; 7. 4 (bis). 
*mnurupa (?), iii. 2. 15. 
V«r + abhi-pra ('ind. of causat.), 

ii. 14. 4. 
i^sf + pru (•* approach '), iii. 29. 3. 
sopdna, iii. 8. 7. 
^Somahfhaspati (dual), i. 58. 9. 
Somagu^ma Sdtyayajfli Prdcina' 

yogyay iii. 40. 2 v, 
itana, iii. 14. 7. 

^9tu (* sing the stotra'), i. 59. 12. 
V«ftt + pro, i. 17. 2 ; ii. 2. 9 ; iv. 9. | 

4 ; 10. 2, 12. 
ystu + «om, iv. 6. 7 ; 7. 5 (bis). 
'stutagastra (plur.), iii. 16. 6. 

VOL. XTI. 34 



I atotray iii. 3. 1. 
i stotriyay iii. 4. 1-3. 

stobhtty i. 20. 6 ; 21. 5 ; 57. 5. 
I atoinay i. 13. 3: iii. 4. 11 ; 5. 4. 
stomabhdgay iii. 8. 1, 2. 
'stomavanty i. 43. 11. 
sthaliy ii. 7. 1. 
sthamratamay iv. 14. 8. 
\^Hthd + *anu'upay i. 46. 3-5 ; 47. 

1-7 ; 48. 1-6. 
sthdnUy iii. 18. 5, 6. 
athitiy iii. 18. 7. 
I V»pr* sprndtiy iv. 9. 9 ; 10. 1-8. 
I V^PV9 + wi, ii. 12. 1. 
^ayand + viy i. 10. 5. 
|/«?cy + party iii. 29. 7. 
avadhvaryuy iv. 6. 6 ; 7. 4 (bis). 
avayambhUy iv. 11. 2. 
«mr, i. 1. 5 ; 23. 6 ; iv. 28. 5. 
S^avar + anUy iv. 14. 2. 
4/«mr -H a5H i. 21. 10, 11. 
^avarapak^ay iii. 18. 10. 
*8varganaraka (plur.), iv. 25. 5. 
avaryay iii. 33. 5, 6. 
avaariyay iii. 29. 1. 
*8Vdhdkdrava^{kdra (dual), i. 13. 3. 
\^han (desid. pple.), iv. 1. 7. 
hantd (ezclam.), iii. 6. 1,4. 
harasy i. 21. 7 ; ii. 3. 1. 
*haritaaprga (?), iv. 1. 1. 
*harinUay iv. 1. 1. 
haaa, iii. 25. 8. 
i^Shd -^ pray iii. 31. 8; (pple.), i. 

25.5. 
hinkdray 1. 3. 7 ; 4. 1, 6, 8 ; 11. 5 
12. 4, 7, 9 ; 13. 8, 5 ; 19. 2 ; 21. 7 
81. 2, 3; 38. 3, 5, 9, 10 ; 34. 1 
35. 2 ; 36. 1, 8, 5, 6, 8, 9 ; 88. 6 
54. 8 ; 57. 5 ; 58. 9; 59. 4 ; iu. 12. 
2, 3 ; 34. 2. 
V^tnfcf, i. 3. 4 ; 4. 1, 6 ; ii. 2. 9 ; iii. 
34. 2 ; iv. 10. 1, 11; (in tens, pple.), 
i. 11.5: 85. 2. 
him bhtty i. 4. 1. 
him bhd ovdy i. 4. 6. 
hifh vOf i. 4. 8. 
*hira7iyadanta, iii. 2. 4, 15. 
humy iii. 10. 10. 
hum bagy iii. 10. 8. 



258 



n. Oertel, 



hum bo, iii. 18. 2. 
hum hhdf iii. 18. 1. 
hum bhd orh vac, iv. 8. 6. 
hum md, iii. 12. 4. 
*hvss (exclam.), iv. 22. 2. 
\^hx + abhi-m-d, iii. 4. 5, 11, 
\'hf + pari, i. 52. 8. 



i'hf + pari-d, i. 85. 7. 
^hr-k-prati, iL 2. 9 ; iv.9.6 : 10. 4, 15. 
*HrtsvdQaya AUakeya, iii. 40. 2 v, 
'hfday&gra, i. 10. 1. 
heman (adv. locat.), i. 85. 6. 
Hdimavatif see CTma JET. 
^iofr, iii. 1«. 2 ; 17. 4 ; 19. 6. 



II. 



ak^ara : \/k§ar, i. 24. 1 ; 48. 8. 

yhfi, i. 24. 2 ; 48. 8. 
antarik^a: antalji,, antaryak^a, i. 

20.4. 
Aydaya : ayam + daya, ii. 8. 7 ; 

11.8. 
arkya : fc + ka, iv. 28. 4. 
asu : i/«iZ, i. 40. 7. 
asura : asu + yTam, iii. 35. 3. 
AUgirasa : anga 4- rasa, ii. 11. 9. 
ddi: ^dd + d, i. 11, 7. 

^dhd + d, i. 19. 2. 
dditya : \/dd + d, iv. 2. 9. 
dvarta : \/vrt 4- d, iii. 83. 7. 
wrcM : Mru, iv. 24. 2. 
fc : Vfc, i. 15. 6. 
gdyatra : gdyann atrdyata, iii. 88. 

4. 
devagrut : devatdh + i/gru, i. 14. 3. 
patanga : \/piit -f anga, iii. 85. 2. 
pa^ata : i^pag^ i. 56. 6. 
pratihdra : \^hr + prati, i- H. 9. 
prasdma, prasdmi : pra + adman, 

i. 15. 4. 



Ettmolooibs, etc. 

prastdva : ^stu, i. 11. 6. 
Bfhaspati: (vdco) hthatydi patity, 

ii. 2. 5. 
hhlmaJa : bhima + mala, i. 57. 1. 
madhuputra: mad adhyabhut, i. 

55. 1. 
mahlyd : \/mahiy, i. 48. 5. 
Rudra : ^rud, iv. 2. 6. 
rodasi : \/rud, i. 82. 4. 
Va8U : voMi, iv. 2. 8. 
vdtgvdmitra: vigva + mitra, iii. 

3.6. 
gataaani: gatam + i^sii, i. 50. 

4ff. 
sajdta : \^jan + aaha, i. 48. 8. 
aamudra : ^/dru + «am, i. 25. 4. 
adman : \^i + aam, i. 88. 7 ; 40. 6 ; 

48. 7 ; 51. 2 ; iv. 18. 2. 
aama, i. 12. 5. 
ad + aiyta, i. 53. 5 ; 56. 2 ; 
iv. 23. 3. 
aindhu : \/ai, i. 29. 2. 
auvarga : aiivnr + ^gam, iii. 14. 4. 
/iart ; V/ir» !• 44. 5. 



III. 

Grammatical. 

The Grantha characters are liable to confuse pa and va, ^<a and kta, 
f and ra, th and d^, c{/i and y, also long and short vowels, especially u 
and u. There is no distinction made between mma and manui. No 
avagraha is used. 

Lingual n for n : see note to i. 1. 5. Confusion of t-stems and i-stems : 

lit? ; V, tanuve, iv. 8. 2 (verse) ; suvar, maricl, iii. 85. 6. 

iii. 14. 8, 4, ativarga, iii. 14. 4. Numerals : see note on i. 10. 4 ; 

Locat. of stems in -an without end- aahaararh saptattfy=70000, 

ing ; as adman, i. 21. 8 ; 58. 4 : Verbs : Vapf, pres. app^ti, see note 

akfan, i. 41. 7 ; 48. 9. on iv. 9. 9 ; ^bhuffj according to 



Jdim.inlyor Upaniscid- BrnhmAXTia. 



259 



a-conjugation, ii. 10. 4 ff. ; \^%, 
irregular imperfects aamditat, i. 
48. 7 (see note) and anvditat, iii. 
88. 10; |/nc, precative dsicyad, 
i. 8. 8 (see note) ; i/dd + pari-d, 
past pples paryddatta and par- 
ydtta side by side, ii. 8 ; y^, 8d. 
sing. pres. ^ye, i. 85. 7 ; peri- 
phrastic future with plural of 
pple : gnuigdndni bliavitdrafy, gd- 
tdras smdfy^ i. 88. 8 ; transitive 
use of passive aorist in -i (?), iii. 
9. 9 (see note) ; adverbial gerund, 
updpapdtam, i. 11. 7. 
Composition : nidhanakfta for -nU 
kfia, i. 35. 6 (see note) ; apposi- 



tion instead of composition : pdp- 
md nyaiigafy, i. 45. 5 ; ii. 12. 1, 2 ; 
iii. 87. 7 (bis). 
Syntax: Superfluous u: teno, i. 1. 
8 ; 6. 6 ; 9. 4 ; 83. 11 ; 34. 2, etc. ; 
genit. of time, i. 44. 9 ; dative of 
the infinitive after i/6rtl, ii. 15. 
8 ; ham after dat. in fin., i. 45. 2 
(verse) ; \^fdh with accusative, i. 
87. 8 ff. ; x^vra^ + d with abla- 
tive, i. 19. 8; i. 57. 9; 58. 10; 
locat. absolute of pples : dtapatiy 
iii. 82. 7 ; upatapati, iv. 2. 11 ; 
vyu^, iv. 5: 1 ; verb in plural 
after qaturviiiqatiy i. 17 . 2 ; iii. 
38.9. 



IV. 

1. Verses. 

[ativyddhi rdjanya^ Qurah, i. 4. ' pafangam aA;/am, iii. 35. 1 : RV. x. 

2, a Vedic reminiscence : see 177. 1, etc. 

note.] patango vdcam nutmiftd, iii. 36. 2: 

aditir dydur aditir, i. 41. 4 : RV. I RV. x. 177. 2, etc. 

i. 89. 10, etc. mayi ^dam manye bhuvanddiy iii. 

apa^yath gopdm anipadyamdnam, 17. 6. 

iii. 87. 1 : RV. i. 164. 81 =x. 177. nuihdtmanaQ caturodevah, iii. 2. 2 : 

3, etc. cf. Ch&nd. U. iv. 8. 6. 

dtmd devdndm uta martydndm, iii. yad dydva indra te gatam, i. 82. 1 : 

2. 4: cf. Chand. U. iv. 8. 7. RV. viii. 70. 5 (SV. i. 278; ii. 

dyur mdtd matV) pitd^ iv. 1. 7. 212.), etc. 

indram uktham ream, i. 45. 1. yas saptaraqmir vrifabhas, i. 29. 7 : 



ifndm esdm pfthimnit i. 34. 7 : AV. 

X. 8. 36. 
utdi ^Hdiii Jye^fhah, iii. 10. 12 : AV. 

X. 8. 28. 
vj)d 'smdi gdyata^ iii. 38. 6, 8 : RV. 

ix. 11. 1 (SV. ii. 1, 113), etc. 
r><rtya ete mantrakftcdyy i. 45. 2. 



RV. ii. 12. 12, etc. 
ye *gnaya1i puri^ydhf iv. 3. 8 : TS. 

V. 5. 7. 4, 5 ; VS. xviii. 67. 
yebhir vdta initafy, i. 34. 6 : AV. x. 

8.35. 
rupaHi-rupam pratirujx), i. 44. 1 : 

RV. vi. 47. 18. 



catiHiri vdk parimitd, i.7. 3; 40. 1 : rupam-rtipam niaghavd, i. 44. 6 : 

RV. 1. 164. 45, etc. RV. iii. 53. 8. 

tat savitur varenyam, iv. 28. 1 ff. : sa no mayobhufj., iv. 3. 2. 

RV. iii. 62. 10 (SV. ii. 812), etc. sa yadd vdi mriyate, i. 4. 7. 
trydyu^aHi kagyapasya jamadagnes stri smdi 'vd 'gre, i. 56. 5. 

iv. 8. 1 : AV. V. 28. 7. , sthiiiidfh tiivastambhanivi, i. 10. 

[navo-navo hhavasi jdyamdfM^, ' 9, repeated in 10, but different 

iii. 27. 11, Vedic allusion : see in d. 

note.] 



260 //. Oertd. 



2. Yajuses, etc. 



prdfi&S prdfi&S prdfi&S hum bhd 

ovdt ii. 2. 7. 
mdhdn mahyd aamadhatta, iii. 4. 5. 
yatpurastdd vdsi *ndro, iii. 21. 1. 
vtbhufy purastdt sampat poQcdt, 



abhijid asy abhijayydsam, iii. 20. 

10. 
amo ^ham asmi (longer version), i. 

54. 6 ; (abbreviated), 57. 4. 
aratf,ya8ya vatao *«t, iv. 4. 1. 
updvartadhvam, iii. 19. 1 ; 34. 2. ' iii. 27. 2. 
gvhd '81 devo 'si, iii. 20. 1. vyu^i savitd bhavasi, iv. 5. 1. 

digas stha qrotramy i. 22. 6. gvetdQVO dargato harinUo *«, iv. 

devena aavitrdprasutahf iii. 18. 3, 6. 1. 1. 
puru^ah prajdpatis sdma, i. 49. 3, satyasya panthd, iii. 27. 10. 

4 (bis). sorndfy pavate^ iii. 19. 1 ; 84. 2. 



CORRECnONS. 

P. 80. (Introduction) line 12, and note *, read Journal xv. for xiv. 
P. 81. (Text) i. 1.8, read a^^dgaphaii for aftdgdphdJi>, 
P. 85. (Text) i. 5. 1, read akar r^e for akar ne, 

(Translation) i. 5. 7, add '* after burns. 
P. 86. (Translation) i. 6. 1, add " after immortality. 
P. 87. (Text) i. 7. 6, read losfo for lo^tfio, and cancel note '. 
P. 115. (Translation) i. 37. 5, read further on for above (?) 
P. 122. (Notes) 44ii, read rupafh-rupam for irupam-rupam, 
P. 132. (Translation) i. 54. 8, read three times [fc] for [dgd f], 
P. 140. (Text) i. 60. 8, read lo^to for lo^t^, and cancel note ^•. 
P. 145. (Text) ii. 63. 12, 13, read Zo.s(o for losftho, and cancel note 3'^. 
P. 148. (Translation) ii. 66 (end), insert 1 1 before He who. 
P. 154. (Notes) 11", read -ali for afy, 
P. 164. (Translation) iii. 5, line 6, read a instead of s. 
P. 166. (Text) iii. 7, line 4, read 4 instead of s. 
P. 168. (Notes) 9'*, read -yaj- for yaj-, 

P. 176. (Translation), iii. 16. 6, read brahman-priesi for Brahman priest. 
P. 187. (Translation), iii. 27. 11, read Bearer for Burden. 
P. 188. (Text) iii. 28. 5, read bahu vydhiio for bahwvydhito, 

(Notes) 29', read -dtpr- for digr', 
P. 201 . (Translation) iv. 2. 2, read gdyatri for gdyatri, 

(Notes) 1', supply aydny, 
P. 216. (Text) iv. 19. 2, read su for sv, 
P. 227. line 13, read ativyddhi for ativyadhi, 
P. 237. line 43, read kimcd 'pi yo for kirhcd 'p iyo, 
P. 248. col. 1, line 42 and col. 2, line 47, read 2 v for 1 r. 



I 



ARTICLE V. 



IBRAHIM OF MOSUL: A STUDY IN ARABIC 

LITERARY TRADITION. 

By frank dyer CHESTER, Ph.D^ 

ASSISTANT IX SEMITIC LANOUAOBS IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 



Presented to the Society March, 1894. 



One of the most fascinating characters in the history of the 
Bagdad caliphate is Ibrahim of Mosul (Ibrahim al-Mausult), the 
foremost singer and composer in the reign of that celebrated 
despot, Huriin ar-Rashtd. As a boon companion and prime 
favorite, he became the repository of confidence both for the 
caliph and for his erstwhile Barmecide viziers. Hence the impor- 
tance and interest attaching to traditions which relate to him and 
his affairs, and have been handed down through his family line 
or the schools of music and literature. They still lie numerously 
imbedded in the various histories, in the Kitab al-Aganl — a work 
which I class by its contents as a musico-biographical encyclo- 
ptedia and from which Ibn Hallikan derived much of his memoir- 
istic information — and in tlie host of anthological productions 
still extant. 

The outward details of his life have been summed up very 
briefly by Kosegarten ;* at greater length, and from several 
sources, by Hammer-Purgstall,t who made good use of the 
Gotha epitome known as the Moljtar al-Agdnl ; also by Ahl- 
wardt,! who paid more attention than the former to the inner 
historical and artistic development of the period ; and finally by 
Caussin de Perceval, § entirely on the basis of the unabridged 
"Book of Songs" as contained in the Paris MS. But these 
scholars merely cited the traditions which they found, or trans- 
lated them, sometimes literally, sometimes freely, according to 

♦Prooemium to his Alii Ispahan, liber cantilenarum magnuSy vol, i. 
(udIc), p. 26. 

t LitenUurgegeh. der Araber, ill. 769 if. 

i Vorwort to his Diwdn des Abu Nowds^ p. 18. 

kJoumcU Asiatique (1878), 7* s^rie, ii. 546, in an article posthumously 
published. 

VOL. XVL 86 



262 F. D. Cheater, 

taste, as if an examination of their correlation and interdepen- 
dence were uncalled for, or even unnecessary. Therefore, in the 
following study of a couple of coincident traditions found in two 
or more of the sources, a stricter critical treatment will be 
attempted, in the hope of thereby bringing out new facts respect- 
ing the sources themselves.* 

A good opportunity for comparative work offers itself in the 
three versions (I am informed that there is at least one other) of 
the story of Ibrahim and the Devil, a conspectus of two of 
which is appended below. This tradition is reported by the 
Kitab al-Aganl in Ibrahim's own words, as they purport to have 
been repeated to his son Ishak, by him to his son Hammad, and 
by the latter to Mohammed ibn Mazyad,f who passed it on to 
Al-Isbahani, the author of the AganlJ Yet it is identical with 
the anecdote in the Thousand and One Nights, entitled " Story 
of Abu Ishak an-Nadlm Ibrahim al-Mausuli (and his adventure) 
with Abu Murra."§ Burton, of course, translates the latter form 
of the story, and in a note he criticises his predecessor. Lane, for 
failing to perceive its existence in the body of the Nights, and 
giving only an abstract of it from another source. | But Burton 
himself mistook in supposing that that source could have been 
Al-Mas*<idl {" French translation, vol. vi., p. 340 ") ; for the 
passage cited relates the appearance of the Devil to Ishak, his 
son (also known as Al-Mausult), in the palace of the caliph, not 
in his own home.l^ Hence the footnotes in which Burton calls 
attention to its differing characteristics help little in the study of 
the story of Ibrahim and the DeviL His alternative, that Lane 
borrowed from the Halba(t) al-Eumeit, is of course the correct 
one.** This anthology was written by Shams ad-Dln an-Naw- 
wajl (d. 1455 A. D.). Although I have had no access to its text, 
I perceive from Lane's abstract, which is often literal, that its 
version stands midway between that of the Agani and that of 
the Nights. Its description of the Devil's disguise agrees with 
the details given in the former, while its use of the appellative 
Abu Murra in speaking of the Devil accords with the latter. 
There are also other agreements with the Ag&ni accounts The 
story, however, received an addition or two : e. g. the statement 
that Ar-Rashld, after appointing Saturday for the " day off," 
gave Ibrahim two thousand dinS*rs. 

* Cf . some remarks by Derenbourg in the Remie Critique (1888), no. 15. 

t Also known by his surname Ibn Abi-1-Azhar (cf . AR&nt, v. 66 below 
middle ; at the conclusion of this story, v. 38, incorrectly Ibn al-Azhar). 

X Ed. Bulak, v. pp. 86-38. Reprinted, with various omissions, in the 
Riwdydt cU'Agdnt (ed. Beirut 1888) i. p. 36. 

§ So Macnaghten. But Cairo ed. (1802 A. H.) iii. p. 163 has Iblis for 
Abu Murra. 

I Cf. Lady Burton's ed., iv. p. 321. Lane (let ed.) i. 223: compare 
his defense, iii. 246, overlooked by Burton. 

^ Perhaps the index to Al-Mas'{!tdt (vol. vi.) misled him. It makes the 
same blunder. 

♦♦Cf. Lane, 1. c, i. 224, footnote ♦. 



Ibrahim of Mosvl, 263 

But the version in the Thousand and One Nights is considera- 
bly shortened from the original form of the story, and toned 
down to a mere tale. This is shown by the numerous blanks in 
the right hand column of the parallel translations below.'*' 

The first point of difference in the Nights as regards subject- 
matter is the entire absence of the slave-girls from the first part 
of the story. Then again Ibrahim has a plurality of doorkeepers, 
but no chamberlains. Harun makes no pithy remarks, either at 
the beginning or at the end (the wish excepted). The unwelcome 
sheikh wears one tunic and white garments instead of two tunics 
and short boots. The style of his cap varies, but the species of 
his perfumery is unnoticed. He is less discourteous, and by no 
means sarcastic, in his first request for a song. The insult con- 
tained in his compliment is less distinctly emphasized, so much 
less that the name Ibrahim is actually not employed.f Abu Ishak 
sings only twice ; and no allusion is made to his great care in sing- 
ing to the caliph, ^perhaps the most delicate touch of the story. 
The first two of the Devil's songs vary slightly in vocabulary, 
probably on account of bad copying; but the third song has 
received an additional couplet, as well as a rearrangement of 
line8.J The musical technicality or reference to the mdb^Uri 
metre of the third song is dropped, showing that the design of 
this narrative, which was originally to explain how Ibrahim be- 
came famous for the use of that metre, had been exchanged for 
the mere desire to relate a sensational anecdote. Ibrahim's 
reflections on his way to inform the caliph of his experience are 
also omitted ; and his present, instead of being delivered for him, 
is taken by him. 

Now all these differences in the trend and wording of the 
story go to show that the version in the Thousand and One 
Nights is a free borrowing from some written biographical 
source. That it is not a form corrupted by the repetitions of 
story-tellers is evident, I think, from the remarkably long verbal 
agreements with the text of the Agclnt, a work which belongs 
back in the tenth century. Yet it must be later than the version 
in the Halba(t) al-Kumeit (used by Lane), for reasons already 
given, and therefore subsequent to 1450 A. D. The minor differ- 
ences of vocabulaiT and turns of phrase are probably due to the 
careless copying of the Nights during the three or four centuries 
of its history. 



* In my translations, when the words or constructions differ in the 
originals, the English renderings vary to correspond. 

t So Macnaghten and Cairo eds. Sali^&nt (Beirut, 5 vols.), however, 
"Ibrahim." 

tin one case (Lj(> IjI for ^L3 \b\), the Nights has a more apposite 

reading. But the Bulak teirt; of the Ag&nt may be at fault. It would 
be interesting to collate all the MSS. on this passage (v. 88, top), 
g P&oticalarly its disagreement in the detaus of the Devil's disguise. 



264 F. D. Chester, 

The question now arises, what reason is there for the existence 
of this anecdote in the Nights ? It must be answered that, so 
far as it is concerned, Lane seems to be correct in his surmise 
that, just as the old groundwork of the Thousand and One 
Nights (the Persian work entitled the "Thousand Nights") be- 
came by the addition of tales of Arab origin* the least portion 
of the collection, so the anecdotes — especially the thirteen ex- 
tending from the 680th to the G98th night,t of which "Ibrahim 
of Mosul and the Devil " is the seventh — were borrowed from 
older books, more classical in style, modernized, and inserted to 
supply lost portions or augment the original series of stories.J 
It is Lane's opinion, however, that the borrowing was by means 
of oral communication for a number of years before the written 
work, the Thousand and One Nights, appeared. It seems more 
probable, from what has been said up to this point, that the bor- 
rowing was made through a chain of written sources. Further- 
more, though this story of Ibrahim was shortened, most of the 
other twelve anecdotes were probably lengthened and developed, 
as it were, from sober tradition into the freer form of fiction. At 
least one of them, the fourth in order, entitled " Story of Yiinus 
the Scribe (and his adventure) with Al-Walid ibn Sahl," exhibits 
such a history. For the basis of it is to be found in the Kit&b 
al-Agdnl, in the biography of YAnus. Likewise the " Story of 
Jamil ibn Ma*mar (told) to Hftrtln ar-Rash!d," the eighth of these 
anecdotes, describes a scene, though not the incidents, of one of 
the traditions adduced on authority in the biography of Jam!I.§ 

The story of Ibrahim and the Devil, having many parallels 
in the ana of other Arab singers who endeavored to mystify 
their patrons respecting their sources of musical inspiration, 
requires little comment here upon its unhistorical nature as a 
story. There are two accounts of an appearance of the Devil to 
his son Ishak ; the one in the Nights (the eleventh anecdote of 
the thirteen), where a young woman plays an important part in 
the proceedings ; and the other in Al-Mas'Mi's MurHj ad-^ohaby 
so unhappily referred to by Burton. There are also in the 
Agani two accounts of the Devil's visitation to Ibrahim ibn 



♦Such was the judgment of Hammer-Purgstall : of. Lane, 1. c, iii. 
741 middle. 

f Cf. Lane, 1. c, iii 238 middle. 

iCf. Lane, 1. c, iii. 744 middle; and Burton in his Terminal Essay, 
ed. Lady B., vi. 295, where, for the words ** They aid in (two long 
detective stories)," should be read ** They are followed by, etc." 

§ Otlicr anecdotes in the Nights are equally traceable to a written 
source such as the AgAnl Tlie story of *' Isaac of Mosul and the Mer- 
chant" (ed. Lady B., iii. 238) should be carefully compared with the 
version in the Agdni (v. 126). The Basket-story of IsTjAk is, on the 
other hand, a freer adaptation, doubtless transmitted through an inter- 
vening anthology or two, of the story formerly told of his father Ibra- 
him (see Ag&nl, v. 41-2). 



Ihrahim of 2to8iil. 265 

al-Mahdl,* a story of Ibn Jami*, who was not of Persian but of 
good Koreishite birth, inspired by a jinnt,\ and a story of Mo^a- 
rik, Ibrahim al-Mausult's favorite pupil, surprised by a vision of 
Iblls in the form of an old sheikh. J Under the same category of 
weird stories come the traditions, also found in the Agant, that 
one of Ishak's most famous melodies was learned from cacklinj^r 
gee8e,§ and that his father Ibrahim one night, in a grotto belong- 
ing to his estate, enjoyed a secret opportunity to plagiarize on 
the efforts of two miauling cats. J It must not be supposed, how- 
ever, that educated persons of the tenth century, among whom 
one would certainlj" class the author of the Agant, believed in 
the truth of these narratives. With acumen Al-Isbahant says, at 
the close of the account of Ibrahim and the Devil : " Thus am I 
informed of this story by Ibn al-Azhar (Ibn Abi-1-Azhar). I 
do not know what to say about it. Perhaps Ibrahim made up 
this tale to gain esteem by it ; or it was made up and told about 
him, though a foundation for the story is (aifordcd by the follow- 
ing), which is more like the truth of it." Thereupon he details 
a tradition, according to which Ibrahim dreamed that a man met 
him and opportunely suggested that he set some words of the 
poet DA-r-Rimma (=**he of the withered limb," not Dd-r- 
Kumma), to the amazingly fine new melody which he had just 
composed in the mdhiirt metre. But, though the idea that Ibra- 
him had a dream is more natural than that an apparition came to 
him in broad daylight, it should be noted that in the latter event 
he was taught a mdhdrt tune, apparently the first one of the kind 
known to him, while in the former he is inspired with words for 
that tune. The stories therefore do not hang together, and in so 
far both must be pronounced fictitious. The possibility suggests 
itself merely that Harun was minded to play Ibrahim a trick 
some day when he had let him off from court functions ; and 
whether he initiated him in the mdJ^Urt metre or not matters lit- 
tle, the point of interest being that he once upon a time showed 
himself a well-disguised, witty, and artistic Devil. 

Another tradition worthy of study occurs in Al-Isbahant's 
biography of Ibrahim. It concerns an event which happened at 
a time in Ibrahim's life earlier than that in which the one just 
treated is supposed to have occurred. 

At the death of Harun's father, the caliph Al-Mahdl, in the 
year 785 A. D., Ibrahim, then forty or more years of age, was 
beginning to leave behind his older competitors in the art of sing- 
ing, among whom were Yahya ibn Marzilk (al-Makki) and Ibn 

* Cf. Barbier de Meynard in Journal Aaiatique (1869), 6« s^rie, xiii. 
807. 
f Cf. Caussin de Perceval, 1. c, p. 542, and Ag&nt vi. 71 top. 
' See Brdnnow's vol. zzi. of the Ag&nt, p. 283. 
Ag4nt, ▼. 80 middle. 
Ag&nt, ▼. 20 bottom. 



266 F. B. Chester, 

Jam!', and to stand forth conspicuously in his profession. His 
old master Siyat had just died. Meanwhile, Fuleih ibn al-*Aura' 
was ranked of the old school of composers, Hakam al-Wadt 
was only mediocre in his rendering, Mohammed ar-Riiff (az-Zaff ?) 
was unoriginal, and Mofearik, 'Al^wiyya, and Ish&k were yet 
young and of the new generation. Ibrahim ibn al-Mabdi, the 
half-brother of Harun, was also but a youth of sixteen, and, 
according to the orthodox ideas of the Moslems, so hampered by 
his royal birth as to be incapable of rising higher than the posi- 
tion of a dilettante. The consequence was that Ibrahim al- 
Mausuli stepped to the front, and enjoyed a much-coveted famil- 
iarity with the ruling monarch, winning through his favor great 
fame and large rewards for his marked musical powers. Some- 
times, however, he must have overstepped the bounds, as a real- 
ization of his unique position filled his mind. Accordingly a 
certain degree of credence may be given to the following account 
of a musical stance under the caliph Al-Hadt In the '* Ta^rt^ 
ar-Rusul wa-l-MuMk^'^ of At-Tabarl* it reads thus : 

One day [Ibrahim speaks] we were with Mtlsa [i. e. Al-Hadl], 
and Ibn J ami' and Mo*&d ibn at-Tobeibf were with him (too). 
It was the first day that Mo'ad had come in to our presence, and 
Mo'sid was excellent in (singing) songs and well acquainted with 
some of the old ones. (Al-Hadl) said : " Whoever of you pleases 
me (with a song) shall have his choice (of re ward). "J So Ibn 
Jami^ sang him a song ; but it did not move him. (Now) I 
understood his desire in songs. So, (when) he said, *' Come now, 
Ibrahim I" I sang to him : 

** Suleima sometimes holds reunions ; 
But where are her sweetmeats? where, Oh ?" 

• 

He was so pleased that he arose from his seat and raised his voice 
and said ** Repeat." So I repeated. Then he said " This is what 
I like :§ make (your) choice." I said "Commander of the Faith- 
ful, the garden of 'Abd al-Malik and its gushing fountain."! 
Then his eyes revolved in his head till they were like two coals 
and he said : " (You) son of an uncircumcised woman, you desire 
that the vulgar may hear that you pleased me, and that I gave 
you your choice and presented you with a fief. By Allah, if 
your foolishness which conquers vour soundness of sense were 
not (due to) haste, I should strike off that (thing) your tear- 
fountainsT^ are in !" He was silent a while, and I saw the Angel 

* Series iii. 1, p. 595, ed. Houtsma and Guyard. 
t The Agdni seems to offer nothing respecting this person. 
X Literally, ** Whoever of you pleases me, his choice (shall be) to 
him.*' The exact sense of i^^^ is to tickle the fancy of a person. 

§ Literally, *• This is my taste." 



Tbrahim of Mosul. 267 

of Death between me and hira, awaiting his command. Then he 
called to Ibrahim al-Harrant and said : '* Take this fool by the 
hand and lead him into the treasury, and let him take from it 
what he will." So Al-Harrani took me into the treasury and said 
" How much will you take ?" I said " One hundred badra.^^* 
He said " Wait tilfl consult him." I said " Then eighty." He 
said " Till I consult him !" Then I knew what he meant, and I 
said "Seventy badra for me and thirty for you." He said 
" Now you have it right : go ahead." So I went away with 
seven hundred thousand (dirhams), and the Angel of Death went 
away from mcf 

That such an incident as this took place in the life of Ibrahim 
is made clear by the occurrence of an equally interesting and 
ingenuous account in the Agant.| It appears, however, to have 
descended (from Ishak) through a different channel of tradition. 
Although agreeing verbally in parts, it varies considerably con- 
cerning the circumstances of the occasion. At-Tabari states that 
his narrative was told (in his day?) on the authority of Ishak 
" or someone else," on the authority of Ibrahim, as if it made 
little difference to his readers from whom he got hold of it. But 
Al-Isbahani gives a chain of evidence, according to his custom : 
" Yahya ibn *A11 from his father ('Alt ibn Yahya), from Ish&k." 
For the benefit of comparison the version in the Ag4ni is here 
translated. After describing the morose and sour-tempered 
Al-Hadl, Ishak is reported to have said : 

My father was singing songs to him one day, and he said : 
" Sing me the kind of song I like and am pleased with, and you 
shall have your choice (of reward)." He said : "Commander of 
the Faithful, if Saturn were not in opposition to me with his 
cold, I should hope to attain to what is in your mind." (Ibrahim 
said) For I never used to see him give ear to any of the songs. 
His attention was (always) to its genealogy and its subtlety (of 
expression); and the school of Ibn Sureij he praised more highly 
than the school of Ma'bad. So I sang to him (this) piece of his : 

** Surely a weariness overtakes me at the remembrance of thee ; 
As the sparrow shakes himself free when the rain-drops moisten 
him." 

Thereupon he thrust his hand into the opening of his cuirass and 
lowered it an arm-length.§ Then he said : " Well done, by 
Allah ! (Sing me) more." So I sang : 

" O love for her I increase in me ardor everv ni^ht ; 
O carelessness of the days I thy meeting-place is the Judgment Day I " 



* There is ostensibly a play on this word s\ Jo in H^^U (= haste) 
above. ^ ' -'" * 

t Literally " from my face." 
i Ed. Bul&k V. 16. 
§ In his excitement. 



268 F. D. CJiester, 

Then he thrust his hand into his cnirass and lowered it another 
arm-length or near it, and said : " (Sing me) more. Yoa villain, 
well done, by Allah I You must have your choice, Ibrahim." 
(But) I sang : 

" I renounced thee so that 'twas said * He knows not love.' 
And I visited thee bo that 'twas said ' He has no patience*." 

Then he raised his voice and said " Well done, my fine fellow !* 
Corae, what will you?" I said **My master, the fountain of 
Marwan in Medina." Then his eyes revolved in his head till 
they were like two coals, and he said " (You) son of an uncir- 
cumcised woman, you desire to publish me in this assembly, so 
that people may sa^ ' He pleased him and he gave him his 
choice'; and (you wish) to make me (subject to) talk and report. 
Ibrahim al-Harrslnt, take this fool by the hand, when you go, and 
lead him into the private treasury. If he take everything in it, 
let him have it." So 1 entered and took fifty thousand dinars. 

There is a manifest value in comparing these two narratives of 
the same remarkable event in Ibrahim's life, aside from the differ- 
ences which appear in their subject matter. The status of secular 
tradition in the time of the historian At-Tabart was evidently 
that of floating hearsay and inexact testimony, even for the period 
preceding him by only from a hundred to a hundred and fifty 
years. On the other hand, the good authority for the account in 
the Aganl happens to be very well known in this particular case. 
The Kit&b al-Fihrist, a bibliography proved from at least four 
passages within it to have been written in the year 987 A. D., 
states that *Alt ibn Yahya (see chain of authorities above) was a 
contemporary and pupil of Ishak, and that he wrote a book 
entitled ** History of Ishak ibn Ibrahim." It also informs us that 
he died hardly forty years later than Ishak, and that his son 
Yahya lived until 912 A. D., at which time the author of the 
Aganl was a youth of fifteen.f It may be said, therefore, with 
all probability, that Yahya put into Al-Isbahanl's hands papers 
in his possession which contained this story of Ibrahim and Al- 
Hadl, if he did not copy it directly from his father's book into 
his own ; for the Fihrist informs us that he also composed a 
history of Ishak, a statement which is corroborated in the Aganl 
in the biography of Ishak. J Of course it is probable that Yahyu's 
father merely heard the story from his celebrated teacher, and 
may not have written it out entirely as it was told to him. But 
in any case it was transmitted through a direct line of well-known 
traditionists to the author of the " Book of Songs." 

* Ar. ^yj\ 2uU v:>JuAA^f . 

t See ed. FlQgel, p. 148. Ibn Hallik&n closely follows the Fihrist in 
his articles on 'All and his son Yal^ya. 
X See V. 102 bottom. 



Ibrahim of Mosul. 269 

That At-Tabarl, however, gives his little anecdotes on less good 
authority, there is an indication in his tradition from a certain 
Al-Karmdnl, who related that Al-Haidl despatched Yahya ibn 
Halid with a ring as token of good-will to Ibrahim al-Mausult for 
the purpose of bringing him back to court. For, in the later 
years of Al-Mahdl, Ibrahim had been forced to seek a hiding- 
place through having violated his oath that he would not asso- 
ciate with his two sons, Mdsa and Hardn. But, according to the 
family tradition, known to Al-Isbahanl directly from Hammed, 
who wrote a history of his grandfather Ibrahim, it was not the 
Barmecide vizier but the family relatives who brought back the 
great singer into Al-Hadi's presence, where he announced in 
touching lines of his own composition the sad news of his favorite 
wife's decease.* Had Hammad known that Yahyii the Barmecide 
was sent after his grandfather on that memorable occasion, he 
would surely have mentioned the fact with great emphasis ; for 
his family pride — and his father's, too — was enormous. 

In the light of the foregoing remarks it is certainly fair to 
conclude that the traditionists upon whom At-Tabarl depends 
were in many cases " outsiders,*' speaking from hearsay only, and 
that they are to be graded below the professional men of music 
and letters whose schools of tradition preserved authoritative 
testimony to the history of persons who had formerly been con- 
nected with them. 



CONSPECTUS. 
AGAnI. 1001 NIGHTS. 

I asked Ar-Rashtd that he would I asked permission' of Ar-Rashtd 

give me a day in the week in which that there might be given me some 

he would not send for me for any day for being private with my 

cause or pretext, that I might be household and my friends, 
alone therein with my maidens' 
and my friends. 

He granted me Saturday,' saying He granted me Saturday. 
*' It is a day I find burdensome,^ so 
amuse yourself however you wish.** 

So I remained Saturday at home, And I went home and began to 

and ordered the preparation of my prepare my meat and drink and 

meat and drink and whatever I whatever was needed, and ordered 

needed, and ordered my doorkeeper, the doorkeepers to shut the doors 

and he shut the doors, and I in- and not to permit anyone to come 

structed him not to let anyone in in to me. 
to me. 

* Cf . AgAnt, V. 6. 

* So Lane (from Ilalba(t) al-Kumeit version). 

* Lane here agrees with the Ag&nt. 

' Lane adds ** and he gave me two thousand din&rs." 

* Ahlwardt (1. c.) freely : ** auf den Tag gebe ich nicht viel." 



270 F. D. Chester, 

But while I was in my sitting- But while I was in my sitting- 
room with the women around me room with the harem around me, 
and maidens in line before' me, behold (there appeared) a sheikh of 
behold I (was visited) by a sheikh comely and reverend (aspect), clad 
of comely and reverend (aspect), in white garments and a fine shirt, 
clad in short boots and two fine a teilasdn* on his head and in his 
shirts, a kalansutea'^ on his head hand a staff with silver handle, and 
and in his hand a silverhooked staff, wafting perfume' until the court 
and wafting musk until the house and porch were filled (with it), 
and court were filled (with it). 

Great annoyance penetrated me Annoyance penetrated me at his 

at his coming in to me in the face coming in to me and I thought to 

of what I had ordered, (annoyance) turn away the doorkeepers.* But 

such as had never before penetrated he saluted me in the best fashion, 

me ; and I thought to turn away and I returned it and bade him be 

my doorkeeper and chamberlains* seated, 
on his account. But he saluted me 
in the best fashion, and I returned 
it and bade him be seated. 

So he sat down. Then he began So he sat down and began telling 

some stories of people and Arab me stories of the Arabs and their 

battles^ and stories and verses, un- verses, until my anger left (me) and 

til my anger was gone, and me- methought my servants had sought 

thought my servants had sought to to please me by admitting one of 

please me by admitting one of such such good breeding and culture, 

good breeding and elegance. Then Then I said "Are you (inclined) for 

I said "Are you (inclined) for meat?" meat ?" He said ** I have no want 

He said " I have no want of it." I of it." I said "And for drink?" 

said "Are you (inclined) for drink ?" He said " That is as you wish." So 

He said "That is as you wish." So I drank a pint, and poured him out 

I drank a pint and poured him out the like, 
the like. 

Then he said to me : "Abu Is^4k,* Thereupon he said to me : "Abu 

are you (inclined) to sing us some- Is^&k, are you (inclined) to sing us 

thing of your art wherewith you something so we may hear of your 

have good custom from high and art wherein you exceP high and 



' ZJo J%jo ^tSSlxS . For "women," the Ag4ni has |»lit with 
masc. pi. verb, the 1001 Nights *J>^t ^it^ ^^^' pl* verb (all eds.). 

» Burton for teilusdn " a doctor's turband." Lane does not know the 
form of the fcalansuwa, 

* Lane adds " from his clothes." 

* Lane has " chamberlain" here and at the opening of the story. 
Ahlwardt refers the "turning off" to the visitor. This may be sup- 
ported by the reading of the Gotha epitome, which he used. 

* Likewise Lane, " tales of war." 

* Lane " Ibrahim." 
^ So Lane. 



Ibrahim of Mosul, 271 

k>w ?* His speech angered me, but low ?* His speech angered me, but 

I showed it indifference, took the I showed the matter indifference, 

lute, tried it, then played and sang, took the lute, played and sang. He 

He said ** Well done, Ibrahim I " said ** Well done, Abu Is^Ak I"» 

Then my anger increased, and I (Then' says Ibrahim) I became 

said: "He is not satisfied with more angry, and I said: *'He is 

coming in to me without permis- not content with coming in to me 

sion and making demands upon me, without permission and making 

but must call me by name instead demands upon me, but must call 

of by surname and addressing me me by name, ignorantly addressing 

respectfully.'*' Then he said ** Will me."» Then he said "Will you go 

you go on (singing) to us?" I re- on (singing)? We will repay you." 

ceived the insult, took the lute and I bore the annoyance, took the lute 

sang. He said, " Well done, Abu and sang, and took pains in what I 

Is^i&k ! Finish, that we may repay sang and completely rose up be- 

you and sing to you." I took the cause he said to me " We will 

lute and sang and took pains and repay you."^ He was delighted and 

completely rose up in what I sang said " Well done, my master I"^ 
to him, as I had never taken pains 
and arisen before the caliph or any- 
one else, because he said to me " I 
will repay you." He was delighted 
and said " Well done, my master I"^ 

Then he said " WiU you give your Then he said, "Will you give 

eervant* leave to sing?" I said me leave to sing?" I said "As you 

"As you like," doubting his sense like," doubting his sense to sing in 

to sing in my presence after what my presence after what he had 

he had heard from me. But he heard from me. But he took the 

took the lute, tried it, tightened it lute, tried it, and, by Allah, I should 

—and, by Allah, I fancied it was have^ fancied the lute was speak- 

speaking in the Arabic tongue for ing in the pure Arabic tongue, with 

the beauty of its voice as I heard it. a sweet murmuring voice. And he 

Thereupon he sang : began to sing these couplets : 

" I have a wounded heart ; who " I have a wounded heart ; who 

will sell me will sell me 

" For it a heart having no wound "For it a heart having no wound 

(at all)? (at all)? 

^ Sal^4n! (Beirut, 5 vols.) corrects to " Ibrahim," in accordance with 
the context. 

* Sall^&ni (Beirut, 5 vols.) omits |^' . 

* Lane has " proves himself unworthy of my conversation" (a mis- 
translation ?). 

* The story is here divided by the customary formulas and part repe- 
tition of the foregoing words, to inh'oduce the 688th niglit. 

* Lane has " my master, Ibrahim." 

* Similarly Lane, " your slave." 

« >^ 

' (XaJ prefixed to the verb-form. 



(( 



(I 



272 F. D. Chester, 

**The people refuse me it; they **The people refuse to sell it to 
will not sell it. me. 

Who would buy damaged (goods) ** Who would buy damaged (goods) 

for sound ? for sound ? 

I groan for the pining which is ** I groan for the pining which is 
in my sides in my flanks, 

** With the groans of a choked one, " With the groans of a choked one, 
wounded by drink." injured by drink." 

And, by Allah, I thought the And, by Allah, I thought the 

walls and doors and all that was doors and the walls and all that 

in the house answered him and was in the house answered him and 

sang with hira, for the beauty of sang with him, for the beauty of 

the song, so that I fancied I and his voice,' so that I fancied that I 

my limbs and clothes answered heard my limbs and clothes answer 

him. I abode amazed, unable to him. I abode amazed, unable to 

speak or answer or move, for the speak or move, for the trouble of 

trouble of my heart. Then ho my heart. Then he sang these 

sang : couplets : 

"Culvers of Liwa I (to your nests) ** Culvers of IJwa I (to your nests 

return ;* return :* 

"Your mournful voices thrill this "Your mournful voices thrill this 

heart of mine.^ heart of mine.* 

•* Returned they ; as they flew, they " Then back a-copse they flew, and 

well nigh took well nigh took 

"My life, and made me tell my "My life, and made me tell my 

secret pine. secret pine. 

" With cooing call they repeatedly, " With cooing call they one who's 

as though gone, as though 

" Their breasts were maddened with " Their breasts were maddened with 

the rage of wine :■* the rage of wine :* 

" Ne'er did mine eyes their like for " Ne*er did mine eyes their like for 

culvers see culvers see 

"Who weep, yet teardrops never "Who weep, yet teardrops never 

dye th«ir eyne." dye their eyne." 

(I do not know any air to these 
couplets traceable to Ibrahim. That 
which I do know to them is by Mo- 



* Or " piece " \;i^yc . 

* Following Burton's translation. Ahlwardt, "Chilvers of the hedge, 
back hither return." 

* Ahlwardt, " Euch girren h5ren ist mein einzig Qltick." 

« Ag&nl ^jJ^ ; 1001 Nights ^y^ • "The translation of this line is 

too free to be faithful. Lit. " (as though) they had drunk wine or mad- 
ness were in them." 



Ihrahim of Mosul, 273 

ll^mmed ibn al-Harit ibn Shoheir, 
[of the metre] hafif ramahy 

And Allah knows, by Allah, my 
reason was nigh distracted with 
delight and pleasure as I listened. 

Then he sang : Then he sang also these couplets : 

"O Zephyr of Najd, when from ** O Zephyr of Najd, when from 

Najd thou blowest, Najd thou blowest, 

"Thy voyage heaps only on me **Thy voyage heaps only on me 

new woe I new woe I 

" I moan with the moaning of love- ** The turtle bt spake me in bloom 

sick grief, of mom 

*' Into grief doth all check and all "From the cassia-twig and the 

effort blow. willow (bough), 

"Bespake me the turtle in bloom " She moaned with the moaning of 

of mom, love-sick youth, 

"From frail plant-twig and the "And exposed love-secret I ne'er 

willow (bough); would show ; 

"They say lover wearies of love "They say lover wearies of love 

when far, when near, 

"And is cured of love an afar he " And is cured of love an afar he 

go ; go ; 

"I tried every cure, which ne'er " 1 tried either(?) cure, which ne'er 

cured my love ; cured my love ; 

"But that nearness is better than "But that nearness is better than 

famess I know." famess I know. 

" Yet the nearness of love shall no 

'vantage prove, 
"An whoso thou lovest deny^hee 
of love."* 

Then he said: "Ibrahim, this Then he said: "Ibrahim, sing 

song is mdl^Urt, Take it and keep this song which you have heard, 

to it in your singing, and teach it and keep to it in your singing, and 

to your maidens." I said "Repeat teach it to your maidens." I said 

it to me ;" but he said : "There is "Repeat it to me ;" but he said : 

no need to repeat it. You have "There is no need to repeat it. 

learned it and have it all." There- You have learned it and have it 

upon he vanished from before me. all." Thereupon he vanished from 

I was amazed, rose for my sword, before me. I was astonished, rose 

bared it, ran to the doors of the for my sword, drew it, then hast- 

harem and found them closed. I ened*^ to the door of the harem and 

^ — ' ■ [ 

^ This musical note is very interesting (Mol^. ibn al-Harit was slightly 
younger and outlived Ibrahim, to the reign of Al-Ma'mCln). Of course 
it has no place in the Nights. 

* As Burton notes, this song occurs without the last two hemistichs 
in Al-Mas'tldl (Fr. transl. vii. 818) ; a good proof that the compiler of 
the Nights has made an addition, or copied it in from another. 

* v;^^ (X^ (7) 



274 F. Z>. Chester. 

said to the maidens ''What have found it closed. I said to the 
you heard in my room?'* They maidens ** What have you heard?" 
said ''We have heard the finest They said "We have heard the 
singing ever heard." I went out sweetest and finest of singing." I 
astounded to the house-door, found went out astounded to the house- 
it closed, and asked the doorkeeper door, found it closed, and asked the 
about the old man. He said: "What door-keepers about the old man. 
old man? By Allah, no one has They said: "What old man? By 
come in to you to-day." So I went Allah, no one has come in to you 
back to think over my adventure, to-day." So I went back thinking 

it over. 
But lo, he called me from one of But io, he called me from one 
the comers of the house, and said : comer of the building, and said 
" No harm to you, Abu Isl^&k ! I am "No harm to you, Abu Isl^&k ! I 
Iblts, who have been your g^est am only Abu Murra, who have 
and companion to-day, so trouble been your companion to-day, so 
not." Thenlrodeoff toAr-Rashld, fear not." Then I rode off to Ar- 
and said " May I never (again) pre- Rashtd and told him the story, 
sent him with news like this." I He said "Repeat the pieces which 
entered his presence and told him you have learned from him." I 
the story. He said " Reflect upon took the lute and played, and be- 
the couplets, whether you learned hold I they were firm in my breast, 
them." I took the lute, tried them, Ar-Rashld was delighted with them 
and behold I they were so firm in and began to drink to them, though 
my breast as not to have vanished, he was not confirmed in drinking, 
Ar-Rashtd was delighted and sat and said "Would he might some 
drinking, though he was not reso- day favor us with his company, as 
lute in drinking, and ordered me a he favored you !" Then he ordered 
present and its delivery, and said me a present ; and I took it, and 
" The sheikh was most wise in say- departed, 
ing to you that you had learned 
them completely. Would he might 
some day favor us with his com- 
pany, as he favored you I " 



ARTICLE VI. 



NUMERICAL FORMULA IN THE VEDA AND 
THEIR BEARING ON VEDIC CRITICISM. 

By EDWARD WASHBURN HOPKINS, 

PROFESSOR IN BRTN MAWR COLLEGE, BRTN MAWR. PA. 



Presented to the Society, March, 1804. 



In view of the conflicting opinions that are current respecting 
the age of the eighth book of the Rig- Veda, every additional 
means of historical criticism becomes of value. Of possible bases 
of criticism two have attracted my attention. In reading the 
Kanva book, I have been struck by the noteworthy similarity in 
vocabulary and in numerical formulae between the eighth book 
and those books which I may call '' General Books," (i., ix., x.) 
in distinction from the other received " Family Books" (ii.-vii. ; 
the fourth book is perhaps the latest of the Family Books). The 
material for comparison from both points of view I have now 
collected ; but, as the examples of the vocabulary are not yet 
arranged, I offer at present only the coincidences in numbers 
found in the Kanva Book and General Books. The results from 
this point of view alone are of course not such as to be conclu- 
sive in any way; yet they furnish strong corroborative evidence 
of the view that sees in the Kanva-book a literary production 
which, in so far as we are enabled to discriminate in the matteir 
of time, belongs rather to the later than to the earlier Vedic 
period. There are hymns in either division of the books when 
the latter are arranged in groups, that belong to the other divis- 
ion. This is a va sans dire of Vedic criticism. Yet the general 
character of the two groups is not such as to indicate that the body 
of hymns of one group in their present form is synchronous with 
with that of the other. 

In respect of numerical formulsB, the evidence given by their 
use easily may be overestimated ; but, not less easily, this may 
be unjustly depreciated. For a numerical complex, when once 
received, naturally tends to assume a sacrosanct character, and 
perpetuates itself in the religious consciousness. Not that a holy 
number remains intact. Other factors come into play. Exag- 
gerated laudation leads to multiplication in majorem gloriam. 



276 E. TF. IlopUna, 

Nevertheless, coincidences of numerical fornaulaB are to a certain 
extent indicative of a contemporary way of looking at things, 
and as such deserve to be reckoned as a factor in determining 
the age of a literary production. It is, for instance, possibly a 
mere coincidence that "the far distance" is spoken of in one 
group of books and that onlv in the other (later) group are found 
** the three far distances." The underlying idea of three spaces 
may be older than the expression that here conveys it ; but it 
certainly is significant that in the formulaic expression the 
Kanva book coincides with the later group; while the signifi- 
cance is heightened by finding similar coincidences to be not 
unusual, but rather, considering how few are the fixed formulae, 
the norm. While, therefore, I would not lay too much weight 
upon the following examples, I consider them provisionally as 
indicative of a close connection between the General Books and 
that attributed to the Kanvas. 

• 

The first example is the one already cited. In x. 05. 14 we 
find a plurality of "far distances" implied in paramd paravdt ; 
in i. 34. 7 and in the Atharva-Veda vi. 75. 3, the number is 
known as "three far distances." Elsewhere in the Rig- Veda 
this formula is unknown save in the Kanva-book, and there it 
occurs twice (viii. 5. 8 ; 32. 22). 

This three is of course a number peculiarly holy. Accordingly 
it is here that we find most of the coincidences. Thus, the gods 
are grouped in threes in a certain expression that is used but 
twice, once in the first, once in the eighth book {trisv A rocani 
divdSy i. 105. 6 ; viii. 69 (58). 3); the mystical "three dawns" are 
known only in viii. 41. 3 ; x. 67. 4 ; and 7iirrtiy used all through 
the Veda in the singular, occurs in the plural only in viii, 24. 24, 
and X. 114. 2 (here specified as three in number). 

Again, the fixed expression trivr't, occurring quite a number 
of times, is found in the Atharvan, but in RV. only in the Kanva 
and General Books : thus, i. 34. 9, 12 ; 47. 2; 118. 2 ; 140. 2 ; 
viii. 72 (61). 8 ; 86 (74). 8 ; ix. 86. 32 ; x. 52. 4 ; 114. 1 ; 124. 1 ; 
and in four or hve hymns of the Atharva-Veda. This is a very 
good example, because trivrt is a word thoroughly Brahmanic 
and classical, so that its history, if sketched in literature, would 
read " used as a common word in epic literature and legal smrtis ; 
often employed in the Brahmanic period ; not rare in the AV. ; 
found in liV. in the General Books and Kanva, but not traced so 
far back as the other Family Books." 

The following examples of " three" may point to a closer con- 
nection with a late period. The expression trisadhastke harhUi in 
i. 47. 4 is paralleled only by the similar tridhiitu harftU of viii. 102 
(91). 14 ; and by tribdrfusi sddasi also in the first book, i. 181. 8. 
Indra's bolt is represented as a trident only in i. 121. 4* and viii, 
72 (61). 8. It is only in viii. 2. 21 that Indra receives the laud 
which is elsewhere ascribed to Agni, that he is " born in three 

* Trikakubh (Indra) in sense refers to three-forked lightning. 



Numerical Fonn^dde in the Veda, 277 

places." Cases of magic where ^' three" is employed in a mys- 
terious occult manner, common in the Atharvan (e. g. AY. iv. d. 1 ; 
9. 8y etc.), occur in RV. only in the eighth and tenth books (viii. 
91 (80). 5-7 ; X. 87. 10 ff.). The same growth in appreciation of 
esoteric wisdom, especially affected in the Brahmanas, may per- 
haps be traced in the fact that '^ concealed " paddni are spoken 
of only in i. 164. 45 ; viil 8. 23 ; x. 13. 3 (=AV. xviii. 3. 40, 
V. !.). The "three ages past" appear to be known in viii. 101 
(90). 14=AV. X. 8. 3, and not elsewhere in the Rig- Veda, 

Turning to the next holiest number, it is only in the eighth 
book of the Rig-Yeda that aaptdpada occurs, withal in its late 
meaning, just as it is found in the Atharva-Yeda (RY. viii. 72 
(61). 16 ; AY. V. 11. 10); it is only in the eighth book that the 
<< seven bottomed sea" is known, viii. 40. 5. Again, the " seven 
ra^mdyoB of the sun" are spoken of only in i. 105. 9 and viii. 72 
(61). 16, although synonyms of rapmdt/as are of ten found else- 
where, and Indra's seven ra^mdyaa are common. Ludwig, 
indeed, will not accept Sayana on i. 105. 0, when the latter says 
Baptasamkhydkd ra^mayah auryaaya to explain ami yi saptd 
ra^mdyas tdtrd me ndbhir dtatd ; but, with the remark '' es ist 
uns jedoch von dergleichen nichts erinnerlich," refers the rays to 
Agni as the only possibility (v. 444); a subjective impression 
that is contradicted by aUryaaya saptd ra^mibhis in viii. 72 
(61). 16. 

A very striking example of the differences between the Family 
and the Oeneral%ooks may be noticed in the number of hotars. 
These priests are of course mentioned a great many times. In 
distinction from the " seven seers," who by the way are late, the 
seven viprds, and the kavdyaSy the hotars^ when expressly counted, 
are reckoned either as five or as seven. In iii. 29. 14 we have a 
passage which on entirely different grounds is reckoned late, and 
nere we find seven hotars. There is only one more passage in 
the Family Books, and this in the same third book, where the 
hotars are reckoned as seven, viz. : iii. 10. 4. On the other hand, 
they are elsewhere counted as five in the Family Books, while in 
books eight and ten, and possibly in the first book, they are 
counted as seven. The count of the Atharva-Yeda also makes 
them seven. Thus, in RY. ii. 34. 14 ; v. 42. 1 we have distinctly 
only five hotars; but, as in AY. iv. 24. 3, so in RY. i. 58. 7 (?); 
viii. 60 (49). 16 ; ix. 10. 7 ; 114. 3 ; x. 35. 10 ; 61. 1 ; 63. 7, there 
are as plainly seven hotars, and probably we should add to these 
viii. 72 (61). 7 ; ix. 10. 3 ; and x. 122. 4.* With this latter 
group goes the late iii. 29. 14 (the language alone of this hymn 
shows Its lateness ; compare Lanman, Noun-inflection, p. 578). 

I reckon as late, not early, coincidences with cis-Indic data, 
referable to Persian or Babylonian influence,! and among them 

* Ludwig, iii. 228, includes iii. 7. 7 (late?) as hotars^ but these are 
viprds, not expressly hotars, I think AV. never mentions five hotars, 
t On this topic, more in the next paper. 

vou XVL 86 



278 E. TT. llopkinB, 

the name of the land as " Seven Rivers." The seven rivers are 
often referred to; but, as an equivalent of hapta henduy this 
designation occurs only in viiL 24. 27, where it stands on a par 
with the one mention of Babylon's mintage, the " mand of gold" 
of viii. 78 (67). 2. It is, again, only in the eighth book that we 
find designated fractions other than a half. In viii. 47. 17 ^phd 
is i and kaid is -^f* So AV. vi. 46. 3 ; xix. 67. 1. 

Before leaving the province of seven, I may add the fact that 
saptdmdnusa occurs only in viii. 39. 8, in respect of which I 
venture proleptically the following suggestion. Agni "of the 
seven peoples" may be meant, since it is difficult to see how 
mdnusa can stand here for " priest." We may accept the ex- 
planation that seven means " many " (PW.), but another explana- 
tion is also possible. In a preceding paperf I have attempted to 
show that the " five tribes " cannot be the Puru-Yadu group with 
which the five are arbitrarily identified. I think the "five" 
refers to the five tribes whose respective family- or tribe-collec- 
tions make the first Rig- Veda. Each tribe is identified with one 
special family of singers. Their output is represented by books 
iL-iii,, v.-vii. There were new tribes absorbed into the whole 
body of older Aryans. They too had each its priestly family. 
The first new one was the tnbe represented in the collection by 
the hymns of the Gautamas, the fourth book. The next to come 
in were the Kanvas, who for a long time are regarded as more or 
less aliens. Apart from these distinctly family or tribal collec- 
tions, containing some spontaneous and some ritualistic poetry, 
were the hymns not claimed by any family as exclusively theirs. 
Such were the few really old hymns of Soma, of death (with the 
Tama hymns), and of marriage. But such hymns w6re not numer- 
ous, and the later books consist chiefly of the new hymnology 
that belonged to a united people, settled in about the same region 
which they are to occupy for centuries. The " seven singers " 
{rsayaa)^ as fathers of the clan-priests, belong only to this later 
period (iv. 42. 8 ; ix. 92. 2 ; x. 82. 2 ; 114. 7 ; 130. 7). There 
were, then, before the Rik collection finally closed, seven families 
or tribes, each with its ancestral rai^ and to this division refers 
the "Agni of the seven tribes " {aaptdmdnxisa) of the eighth book. 
The old nomenclature continues, however, just as the "seven 
rivers," after they become twenty-one, are still called " the seven," 
and even in the later period " the five families " {jdnOy tndnusa^ 
etcj are retained. 

The cardinal points, known in the Atharvan as ten, appear as 
ten in the Rik only in viii. 101 (90). 13, and, possibly, i, 164. 14. 
In regard to two of the most significant numerical formulae, I 
have elsewhere compared the use of the General Books witii that 
of the Kanvas (" The Holy Numbers of the Rig- Veda," in the 
Oriental Studies of the Philadelphia Oriental Club). The facts, 
briefly stated, are as follows. Several stereotyped groups of 



* In vii. 18. 15 prakdldvid is not technical. f J.A.O.S. xv. 260. 



KuTnerical FormulcB in the Veda. 2Y9 

seveDy such as " seven gifts," " seven rivers," are raised by treb- 
ling to twenty-one ; jast as, conversely, in the Atharvan the 
three bonds of Varuna are multiplied into the other sacred num- 
ber and become twenty-one. There are in the Rik, outside of 
the group i, viii, ix, x, but two cases where is found this later 
multiplication of objects that were before holy enough without 
such aid ; and both of these exceptions refer to the same point, 
and are full of esoteric mystery : " they observed the first name 
of the cow ; they found the thrice-seven highest names of the 
mother" Hv. 1. 16); and "Varuna declared unto me, the wise 
one, that tne not-to-be-slain one (viz., the cow) bears thrice seven 
names " (vii. 87. 4). There are " seven names of the cows " in 
i. 164. 3 ; and in each of these cases we have to do with the rais- 
ing of the number from seven to thrice seven, for these cows were 
once identical with the other Indric sevens (the Maruts, the 
beams, etc.). 

The further cases are as follows : 

Seven is raised to thrice seven in i. 20. 7, where the gifts 
begged for as seven in the Family Books (v. 1. 6 ; vi. 74. 1)* are 
now twenty-one. The " seven secret places " (padd) of Agni are 
in i. 72. 6 raised to thrice seven ; and in a mystic hymn of the 
same book, i. 191. 12-14, we find mentioned "the three times 
seven vupulingakds^ and thrice seven peahens (Maruts)." In 
all the Family Books (with the exceptions just mentioned) there 
are no mystic thrice sevens. But in viii. 69 (68). 7 the Maruts 
appear a^ain as thrice seven ; and in viii. 96 (85). 2 Indra's seven 
strongholds, familiar from other parts of the work, suddenly 
appear as "thrice seven mountain-tops" destroyed by Indra.f 
Other instances are all from books nine and ten : " Thrice seven 
cows milk for him," in ix. 70. 1 ; and a^ain " thrice seven cows " 
are opposed to "seven cows" (streams) in ix. 86. 21, 26. In the 
tenth book are "the thrice seven streams" and "thrice seven 
wood-piles," x. 64. 8 ; 90. 15. 

Moreover, a certain increase, even of the old method of multi- 
plying holiness, may be observed in the tr'ih saptd sapt<xS%ndm 
(3x7x70) of viii. 46. 26; while in viii. 19.* 37 we find "three 
seventies." Once more, it is to be noticed that it is only in viii. 
96 (86). 8 that the Maruts are raised to " thrice sixty ."t The 
Atharvan use of " thrice seven beings" is found in the Rik only 
at i. 133. 6 and Val. 11. 6, a Kanva verse. 



* Ck>mpare v. 52. 17 ; aaptd me saptd - - 4kam-ekd gatd dadus in a 
gift-laud. 

t Bergaigne, La Relimon Vidimie, ii. 122, takes viii. 96. 2 and i. 72. 6 
as referring to " worlds." But these are thrice seven only in still later 
Hterature. Compare viii. 7. 84 for sense. So later the seven hells 
become twenty-one. In iv. 19. 8 and ix. 54. 2, the saptd pravdtas may 
be bills. Seven fortresses are mentioned in vi 20. 10 ; vii. 18. 18 (Family 
Books). 

X Not " 8ixty*three" {trih ^a^tis). 



280 E. W. BopUns, 

Not less interesting is the raising of the number of the original 
ten gods (as I think I have shown their original number to be, 
L c.) to thrice eleven.* In Val. 9. 2 and ix. 92. 4, as in the late 
passage i. 34. 11, all the gods are included in this number. In 
lii. 6. 9 we find the only exception to the rule that the thrice 
eleven are confined to Kanva and General Books. For the Kanva 
book compare viii. 28. 1 ; 30. 2 ; 36. 3 ; 39. 9. In i. 139. 11 (com- 
pare X. 65. 9) the three elevens are distributed over heaven, earth, 
and waters. Without division they are mentioned in i. 34. 1 1 ; 
46. 2. The exception in iii. 6. 9 may possibly be only a further 
example of the case in hand : that is, a late verse ; for here the 
gods are mentioned pdtnlvarUaa * accompanied with their wives,' 
an expression which occurs in regard to gods only here and 
i. 72. 6 ; iv. 56. 4 ; viii. 28. 2 ; 93 (82). 22. But the fourth book 
is almost as late as the eighth. 

Characteristic also of the eighth book is the fact that only here 
is there found a Dvita invented to go with the ancient Trita (as 
later still Ekata goes with both), viii. 47. 16. We have in all 
this the same later raising of ^ods as that which we see again in 
AY. xi. 5. 2 (thousands of Gandharvas) ; and TS. v. 5. 2. 5 ff. 
where the old Vasus are raised to 333 ; or, better still, ib. i. 4. 11. 1, 
where the eleven Rudras are made thirty-three.f 

I might add to these a rather remarkable fact in connection 
with Schmidt's theory of the duodecimal system : viz., that sixty, 
alone or in composition, occurs in Fanuly Books only in the 
60,000 men slain by Indra at vi. 26. 6, and in the Battle of the 
Ten Kings, vii. 18. 14. But it is not infrequent in the other 
group. In viii. 96 (85). 8 we have 3X60 (above); in i. 53. 9 
there are 60099 slain by Indra ; in i. 1 26. 3, we find 60,000 kine ; 
in viii. 4. 20, the same ; ib. 46. 29, the same ; ib. 22, 60,000 horses ; 
all these passages being gift-lauds ; and in ix. 97. 53 there are 
60,000 good things. 

A few more cases remain. Only in iv. 26. 7 and in the eighth 
book have we ayti<a=lO,000 (viii. 1. 5; 34. 15 ; and gift-lauds, 
ib. 2. 41 ; 21.18; 46. 22). In the eighth and tenth books appears 
generally the greatest extravagance in gift-lauds (e. e. viii. 5. 37 ; 
46. 22 ; 2. 41 ; x. 62. 8). But in vi. 63. 10 hundreds and thou- 
sands of horses are acknowledged as baksheesh ! 

The "double one," dvat/Hy is found only in viii. 18. 14, 15 ; 
ix. 104. 6 ; 105. 6 ; dvlpd^ * island,' only in i. 169. 3 ; viii. 20. 4. 
The old " pair " of horses is replaced by a spike-team : i. e. horses 
with a leader (prsatls-hprdstis), only in i. 39. 6 ; 100. 17 ; viii. 
7. 28, and a gift-laud in vi. 47. 24. The later "four names" of 
Indra occur m the Rik only in x. 54. 4 and viii. 80 (69). 9. Else- 
where the four arc unknown, although familiar to the Bralimanic 



* That is, at first, ** ten with one added** as e'AEa^tam=100, loo. cit., 
p. 158. Compare RV. x. 85. 45. 

f The 8889 gods of iii. 9. 9 really belong only in x. 62. 6. The Btill 
later group of thirty-five gods has been discussed by me, loc. cit., p. 158. 
It is found i. 162. 18 and x. 27. 16, 16. 



Numerical Formulw in the Veda, 281 

age (see Lndwig's citations). In viii. 80. 9 the fourth name is 
taken as a matter of coarse^ Compare the Kanva verse Yal. 4. 7, 
where Indra is the fourth Aditya, another late idea. 

These numerical coincidences will be found to be paralleled by 
the vocabulary of the poets of the General Books and Kanvas 
respectively, in regard to which I hope to read a paper at the 
next meeting.* 

* For previous estimates of the age of the Ka^va book, see Zimmer, 
Altindisehea Leben, p. 855 ; Lanman, J.A.O.S., X. 580 ; Brunnhofer, KZ., 
1880 ; Iran und Turan, Preface. 



ARTICLE VII. 



KITAB AL-MATAR. 

By abO zeid saId IBN 'AUS al-ansArI. 

Transcribed from a manuscript in the Biblioth^ue Nationale, Paris, and edited, 

with Notes, 

By R. J. H. GOTTHKIL, Ph.D., 

PBOFMSOB IH COLUMBIA OOLLSOI, XKW TOBK, X. T. 



Presented to the Society, March, 1894. 



sJ 






9 ^ ^ 



i>UaJi wiJ ^^ v>LiJcivi ivA^yi ,j*4^y «JJ' |v*-^ (^oi. lb) 5 

44' ^s- U4i;ii5' ^^uijjji ^ .ij^ii ;jipi5 ^^pi jj;s 
^ Mpui^ i^i ;e'' iM ^^:^^ ^?} ^^' >' >)" 



4^yi\) sUl^ ^ V-Al-lil^ *^jJt ^^ 3^ ^5*, &i^ 



KitM Al-Matar. 283 

,jj\^ ^ u^ v^jji ;ivi5' 's^% J;vi ^i^u^i 



M ^ 



;^ ^' y^y r*^' r^" ^ c^^;' c^" ^* y*3 '-^ 



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• • ^ M • • ^y ^ J ^ ^ 

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y &JLJ ^fLi} U^Ju.^ v^y' i» JCki ^5JJI p^Vf dUJf 



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^^JbJt oy ye^ (>aJI xa«j L&Jo g£i^' (fol. 2b) ^LmJI ouLfe 

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dLJJ^ aLAiuJt vjyi JUdJI^ cA*-H '^^^^^ ^l^. 



IjLi v;jLif .141^^ ^Ui[ &U; ^ oli? JUb ld^\y 



284 R. J. H. CfoUhetl, 






'"^'^t. .">- 'of. I .. ''^ II.. ..^•-'« '.•. 



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s^ipui iu^ijji kiavi^ oLi^jb ^p» ^ kjuuf 



''>jT «Xi JUj LjUS g^lj s*iJj| ^J-• liij tL&l ^y 



KitM AlMaiar. 285 

iugji L4Juo^ r'^y^ i^y L*^'^'^^ ^^z' ^54^ ^u^i 

I4JU0 g^Lit^ (lit v5ri^l <J^ ^yJI ^^1^ ^^ sU0 L^'J^I^ 



,,^»^.. 8^>*^ O^'o^ 0^». 'i-^ . *^ •^ 

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> j^Uyt jyi gL^^ L&1^^[ jy i>'U^I ow^jl IJuJj j4JUJt 






yA^VI Jb, JUi iJJaS i:kil5 ^1 )^l yo^ Jaipf *JL.^ 



*. -•• > .^i. . M »«»^l. ? 



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VOL. XVI. 37 



286 li. J. 11. GottheU, 



^LLJ, L^i'L^' CJis^ ,s^ L*^ J\yi ^ ^jil /aJ» L* J^b 



'^. -: •. 



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JHy^li^fl, J^\ ^Wii uis v';^' vi^5 u*;^ '*^5 



^1 0:4^115 ,^ jr^ jajijuu ;kji ^^1, ;*i)Cji 



^jj> LdUji 14;*^- ^^1 ijuL^- «;,j4i gJL|i:;i yip^ji,* 



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J^U>5 P^l «JLi.5 ^H-Ult »^W, yl^i'l ^5fc^5 Jb^l 



Kltab Al^Atatar. 287 

<L^) LsL^ >^>.sx^ Sjysa^' v5^ &^^AU)I yji\^\) iL^t 

ji4Jf f-^i^ ^f j;i i <iUj>5 iU«ji ^Li^iLii jubj 



7 



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^J4IL iJy EiuUi- Jl jUkJI ^^5 Jilii, J,lJ^I ^1 ^, 



^UaJljjUiJl, ^pl^ ^i^'^li^'l J^S^ ^y «V J;' JU., 



GLUi v^lj L^lijl yA^5H oJpjl JUb ^LjJI^ <MJLj 



^5jJI ^L^sOl yt, vJUiJI ^p' y^*^ Ciya ,i^ 



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Kitdb Al-Matar. 289 



^ . . • «a ^A • .^« 



*^;l JUa «JU JoJ^I p. tuyi vi^ ye, }Xp\ J^yi 



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lil^l c^l, Lo^ J^yi c^- JUb, (foL 6b) i^^l yD, 



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288 li. J. II GoUAeil, 



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fif llksi, iJl^J ^I, ^I ^ yU^ p»Jf jUiM," 

jiib^ jiji ^Loi bi ^^^ ^ ,i;i)i Jio jUj, ^1 

J^ ^ M^ ^Sy JilU ^li J^ tjt ^Ski p5 Ji» 

^ •V' # 



jj C^^' jd ^ J d}c>) y-^kJcl &^3^b aaJU :JSL\'y 



^[LxJJ\ uLu Uj-ii J^ 161 t/j^ )j4j i^S 33^ jUb, 



y. .^ ft . ... .. *^ -^ . .# • •■ ^ ^ f 



^j4lLi^ iuoUijiju^i^^j Juii, j,iJyi ^1 ^^ 



^UaJfjjUiJf^ ^pi, ;£»';,^' ^'« ^/%i J;' JU«j 



GC-d^ sllil^ U.li;^ uA,5« oJ^jl JUb ;L4jJI^ cMJU 



vju*Jl ^^3 ..w. lilii- :*L= • ' 



^\ ^Q>ki\, 



&JLJLII 



lis 

^1^ i^ u*^^ ^y or^* 
• . " ^ 



iU-JI v^jij JUb 4>^pl i^U^^ J^^l «t 4Xi Jl iU-*.l 



^1 " • > ..»• T-'C, .f o^ ' f 



^, j^i ^Loi 151 bu,i ^1 txi;!, icxi; txy ^ 



Kitdb Al-Matar. 289 



M.I lis? ^,- a.vaIi '*1 %^ II '• -1 ^ '•:*• 



liyjiJ f^fj Lo^ jLcyi c^- JUb, (fol. 6b) ^^1 yc, 



•^Lun l4eU», 8(X^ ^ (Xe Jt <:;>^ i^U^' yfi>) SaImJI iui, 



Jh^ 



'^ ({^^ IT; SLtoLaJt tui^ L1j»jj uLmm^% \j**^y^ iU-^JI oum1^\« 



» * ■^- - o. I Mil • r- 



iX^JI v;&»^ yO) v>s!^t Kxi^ LdULol, iUwJI LuJU oJuuol 






^yi JU Ij^ yji iU-JI «y)j5 l^lj I^T 



'"i ^ 






^ V.JUAJ (fol. 7a) v;y^l yO, *iA^ J^^l Jii^ JU^J 

'^;:5, kmi J^ yo, l^;^- Ou.yi ^^, Oi^JI v^yi 



290 R. J. 11. Gottheil, 



iL^JI oJ;l JUb) tpsix) &4S1, 14^ LUy^l yo, LoJe^ J^^l 



#. ^ 



iUuJ! ooji jUjjj o^^i *^u&-5 0^1 »0^' iU-^t 



t^i oL^5 0^1 ;;4^Loi 161 uy pyLii oj^si, u;; j^ 



9 9. . * * 



JJL. yo, iSLsui, li»J lUi J^l ^5 g;jl Juu S^JI 

(J^l fllSy JJLW ^ 5II yj^ ^ ^lUf J^l ^ ^JJI 



ii$^t (33 ye^ tSliu&wt 0^1 Jkiyu.1^ v-A.^11 Juut y6j C^yls » 



» >. 






(fol.7b) o^. y^JLa. 0^1 J5< ^65 LoUij[o^1 jU^I^ 



J^ kj,«.JL».-Hj »UwJI i^ KS^t v_lAXjdl, Sjl%.^tj 



>x >• '«^* 



ya^lJI JU JUUSJJI &»^l ^^^ ii\ZsS\ vjI^jOI O;^^ ;L*J'J' 



' " 190 



V5^' y^3 V^ 0;^3 4^ J*/?? V^' o)^ '^ J^ibj 

^1^^^ 1^*^ '*^ '•'•• ^^^ •! «•" " 

• I*. . I*. S. .«• fc V II .. 2. II V I 



ye, bUAi, Ua^ vJUsi 0;;JI UUi JUb, ^ «*i y«J 



Kitdb Al-Matar. 291 



"o^P' y^j l^Uit o^i {jo^\\^ o^i vj^ ^5^ 1^ ^5Ai»^i y»3 



• ^ . > ^^•^ 



'^'j **^r* «i *^y* 15/ ^' o/jJ' ^5/ \J /^ ^ »y 



14;^ ,4ft ^J JJj ^^li' Uj;^ ^LjjJI ^^50 JaXJL U-Jl ^;,^ 



MO 



0^( ^^5 (fol.8a) iUA^ ^LmJIj V^ r^ "^^^ (J*^ 
m««^ &Ljt (Jljj ^t s£JLi<>^ llillS (J^l uaL^'j slL. JuLo 
OyaJI ^Ji^j vJlL&JlJI JjLo yo, liJCi- (J^l v^li, •^^l ^ 









#•- f-^O- ^ ^^ i#«^ »^o^ 



o/jJ' y^3 ^'r** ^^ ^; ^7^- ^i? ^*^ C*^ ^y^' 

k^;^ iil4ll^ GljJi vjf^! ^1; s^^LiaJI uuAill ^^1 

IjI Lol^ u^T^ iUiMJt oud«x AdMJjJt ^"^^ r^^ ^ ^4^^ 
yd^ U^ <5r^ ^T^^ '7^9 2Lol*x il^^wiJI oJLj^ '^rT l|^^ 

4> 'U^l 1^ '^))*^) 8«J^ 



^^lijl, »^ wLtfOI J4S i ^yL» yjby f.^1 »ftU*5 



292 R. J. II. GottheU, 






' ^ «-'» .^' 



»cU*5 yil^o ^ UUfil U^fyc; »l^- ^jJI wUiOl ^ 



'"- »-»r.. ... .... « .- 



^( ^ iUuJ o>^Z^I ij£uJI v^l^^JI ^ juJt^ /^<^' 



<>jOul)l^ JoL^kJI ^^0J>5 JLa>.^ (5^^^^ '^ v:I>Jui^ 






judlii ^ussji ^^ ,ji;;ji ji ^j^ L. ^1 4JL4.I, ykoVi « 



^i'.-' . .. ».':.'.. ». ' •» 



'^Vyi tXi> ^5jJI pl^JI^ jLdj5« «U»^5 -Ax^ll Jii* yc^ 

0^ ^^ 9 * ,^ y ^ y 3 9 

jUb if- ^! i ^! ;^,:> ^yCi- f Gp! &fix5yi ibUiOi 



Kim Al'Matar. 293 

" w,L^» );^\y pa^\ ^i^\ j;i yo, ^'/ **-, 



ri^ v^4^ ;r«^ 1^3 ^;r*^ "'^ ^^^5 ^■^^' r*^^' 



yd, S^^l ftjue, «^y» &^4X^I;^ (jjidi jtiuJi y») gvSJ 



xiiA3 (fol.9b) aJiX^I,, UoUb xJULd. ^ ^y ^JJI |H^I 



M « . ♦*"- - - *" 



I ^ Jl &x2»U wL^ J^y^9 J^l ^^^9 ^' '^U^^ 



o ^ 



ao 









^i* 



• > -- » 



w J>L1^I «Juo^ JW4^' LHjn v-^ (jLkjJI *1& ycj iLUJI *A^^ 



»-. ^ 



*•• 



VOL. XVI. 38 



294 



It. J. B. GoUheil, 



^^ jJt^JI tJjty JlLai ^g^ iUwJt o4^l d3 JUlj (foL 10a) 







\ UftUrt J LUi ^Lft*i 



r 

Lot 



I^^XL.' La.i^ jub^ ,:i^ptj pi^uajt vL^t ,^4^1^ 
gj].^ ikxji 8;L ju,, ^1 ^ ^;^ u jjbt ^1 g)L^ 

(£ol. 10b) ^ yD^ jL^VI iAU»;j ^41J|j ^4^1 SUJI «U-M< 






^w2^ yo^ U3' I JJD jUb lli' 84X^1^ iliiVl &Juo^ J^l^ ^^t 



m 



Ldb ^^A^ Lii ^ JUb V^ ^^Vl ^L3 i J^iXi ^ ^A*J« 



* ?. 



# o ^ e» 



*- •. 



^1 L^ftU*^ gLuf ,v4^ JLs^ 34^- ^^iaib ^^t 4^- 



i . » 






Kim AlrMatar. 295 



j^ i^u*^ jJUi yo^ 'J:j\ \^, ^: ^ y *UJi 

' - "i^ i^ i j,L-iVi ilii^i >5Jji j;if ^\, ju 8;;pi^ 



y < o-* 



iUI jiJJJt^ ,^' »Lo J.UI mJo ^5JJI .UU JU}^ 

9 w 



» ' LassUI *JLU5 w-XJI v44 ,vJ L_* -UI ^^ J^isUt^ 



'. ' ^ o . ... f^< >. ^ 



« JJ! Ijt y^ J^ »Ut J^ JUb^ oU Jl^ (fol. lla) 

L^jj;^ u*7^ v5*^' u*7? **f***^ tM^^' "L-*-^' u*}-*-J|) 



0^0 ^o 



^yi Ju fU^ ^^iiwJi ^^1 iK«iJ jUb^ *ui 



2B 



M o I-*-* ,9fiB''«» 



^1 ^ v^ ^Oj Jjui- 






,a^i ^j^i ^iUS 



uoJU^^ U&1 V..AX&JL) s^A^ vJ^jlH y&^ ib»Vt^ ^^Yl, iUuJt 



296 



R, J. H. GoUheil^ 



^ *« ,^ 



Ij » in •Jbj Os^ 






juju;i 



sliVI, .^Ul iL-^J ^5JJI ^1,1^1 (iJUyi; LL u^ ydJ "lA-JI 



Igrl ifv^ v:>jI^ Lo s£i 



.'T-'-' 



iaiuji&jL;:j 



9 . • 



». - -^ 



^lisuit^ ^lix^l i.grUfv^ IL^UsxJL J^^l 



*..««. *. • 



« bUJj, gUi L4Ai ^\ai\ 



' O 'i - > * ''I 



L4*U»5 %\j> LjAi^ VI O'^Jo. LjJ JLSj V^ Jjjki' i^O^'^ 



U*. 



>^ ^1 ^: ji i J5j^ jub^ ^1 L4JLL.5 i5j4t 



X cf.. 



^**-j iUI ^L- ^^^ ^1 ^ ^ Jy^ Lc ^>LJI, ^iUVI» 



1*1 -- --— I ^ o -» 



JjaJi^ ts^tjlt J^ltX.^ «a4 vIaa&S ^jJi ye^ Ql^ulj LsaJiIL 



^lyi JLs 



# . X- 



^1 14JU Sj^l bl ^ 



Lili«l ^il Ue'ii! ^j^ 'i£Ji^ k^l llUl^ kiU^^I ii-l^] 



» 



ye^ O^J' "UH ^ iiU '^ -Ul (fol. 12a) g^^LiXJI fepi &;g.lx;.Wj 



.bVI 



3VI. ^<>aji. j:2s. *u;ji ^ ou^« ji v^JLiii ^.wa u 



KUdb AlrMatar. 297 



ie^'y^'^ *TpjJI ^ yjl 



m . r I ' .»" . I I ' «> 



ieu^ L^-*^ i UJ /P-« 



p^ 




• Ox- 



.ULsJdJI 



^ ^1 &L,pi x;;r: 



"iUf ^>J p4-fl« JU, &I55JI -L^ ^^ ^ ^j^ (^UoVI 



>. cr< 



crii" 



^>«^ -.^.. 0*.^... • ^^x _ ,_ . .• . > 



oJ«J« lj6«Lo (joAJti oJoJloj' ^^ ^^-A^ ^LSj> l,^i«r {^ )i^ 



iuijf JO*. siUo JUb R^^- jsuiii j;v jiib, juc.^, ^1;^ 



^5j:b ,jjp. ye, «aiyUI Jlo ^iLsVI, vyj' 15^^ -ia*^' 



^5^: Vv5Jj« c^s^-'^ ;r'-^' ^^ji, laxji j^ j^/^s >sr^^ 

# IJj^Xm. /^^^ ^UJI /Xl JUj 



298 R. J. H. GottheU, 

^6, l^ «^ ^^ J^ »bVt, ^^ ilke il%Jt JLSj, 



161 1^ ,1 LjaAxll vsJULxi Ija^ E^l o-'; J^ vi^*J^ »^' 



^ 9 ^ 



IkfcJt o^ k}S4 (5^1 vV^I iUAJI^ L^t; aui v;I]Jdi^ 






(fol. 18a) ^'i^ g^ Jy ^J^ J^ JJI ^dsi w«^l Lja4 « 



Ljll^ oOi J (v3 *j LgAkfcj ^U-i Lj^l^ J^ viUju^ ^j^ ^' 



»- •^l 



L^ls J^ ^)ly wLaJL L^AjLij tjt« &JuJuJt vdUUi v^toJL 

&;;k«ii ;;i aui ^ ^uvi viJai^ ;.^i^ ^jji >dij^ 









^ y it 



(jtOAdidAJt JuLo yD^ Ld^ (X^ ^UJt U>a3^ tLifljuflj &ftUA:».t^ 



*.?. . -?- c^ 6. «« 



aUuo^ <^) j^ iUJt v^iX^ (>j>^ v'^ ^^^ wJ^ &l^ ^^; 



(S^UJI yJ»^ ^11)1 Luo^ wijJjt ^^ vLl^l aUUj jVpl JuLoao 

O y "" ^ O 



Kitdb Al-Matar. 299 



O - -^ • li „ I ft« . i« > . • > 






y^yi Ju ' Mt '^J^) ^^t^ ^^ «o^t y») e'^i <^^ 















^^ \jJCyji. yj^y U^l^ »j^ Lb^-i 4*J^' (S'j J*^^ J^' 



*oAJI 



Jr ^^5 •Ul yj^ JuJUJI ye, jjpjl fcjuo, iS;!, J^ iUI 



-L.U JUu, »U Ji' ^jjc (fol. 14a) ^H^' y»} '')r" «**5 »j5^ 

xiJJU jUb, f jjji L4*u*5 ;tl- iS^i J^iS- ^^^ jJ;^) 



ao 



♦ A^l v^Uji^ U';^ ^yAS^y y^^JOiX^ 03 ^\ 

iU 161 •uu JUb, ^^ ;4lji^ ^uu liirjL^/vi yu^ 

hIUI, ':iCi *UI jJo ; jiUI ^ 1^ Juil yD, jjc rLo 



300 R. J. IL GoWieU. 



^^.yJI, eUi <U^* iUSpi oyyU. ^^1 8j:*mJ1 il^JJJI 



'•- ♦. • ^ .. ". •' 



^^1^ lOj, yA^yi to, j^ ,^ J4UI a^ ^5 jji ^^^ 



^ I-' 






315 



Kitdb Al-Maiar. 301 



INDEX, NOTES, AND INTRODUCTION TO THE KITAB 

ALrMATAR. 

63luuu 261.303,.v^t 



S03 



0' ^ 



84 ^U4^ 266 ^ ^^b ^j^l 

7 by 49 8t.Lil 

» ra^^ 841 jLajL *-* •• - •• •"" 



^4 oy^ l5^ 

248 4>^4Xa. 4>^4Xa. 808 jJ^J^\ ^LsJ !i 

n9.228 ^jlj^ j,j^ 3,0^ «« ^- J^- ^- ^^ 



^o 






196 J^A2^ Jt-A:^ (M^ 



144 



6 I 0.-2^ *,-- 



248 (jdA.^,1 (jid^ (jtOA^ gdj 

136 2LL^sd. Jc^^ 283y^judj 03-0 (>aj 

\ I" 6^0'' S«^ '"o^ ^^^ 

WJulI* a. iuiJL? yiJb ^jiJU. yiJb 



VOL. XVI. 89 



302 



R. J. H. GoitheU^ 



s • 



16i_ij^ 



16 _ ^^ < 



© , X Go. 

84 4>^^ : 67 4>y>> 



S94 j^^^ 



'o ^ 



9i!^^ 



294 



9 




152 



G ?> 



6 ^ ^o 



238 



O-'o^ Go^ > 



200 



G ^ « ^ 




249 



^ I , Q-^ •• • • • • • • A • • 






"^ 









• • 



1S3 



CJ 



G o ^ y ty" ^^ ^ 



G-^'o^ G^- GC^ 

60 2uy:Juo v^UO &S'4> 



69 






U>^^ U^^ (J^^. v>^^ 



Gs= , > 



^j^4>f iU:^Juo lUi^fO Ra:^ 



154 






> o^ 



28 






S. -^ 



42^L^4>^ 



G « 



46 



G c^ 
280 ^jJO 

2 -- 

10, 21 ^4> 



^ ^ 



TG 'O'^G.-' Og* 

T2ii3yeJuo \^yJ^'^ \J^^ \J^*^ 



.- ®^^ 



9 ^UI^O 



13 



G ^ 



6 

810 5 






174 gj t"^ 



G « ^ , 




202 



77 



j*".-:^ G.^ 



75 U:^ 



9 -^ 9 • 

256 k>A& ^ 



96 ^ S '' > 



Kitdb Al-Matar. 



303 



184 






o^ 



^9^yA i^y IL^^ (•UOj 1^^ 
118 ^Uft^f ^/ ^^ 



306 g|j. 

74 &J»W0 



190 



293 JjUv 



304 



s^.> 



289 JV 



O^^o-' ^ 



^*.^ 



136 auoyo% |*yo\ 

87 JJyuwt LN^ 



70 



6 ^ 

89.170XSL^ wL^ 



179 4X1 



306 






41 v^lii 

187 v^U. abU. 



s ^ 



9 . ''«,. 6a8 , 6^:^ G 



124 



111 JlSs 
24 6I6n^ 5*6 J> (3x1 313. 

G I -» ^ ^ > - o^ ^ ^ ^ 

G e >- 

G I -* o > Go-* 
268 ^jUa^^ /»^^ 



Sr«i 



G, ^.^ A «. ^ 6, ^ 2 ^ 

G'^ ,^0^ ^^^ 

cX^xl V>^^ OXtx 4XC^O 4XX^ 



U8 



G*^ 

256(j>dii 



231 JUj 



s."- 



23,12 



S ^ 



Gx- c G -^ 8 

62aU31i ^ill^ cK 



186 



i^9 ?^' 



304 Ji. J. H. GottheU, 



\ijo 'iAs\Sa 



V 



8 



• ^ • • ^ 






2d0 



6 . ^ p ^ 



6o - 



71 v^^ 
91 



168 It 






l4>f^ 84>f^ 100 _ 

».iixi^ .ySL, si^ ycL 



148 



0, "o, -'^o*. ,'^, ^ 

126 JiU^^ (3*-0f 12,j(5l^ 



6© " fi S 

10 &J>JL«0 246 



J^4-AM 



OlAAA^ *A^ 166 LU^ 



103 ^^Uu ^^^ ^HS^ ^l^ 



U4, ay: aU-id^ wLl^t v-^wol m.aooii"" 






J>S* XlSfe JLS^ ««^ 



S e" 



JigP s^yui 






0* iik^ vl>l^l wwi ^ JflS-& 

^ 5 • • 

100 /jiLMyJ 
177 



6 X .- ®^ ' ® 






169 



EMb Al-Matar. 305 



^ o ^ 
905 %\^ 202 v^JLaIo^ 



0^-'« ..^'TO.c? 



»6aaJLm 208 1>^U^ ;^r^^ 



77 ...sUa^ 192tL^V^ BlliSLb 



78 



SOy^juo 4>V4^ iX^ 214 SZb 

SJl^juo Ju^ju Jl^ 2Mo^Ja« oJb 

288 ^yu 26yiLb u**llJ yiJo 

• 2 X 

271, 807 ^jlj^ ». 106 JJo 

^^ m J^ jjubi j^jlL; jjfi 

278 xUi 207jJLkj JJLfa 



Oo 

217.. 



81 " 



282 &AAib' 241 ftl^Lb ^^ ^iLj ^^ 



^ 'o 



3U ^>i 1*8. Hl^Lfcull 

172^ Xl^ «1^U^ C;^ 

110 ^Loxt 228 Juotjk^ JUO JlC 



G^ 



Op ' 9 ' 



276 tUa^ 288v.^l4>^ wJ^ Ib.iV^ wcXl 




G 



iS ^ 






OAT I* I • - ^ |W ^ ^ ^ 7 ^ ^ Mf ^ 

^J^a^ maUol^ ^j©^ u^^. u«|7^ 



171 |»L^ iUUifr 183 ^Xk 

0^ ** -' 9 

O^jg"©,* 0" 



^^^ Ji- J. B. OoUheil, 



6 -^ • 



-- ^^ 



105 ^l ^1 ^^ ^ 



s > 



-6„x 



o 



226 



6^ o^^ 
100 



6 ^ o^ 




142 






•*&:>>aA^ kixii 



220 JJi* ® >* ®o^ 

(5^ 170 - 



1ft \w ^*i. ®^. •^ s -^ ^ 









2 r>. e .. 



/t^ C^;- CT*^ ^;- 



Ml v^xTv r Tr'v 6 



271 -»■ ^^ J ^ ti 



)}^ 149 Jlp 









wjuli ,«. ^':. « 



228 



6_ *», -^ ^ -. 



»5iu*u^ ii3.58;u^j;y 









9 •^^ ® *. ' 



KitM Al-Matar. 307 



60 G^j," 



6^0^ O^^- G^^ 



288 



G 



234 






b y o 



71^4.JJU0 



0.. -- 



193^ 5^ 244 JUiuS 






*^-^ iSV* iflB ^>«-*a>o ^<n»,) A.«fljo 

109 ^ J^l ^4>Jft ^ J^. ^4>^ 292 >>JL; 

fci^tX^ ptX^ fd^ ijid^ satLio ^ixj 



G * • • ^ s^^ 6 > • 

«i f^^ ^^5 ,:^i f^^ 15 ^y^ 

*"*■ G ^ G o ^ • ^ 

76 ^^^J^Ji^J^\ w>L^ v^^wiflJft 239 rTw'^ 

7^VJaifi Jktaift JJ^^. jJa;^ 216 ^^oUj SuoUj 

-»'^Gy^ G<»j >^ o^ -^ ^ 



77, 8« J^.JXwm1 JJJ» 240 ' • 



84 



G^ ,0^ Go^^ > 





G^ o^ po^ ".^^ G X <S , « X 



»> , » *^ ^ 



M, W (3^1^ 285 v^«««a3 si 



• X 



308 B. J. H. GoUheil, 



if •• i \ i? •• I «Mi» vl ''^ V •• - 



• ^ 



m 4>Uuuu*.l iXjyuwwl 808 ^jjtj ^y>j ^^^ ^j 

300 kj; f 



TO, 78^ 283ja**y» ^j^^ ,^^^ 

51 iU^^ 

NOTES. 

fl. ,j«jlw«ul3' Cf. Fleischer, ZDMO, vi. 390 ; FlQgel, Die Orammat' 

isehen Schulen der ArabeVf p. 5 ; Yakut, iv. 869, 8 ; Zama^Sari, al-Mu- 
fa^^ah 189, 8 ; 162, 8. On the influence of the stars upon rain, see 
Wellhausen, Skizzen^ iii. p. 173, and the passages cited there. 

So ' v/ 

t -^ So called — according to the MulyH al-Muhit, p. 3350 — mJ^z 

vk.>LaJLILj \jO\i\ (VaaO . On the o«3 see Lane, s. v. tjLc\ i and compare 

the table there given ; MuJ^it, p. 2140 ; Lisdn, i. p. 171 ; Ibn Hidam (ed. 

WGstenfeld), ii. p. 150 ; Kazwini, i.p. 42 ; ZDMO,, iii. 97 ; and above all, 
Wellhausen, Skizzen, iii. p. 174. Alberiini, ed. Sachau, pp. 336, sq. On 
the mansions of the moon, see Ideler, Untersuchungen vber den Ur- 
sprung und die Bedeutung der Stemnamen^ Berlin, 1809, p. 287 ; Stein- 
Bchneider, ZDMO,, xviii. p. 118; JRAS. 1890, p. 328; Ibn Kuteibah, 
Adab al-Kdtib, i. p. 32 ; Whitney, Oriental and Linguistic Studies, 
Second Series, pp. 413, seq. Ibn Kuteibah wrote a special work upon 
this subject. See Sproull, An Extract from 1. K.'s ^Adab al-Kdtib 
(Leipzig, 1877), p. 3. 

Lisdn, s. v. «>«3, has the whole passage from J*! line 6, to pj ^ ^t 
line 18, but in the name of Abu Mani^ur. I note the following variants: 7 

J jJI ,jjo] ^ ^ > t !t P >iJI Ujo yyCLjjo yjf\ JU ; 8, omits from ^j^^ 

to &JLJ ; ibid,, ^yUwJI ; 9 om. ,^4^yi^ Jou ; L^^'w^^] L^^* Jl^^, 

which is perhaps the better reading, cf. Ideler, Untersuchungen, p. 158. 
The two roots are similar in meaning. For a similar confusion, see De 

Qoeje, Bibliotheca Oeographorum Arabicorum, iv. p. 363 ; 10 ^^XmJ\ \ 
om. from s^l^f^ to ^^jJI ; 11 ^^jliJ' ; 12 J^VI; 13 jJLJJ Li^; 
\SLc\ yJuJc ; 14 om. s^Aft j^^i^- Jl ; 15 v-ftx^H ; v^^lt |%i] 



KitM Al-Matar. 309 



^ y 



^^1 f^ ; 16 ^LJ^VI p JJI , and adds L^^ ^yoJuo yJ^ JLj 

T. k*x_M^J! = ^jv^yJAftJI (/? and y of Aries?) !?!azwinl, i. p. 42 ; Ide- 
ler, Untersuchungen, pp. 184, 287. 

10. We oaght to read ^o jJt > as. in the authorities cited above ; cf . 

also Lisdn, i. 70 ; Muf^if, p. 331. 
12. ^b^.4MMJi is usually made up of J«xVI ^UoaJI and (JL^^I 

^^1 J| , Ideler, Unterauc.hungen, p. 51 ; Lisdn, xiii, 469 [ZDMQ.f xlix. 

116]. In v,.,^AiJl we seem to have a more general name, ''a star 

which watches (is opposite to) another star." Lane, p. 1134. See line 
22. 

17. {^yxhm Kiyxxh ; on the margin ^LxiJ L*JD . The passage is 
quoted Lisdn, 172, but without w»*jy^ • 

18. MS. JaxAJi ; Mufyit^ s. v. and LUdn, iz. 339 isju» ; on the marg. 
of the MS. some one Iian made the correction iajJiJI • 

19. MS. has distinctly gjiysuo , with ke$r; but see Lane and Mufyit, 
8. V. ; and Lisdn, vi. 134, where our passage is quoted. 

20. c^^Jlaajo marg. iC^CLJivo Jlijo v::^VcXXjLjt \^Vya}\ kx^c^L^ 

SWLD ijmjJ ; but see Thorbecke, Al-HarirVB Durrat-al'Oatcwds (Leipzig, 

1871), p. 35 ; Lane, pp. 1975, 1989. LiMdn, vi. 184, cites this passage, 
with ddl, 
24. Cf. Wright, Opuscula Arahicay p. 20. 

26. So the MS. Read v:;^6^l; . 

82. So the MS. Lane, p. 937 L^^ ; MuT^lf, p. 699. 

w. Marg. «.LiL vi)^''^^^ 5^^ iL^^ip.*^ ^^)-" ^^)) '^^^ • 

IA8dn, xvii. 321, cites the verse with the variant reading dL^^ I JlI^ L> . 
62. Read \J\ . 

69. The verse is cited by Lane, p. 936, and by Liadn, xv. 109, with yjib 
in place of Ul . Marg. ol^l ,j^ ^'^' L^' (^>jCwwJI (MS. has 
clearly JVy^, which is an evident mistake.) On Al-Sukkari, see Fltigel, 
loc. cii,, p. 89. Hammer-Purgstall, Literaturgesch,, i. p. 396. 



310 R. J. H. GoUJieU, 

/t^' ^57? v:;^' JLs J^w ^ ol^l ^ jf^l ^ JLs, ^L* 



^gji ^\ JU etc. Jyb ye^ kJLK (Xc1> UQi^ot Joj JLs sJue 

^6 Uj y«y j»-«L \J>^) J-»-^ |»— «.' J-J**- (j' tc V . ^ . J v:>AA» 

I 




But in spite of this, see the remark of Lane, loc, cit 

88. Read v.^aa^Uw . Lisdn, i. 462, quoting Jo\ ot , reads iJUue* 



86. On \SLi9^jjLA and ^±j^j\kj^ , see Wright, Orammar, i. 166. 

9I. Marg. v::olo cXd^ xjLo ^7^^ iwL^ _jt ^^&jt« Jt tj^xju^l^ 



ib^ ^;; ^ «3U ^uyi VI v^ 



V ^ 



On Abu Hatim al-Sajastani (d. 248 or 255 A. H.) see Flfigel, Die 
Orammatischen Schulen, p. 87 ; Yakut, iii. 44 ; and WQstenfeld's note, 
ad loc. On Abu-l-fa<Jl ibn al-Faraj al-Riyiishi, see Fh'igel, Orammat, 
Schulen, p. 85 ; and the authorities cited by Fleischer, Kleitiere Schrif^ 
ten, iii. 474. (d. 257 A. H.) 

103. I have added ^^ ^ -n '^ . Marg. ^^-aO Ip^ ^'^ . 
106. Jl^ . See De Gk)eje, Diwan Moslim al-Angnri (Leyden, 1875), p. xli, 
Marg. JlL^ jjUCe JJe ,^XJI JU iuuiL^ . 

109. Read )4X^ • 

111. Marg. .fl^a^t L^ lJ^V^^ &a^L^ . Both in the text and on the 
margin ^LS\ • Muh% p. 703 and Freytag ^UC ; bo also the IMdn^ 
8. v.; but the Taj says : ^«mXIU ^•^yd>e ^L^^ ^m».> ^ as^^ . 



\ 



Kitdl) Al-Matar. 311 

118. Cf. Bei4&wi, i. p. 80, 8. Marg. Juu.^ ^ 9r^ ^) T^^ ^ri^' 

l». Marg. vo j^i'L^ ^1^ jo ^^^amJI V^ A 

180. The text in line 131 is not clear ; we must evidently read the verse : 

I am indebted for this to Prof. Ignaz Goldziher of Buda-Pesth. A close 
scrutiny of the MS. seems to bear out this reading. 

186. |*yo\ cf. Yakut, ii. 941. 

148. Ms. yJ \h'^\ ; but it must be read with J^ ; see line 141. 

149. voL^^t 0>J rather substantiates the reading of the Kdmus 
(Liane, p. 1897, s. v. aLJLwJLuy ), and not v,^L^x!t ^ as Lane suggests. 

IM. MS. I^ASU with auuff^ v^l or iiJL^Li v^l ; Wright, i. p. 10 ; 

ZDMO., XXX. 207; Noldeke, Oeschichte des Qorans, p. 257; Fleischer. 
Kleinere Schriften, i. 29. But I doubt if it was ever used with the 
singular. 

100. MS. has \j^yju t evidently a mistake for the feminine. 

168. MS. has x5\t Jott » and above the end of the word some letters 

which I read as Ajuo , which may perhaps be \juo referring to the 
poesibility of either punctuation. 
176. Read vjJlill^ . 

179. Read UyJb ; Lisdn, iv. 192, citing this passage, reads (XmJI . 




180. Read UL3 . 



188. MS. has j^*^! ; but read jvAiJI • Cf. MuhH, p. 740, v*>U Jl 

The same mistake is found in line 194, where I have made the cor- 
rection in the text. 

198. 8^^ Marg. 'Cji\ s^^ . 



312 B. J. H. GottheU, 



9 ^1 



IM. Jjjf Marg. LjJ\ Juu^ ^| ^ KkjSX^ . 

107. Kur^drif Surah, 13, 18. Bei<}&wl, ad loe. gives the two readings 

^Lft."^ and flj^ ; so also the KaSSdfy i. p. 677 (ed. Lees), in the name 

of Ru'bah ibn al-'Ajaj. On Ru'bah see Ibn Hallikan, i. 528 ; Kitdb al- 
Aghdni, viii. 60 ; xvi. 121 ; Ibn Hi§am, Leben Mohammed's, vol. ii. 

Index, p. 287 ; Gaw^llki's aUMu'arrab, Index, p. 174. 
198. Marg. TfXk^ xJUl cXxfr _^t ^jl^ lU^L^ . 

208. MS. JJU^' . Read JJLkj and correct lines 206 and 207 accord- 
ingly. 

211. MuhH^ pp. 1254 and 1985, gives both forms. Read also ^uAaj^UGI , 
against the MS. 

223. MS. seems to read is JkS.I » but the correct reading is x a' 1 'y^ 
SjL^t ; cf . Lisdn, iv. p. 140. 

^as"- (^f J^and j^ljk^l. 238. Both forms occur. 

236. Liadn, xri. 90, cites the first two lines, with Jjk.JL3* and ^^ySi% > 
both of which readings must be accepted. Before this our author it 



9^0 



cited. jU^J? Ji^\ jjIJLil J^-i^ JLa:> Js>; ^' JL* • 
240. Marg. ««.4amJL) v^XmJ iv^l^. ^1 auu^L^ . 



241. So in the MS. Read f^^Jb . 

244. Read La»9 . 

247. Read L^xi ? 

263. In the Tajf vii. 174 and Lisdn, iii. 474 ; xii. 382 the reading of the 

6 fiS 

first word is ^ ^ <^ Jj Dr. Torrey has been kind enough to examine 



the MS. again, and finds the correct reading to be /Tw^iVJL} . On the 

margin of the Tdj is the remark ^JLi ^.^1 . ^ (C^5 • '^^® same 
remark is made in Lisdn. loc. cit,; cf. also Yakut, iv. 929, 1. 22. 

288. ^^jJI in MS. with [juo written above. Does this again refer to 

a double pronunciation ? 

286. I have inserted UiXj, Marg. ^ t\4Xj . 



Kitdh Al'Matar. 313 

290. MS. v^JulII . 

aoi. Read by • . 



9 9 



306.Marg.,-L>|^.U^|. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Al-AD9&rI was one of the most renowned of the early Ba^ra gramma- 
rians. His full name was Abu Zaid Sa'Id, and his genealogy is given 
by Ibn Hallikan * as : ibn Aus ibn Th&bit ibn 2^id ibn Kais ibn Zaid ibn 
al-No'man ibn Malik ibn Tha'labI ibn Ka'b. He belonged to the noblest 
family of the Hazraj." His grandfather Th&bit is said to have been one 
of the six who collected the Kur'an while the prophet was still alive.' 
Ibn Hallikan says of him : '' He held the first rank among the literary 
men of that time, and devoted his attention principally to the study 
of the philology of the Arabic language, its simpler terms and rare 
expressions." Al-Nadim gives us the following estimate upon the 
authority of al-Mubarrad :* ** Abu Zaid was well learned in grammar, 
though he did not come up to Halii and Slbawaihl. Yunus was looked 
upon by Abu Zaid as untrustworthy in matters of lexicography, but 
was more learned than Abu Zaid in grammar. Still, Abu Zaid was 
held in higher estimation than either al-A^raa'I or Abu Ubeidah in 
grammar. For this reason he is called Abu Zaid al-Nal^awi (the gram- 
marian)." Nawawi* calls him "the Imam" in matters of philology. 
Simply as **Abii Zaid" he is cited by many authors, e. g. Yakut, 
Jauhari, the editors of the Taj cU-AriUt and Lisdn aU'Arab, etc. 

In the strife which divided the Ba^ra from the Kufa school,* al- 
Ani^rl seems to have been catholic in his choice of authorities. Abu 
Sa'id says of him f ** I do not know any of the Ba^rian philologists who 
have come to Kufa to study the speech of the Beduin Arabs except 
Abu Zaid ; for he relates traditions coming from al-Mufa4<}&l al-Dabbl." 
According to Abu 'Amr al-Mazini, traditions going back to Abu Zaid 
have been handed down by Abii 'Ubeid al-!^asim, Mul^ammadibn Sa'd, 
Abu Q&tim al-Sajastanl, Abu Zaid 'Omar ibn Shabbah, Abu Hatim al- 
RSzi, etc., etc.* Our author is generally praised for his great knowl- 

* Biographical Dictionary , Tr. de Slane, i. p. 570 ; other authorities 
call Thabit: ibn Bashir ibn Abi Zaid. To this ibn Hallikan wisely 
remarks: **and God knows which of the two is correct." See also, 
Hammer-Purgstall, Literaturgeschichte der Araber, i. 303. 

« FlOgel, JS:i^d5 al'Fihrist, i. p. 54. 20. 

• FlQgel, Die Orammatischen Schulen der Araber, Leipzig 1862, p. 71 ; 
Sprenger, Das Lebpn und die Lehre des Mohammad, iii. 259 ; Noldeke, 
Qeschichte des QoranSj p. 189. 

* Plfigel, Kitdh al-Fihriat, loc. cit. 

* Biographical Dictionary of Illustrioua Men, ed. F. Wustenfeld, p. 721. 

• See e. g. Flugel, SchtUen, passim ; Kosut, Funf Streitfragen der 
Bofrenwr und Ktifenaer, Wien, 1878. 

' FlQgel. Schulen, p. 142. 

• Naw&wi, loc, cit. 



314 R. J. H. GotiheU, 

edge of tradition. Al-Thauri says, quoting Ibn Munadirj "Al-A^mal 
has the hest-stocked memory of them all ; Abu 'Ubeidah surpasses them 
in general information ; and Abu Zaid al-An^ari is the surest authority 
in traditional knowledge." ' Even al-A^ma'i himself was not slow to 
recognize his worth. There is a tradition, the authority for which rests 
with 'Uthmun al-Mazinl, that ho (Uthman) was once present when al- 
A^ma i went up to Abfi Zaid, who was then surrounded by his pupils, 
and after kissing him on the head sat down among them and said: 
** Thou hast been our lord and master for the last fifty years.'*' While 
they were there, Halaf al-A^mar came, kissed him and sat down and 
said : ** This one has been our teacher for twenty years.'** 

Upon the authority of both al-A^ma'i and Abii 'Ubeidah, Abii Zaid is 
said to have been abstemious, God-fearing and religious.* In philosoph- 
ical thought, Ibn Ilallikau says he belonged to the sect of the Kada- 
rites*— the upholders of the doctrine of free-will, who afterwards re- 
ceived the name of Mu'tazilites.* 

Of his life w^e know nothing other than that he came to Bagdad about 
the year 158 A. H., when alMahdi Mul^ammad had ascended the throne 
of the Caliphate.'' The date of his death is also uncertain. It is vari- 
ously given as 214, 215 or 216 A. H.— about 830 A. D. But all authori- 
ties agree that he attained a great age (93, 95 or 96).^ He died at Ba^ra. 

Abu Zaid was quite a prolific writer, nearly always upon lexicograph- 
ical and grammatical subjects. The canon of his works varies in the 
different authorities. As many as twenty-five seem to be current and 
are mentioned by more than one author. But few of these were large 
works. They deserve rather the title ** tract" than "book." In the 
case of most of the early Muhammadan writers, very few of their 
works have come down to us ; those of Abu Zaid are among the rarest. 
His philological works are :* 

1. t^^LiJL Joift s^LxJ . On the words used in Arabic for camel and 
sheep. Fi., Hal., Fl.; H. H. v. 30 simply Juill wLa^ . 

2. v:yLu^l s^Lxi^. On versified gnomes. Fi., Fl. 



' Ibn Hallikan, loc. cit. 

• Nawawi, who also relates the story, says thirty years. 

* This is added by Nawawi. On Halaf al- Alomar see Ahlwardt, 
Chalef Elahmar*8 Qasside, p. 17. ^ 

* Al-Fihristf loc. cit. 

* Ibn Hallikan, loc. cit.; Ibn Koteibah, Handbuch der Geschichte, ed. 
F. Wustenfeld, p. 270. 

• Haarbriicker, Asch-Schahrastdnrs Religionspartheien und Philoao- 
phenschulcHy Index, p. 452 ; Von Kremer, Oeschichte der herrschenden 
Ideen des lalams, p. 29 ; Dugat, Histoire cles Philosophes et des Theolo- 
giens musulmanSj p. 42 ; Steiner, Die 3[u'tazUitenf p. 24. 

■^ Fhlgel, Schulen, loc. cit. 

' Suyuti* Al-Muzhir, ii. p. 231. 

• In the following list I have been careful to give my authorities. 
Fi. = Fihrist; IJal. = Ibn Hallikan ; H. g. = Haji gallfali, od. Flttgel ; 
Fl. = Fiagel, Oramm. Schuten : Su. = SuyutI, as cited by FlQgeL 



Kitdb Al-Matar. 315 

8. Jta^JI wIjC3 . On words and synonyms for rain. Fi., Hal., Su. 

4. ^LmO^I fgJJA v^ljc5^. On words used in regard to the human 
body. Fi., gal., Fl., H. H. iii. 173. » 

6. v;yUiJUI v^Uc^. On the different Arabic dialects. Fi., Hal., Fl. 

8. ««.«^ .— ?! 'iAji v«»La^. On the Kur*an recension of Abu 'Amr. 
FL, Fl.» 

7. ^ot^jJt v^Uc^. On uncommon expressions. Fi., Hal., Fl., H. H. 
Ti. 387.» 

8. KaJuucJI^ fLj^\ wUr. On the dual and plural. Fi., Hal., Fl., 
H. H. V. 71. 

». ^^'JL y-^yiJI wLx^. On the words used for bow and shield, 
gal., H. H. V. 138 ; Su. gives these as two separate tracts. 

10. w^l yJLjJdS. v^Ui", H. H. Lg^AJ^'^ 5^4^f wU^. On the 

lightening of the Hamza."* There is another reading (ojJb^ "On the 
full pronunciation, etc." Hal., Fi., PI. 

11. ^aJUI wU5^. On the words used for **milk." Hal., Su.; H. g. 
V. 142 has wjJlil ^JUI yJUif. 

12. ^-4JCJt v,«>La^. On the words used for the date. Fi., Hal. 

13. sIjliJI ^^Lx^. On the words used for different kinds of water. 
Fi., Hal., Su., H. H. v. 161. Though mentioned here as a separate 
treatise, it will be found as a part of the J^^\ v,«>Lx^ printed above. 

M. ^A^tdiUt v^US^. gal., H. g. V. 137. Fi. has s,^^j^iXaJ\ v^U^ 

15. jli^Aj^ttJI v^ljo . On the expressions used in regard to animals. 
Fi., Hal. 

18. ^'*-ftJI wLaJ^. On the difference (between the parts of the human 

body and those of animals). Fi., Hal., Fl. 

* For other works upon this subject, see the list in Ahlwardt's Cata- 
logue of the Arabic MSS. in the Berlin Library, vol. vi. p. 293. 

* For similar compilations of Kur'an readings, see Ahlwardt, ibid, i. 
p. 247. 

* Extracts from a MS. of this work were sent in 1854 by Dr. Eli Smith 
to Professor Fleischer, and published by the latter, ZDMO., xii. p. 57. 
[See, also. Kleinere Schriften, iii. 471 sg.] The whole has lately been 
published by the Catholic press of Beirut and under the superintendence 
of Said al-Huri al-Shartunl. To this is attached a tract on ** Faults 
of Speech"; which, however, must have originally belonged to the 
book. It is not mentioned in any of the lists or Abu Zaid's works. [Cf . 
Ndldeke, ZDMG., xUx. p. 820.] 

^ Cf. Fleischer, Kleinere Sehriften, pp. 35 and 47. 



316 B. J. H. GoWieU, 



17. oJjuL v:>JLjLi v«,^ljc5^ On the first and fourth forms of the 
verb. Fi., Hal., Fl., H*. H. v. 181. » 

18. p>LMA/bft \^,y^ ^^j^* On peculiar noun formations. Fi., !gal., 
Fl., H. H. iv. 822. 

W. y^S v^U^. On the hamza. Fi., Hal., Fl. 

20. ^v>LflJI wU^. On the infinitive. Fi., Qal., Fl., H. g. v. 161, 574. 

21. ^h^^tt wU^. On language. Fi., Fl. 

22. ^^,<^JL v;L9LAxJt v«^La5 . On expressions used for plants and 
trees. Fi., Fl., H. H. v. 162.' 

23. ^j>| JUI Vi^Lx^. On the combination of letters (?). Mentioned only 
byFi. 

24. ^^yL^iLJI ^ wIaS^. On words commencing with Idm ; only in Fl. 

26. JkA^f Jl v^U^. On the singular ; only in Fi. 
28. v;yLjiLuJI oJO vyLx5^. Fi. 

27. jvajlII oJU v^Ijc5^. Description of the 'Anam tree (see FihrUt, ii. 
p. 84). Fi. 

28. &jLmuo v^Lx^. On synonyms? FL 

29. L^ji»j[t] v^La5^. On transitive verbs?? Fi. 

80. v^uJt v;:^U^jo v^lx^. On the noble Arab families. @al., 8u., 

H. H. iii. 84. 

In addition to these, Al-Nadim mentions a number of other works 
which are given in none of the other authorities ; and the subject mat- 
ter of which can only be guessed at : 

31. .jL^/r ^;L*jl wLx^. On the religious belief of 'Uthman? 

32. iUL^tt ffJU^ v,^ljo. On mechanics and the secret arts?? 

33. jiiLttjJL y >j ^ ^^ s^La5^. On tlie expressions used for battle and 
war? 

84. iUwJLil wU^. Dozy, Suppl.y i. 207. ** Droit d'occupation"?? 

85. 2UUU* ftjU v^ylx^. 

In his Catalogue of the Arabic MSS. in the Berlin Library (vol. vi. 
299) Ahlwardt speaks of a olajmJI ^^Ui^by our author. It may per- 
haps be a part of No. 2. 

' Ibn Dureid also wrote on this subject ; FlQgel, Oramm, Schulen, p. 
108. Ibn al-Q(itiyya, 11 lihro del Verbi, pp. 10, seq. 

* Ibn Hallik&n : I have seen a fine work of his, a treatise on plants, 
which contained a number of curious passages. 



KiiM Al-Matar, 317 

The little tract published here gets its title t^fH v^LxS^from the first 

subject of which it treats.^ But in addition to discussing the names of 
the different kinds of rain and the expressions used in speaking of rain, 
it treats in the same manner of the following subjects : Jl&> (thunder), 

oo (lightning), \^^[^ (mist) and sLuo (waters). This last seems to 

have existed — as I said above — as a separate treatise. Most of the 
material collected in these earlier tracts has found its way into the 
large lexica: Jauhari, Taj, Ldsdn, etc. But they are important in 
studying the history of Arabic lexicography, and in determining the 
value of the work done by these first masters of a science which has 
been so greatly develoi)ed in the Muhammadan Schools. 

I have been able to use only one MS. ; and this has made the editing 
at once di£Scult and risky. But I know of no other in a European 
library. The MS. in the Bibliothdque Nationale of Paris is numbered 
No. 4231 (old no., Ancien fonds No. 1828), written in the year 631 A. H. 
(see fol. 22a) = 1233 A. D. The handwriting is good and clear, and the 
punctuation is given very fully. But in the course of time, the writ- 
ing, especially of the vowels, has become dulled, so that one is left at 
times in great doubt. Nor is the MS. itself free from faults. As this is 
the only MS., I have adhered closely to the original,' making changes 
only where there were evident faults ; even then, I have in every case 
called attention to the change. In order to insure accuracy, I have 
twice compared my copy with the manuscript ; and through the kind- 
ness of Prof. H. Derenbourg the proof was once more compared (by Mr. 
Oonzelmann) with the original. It was Prof. Derenbourg who first 
drew my attention to this tract of Abu Zaid, and who urged upon me 
the desirability of publishing it. 

The MS. contains also : 






^ Ibn Dureid also wrote a work upon this subject. See W. Wright, 
Opuscula Arabica, Leyden, 1859, pp. 15, seq.; Berlin Catalosrue of Arabic 
MSS., vi. p. 295. Ibn Dureid treats of a number of words mentioned 
in our tract ; but I have not thought it necessary to cite each case. 

* I have been able to control a number of readings by the citations 
from another MS. in the Liadn at- Arab, It would have taken months 
of work to hunt up every citation ; I have done so only when the text 
was suspicious. 

' On Inn Halawaihi, see Derenbourg, Hehraica, 1894. 

* Published from this MS. by H. Derenbourg, Le livre des locutions 
vtcieuaea, in Morgenldndiache Fortchungen, Leipzig, 1875, pp. 107, seq. 

» Published from a MS. in Qotha by H. Thorbecke, Ibn Duraids Kitdb 
almaldi>in, Heidelberg, 1882. 

VOL. XVI. 40 



PEOOEEDINGS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY, 



AT ITS 



MEETING IN BOSTON AND CAMBRIDGE, MASS., 



April 6th, 7th, and 8th, 1893. 



The Society assembled at Cambridge, in the Room of the 
Faculty of Arts and Sciences of Harvard University, University 
Hall, on Thursday, April 6th, and was called to order by the 
President, Rev. Dr. William Hayes Ward, at 3.15 p. m. 

The following members were in attendance at the sessions : 



BabbiU 


Fergnson 




Jenks 


Moore, G. F. 


Thayer 


Berle 


Frame 




Eellner 


More 


Torrey 


Bierwirth 


Gilman 




Lanman 


Mnllan 


Ward, W. H. 


Channing, Miss Gkxxlwin, C. J. 


Lindsay 


Oertel 


Warren, H. C. 


Chester 


Harper, W. 


R. 


Lyon 


Ome 


Warren, W. F 


Clark, MIflH 


Hanpt 




Martin 


Reisner 


Winslow 


Dahl 


Hazard 




Macdonald 


Ropes 


Wright, T. F. 


Dike 


Higginson 




Mitchell 


Steele 


Yonng 


Elwell 


Jackson 




Moore, C. H. 


Taylor, J. R. 


[44] 



The minutes of the Washington meeting were read by the 
Recording Secretary, Prof. Lyon, of Harvard University, and 
accepted by the Society. The report of the Committee of 
Arrangements was submitted in the form of a printed program 
and accepted. 

The Chair appointed as a Committee to audit the Treasurer's 
report Rev. Mr. Berle and Prof. Kellner ; and, as a Committee to 
prepare a list of nominations for office for the ensuing year. 
Prof. J. Henry Thayer, Prof. George F. Moore, and Prof. 
Elwell. 

The reports of the retiring officers were now in order. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Henry C. Warren, of Cambridge, Mass., 
presented his accounts and statement to the Society ; and they 

VOL. XVI. A 



ii American Oriental Society^s Proceedings^ April 1893, 

were referred, with book and vouchers and the evidences of the 
property, to the above named Committee of Audit. The Com- 
mittee reported that the accounts were in due order, and that the 
funds called for by the balances were in the possession of the 
Treasurer. The usual analytical summary of the General 
Account follows : 

Rbceifts. 

Balance from old account, April 21 , 1892 $482.84 

ABsesBinents (155) paid in for 1892-98 |775.00 

ABsessments (88) for other years 190.00 

Sales of publications. J 188.80 

Interest on Publication Fund 101.17 

Interest on balances of General Account 14.96 

Total income of the year 1,264.43 

Total receipts for the year $1,697.27 

EXPENDrrUBES. 

Journal, zv. 2 (remainder), and distribution $231.68 

Proceedings, April, 1892 826.19 

Authors' extras from Journal and Proceedings 36.00 

Job printing 16.00 

Postage, express, brokerage, etc 41.44 

Total disbursements for the year . . $651.81 

Credit balance on Gen*l Account, April 6, 1893 1,045.96 

$1,697.27 

One life-membership fee has also been received during the 
year, and is, in accordance with action taken last year, retained 
as capital. The anonymous gift of $1,000 to the Publication 
Fund reported last year has been invested in eight shares of the 
State National Bank, Boston (bought at 126 ; the extra $8 is 
included in the item of " brokerage " in the above account), and 
is earning at present a trifle over 6 per cent. 

The state of the funds is as follows : 

1892, Jan. 1, Amount of the Bradley Type-fund .$1,816.70 

Interest one year 53.18 

1893, Jan. 1, Amount of the Bradley Type-fund $1,369.88 

Amount of Publication-fund 2,008. 00 

1892, July 7, Amount of Life-membership-fund 75.00 

Interest to Oct. 12, 1892 .75 

1892, Oct. 12, Amount of Life-membership-fund $75.75 

1698, April 6, Balance of General Account . $1,045. 96 

The bills for Journal xv. 8 have not yet been jxresented. 



ReportB of the Officers. iii 

The report of the Librarian, Mr. Van Name, for the year 
1892-3, is as follows : The accessions to the Society's library for 
the past year have been 37 volumes, 78 parts of volumes, 99 
pamphlets, and 9 manuscripts (Sanskrit). The titles of all these 
works are included in the list appended to volume xv. of the 
Journal, just completed. The number of titles of printed works 
now in the library is 4,595; of manuscripts, 186. 

The Committee of Publication reported that since the last 
meeting they had published and distributed the following: Jour- 
nal, volume XV., number 2 (= pages 143-283), issued June 22, 
1892; Proceedings of the Washington meeting of April 21-23, 
1892 (= vol. XV., pages cxli-ccxxx), issued Nov. 28, 1892; and 
finally, Journal, vol. xv., number 3 (= pages 283-322 and ccxxxi- 
ccxlvii and i-v), issued April 3, 1893; m all, 292 pages. 

Professor Lanman observed that a plan to publish the Journal 
as a quarterly had been strenuously advocated by one or two 
members. He believed that the Committee of Publicatipn were 
very strongly of the opinion that promptness and frequency of 
issue were in the highest degree desirable; but that, on the other 
hand (aside from the consiaeration of expense), the quality of 
the material offered for publication should be the sole deter- 
minant of the question whether any given paper should be 
printed ; that the needlessly created necessity of issuing a num- 
ber upon each quarter-day might make quantity a co-determinant, 
a result for which parallels are not far to seek, and which would 
be most sincerely to be deprecated. 

Moreover, there are indications — all of the greatest hope and 
promise — ^that material of the most worthy character is already 
forthcoming with increasing abundance, and that the laboriously 
gathered items of the Society's income are likely to allow of a 
somewhat extended scale of expenditure for printing. 

Finally, it was noted that the German Oriental Society is only 
a little younger than our own; that it has between four and five 
hundred contributors to its treasury, or about twice as many as 
have we; that — what is much more to the point — the professed 
Orientalists among its members are far more numerous than 
ours, and that this disparity, through most of the past history of 
our Society, has been much greater than it is even now; and 
that, as compared with their splendid achievements — Journal, 
"Abhandlungen," and miscellaneous works, some seventy-five 
volumes in all — our fifteen volumes of Journal and Proceedings 
is a showing by no means discreditable. 

The Directors reported by their Scribe, Prof. Lanman, as 
follows: 

1. They had appointed the next regular business meeting of 
the Society to be held on the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of 
next Easter week, March 29, 30, and 31, 1894, or on some one or 
more of those three days, and that they would determine and an- 
nounce the place of meeting in due course. 



iv American Oriental Society* 8 ProceedingSy April 1S93. 

2. They had re-appointed, as Committee of Pablieation for 
1 893-94y Messrs. Hall, Lanman, G. F. Moore, Peters, and W. D. 
Whitney. 

3. On recommendation of the Librarian the^ had Toted a 
standing annual appropriation of $25 for the binding of books. 

4. They had voted to present the report of the Committee on 
Joint Meetings to the Society, with a recommendation that the 
resolutions proposed by that report be adopted. (See below.) 

6. Thev had voted to recommend to the Society for election to 
membersnip the following persons: 

As Corporate Members: 

Rev. J. L. Amerman, New York, N. Y. ; 

Bir. Nageeb J. Arbeely, New York, N. Y. ; 

Mr. Joseph F. Berg, New Brunswick, N. J. ; 

Dr. Heinrich C. Bierwirth, Cambridge, Mass. ; 

Dr. I. M. Casanowicz, Washington, D. C; 

Dr. Charles H. S. Davis, Meriden, Conn. ; 

Bir. Wm. W. Hastings, Haverford, Penn.; 

Rev. Willis Hatfield Hazard, Cambridge, Mass. ; 

Rev. Arthur Lloyd, Port Hope, Ontario ; 

Mr. Percival Lowell, Boston, Mass. ; 

Prof. Duncan Macdonald, Hartford, Conn. ; 

Mr. George L. Meyers, New York, N. Y. ; 

Prof. Clifford H. Moore, Andover, Mass. ; 

Mr. Paul Elmer More, St. Louis, Mo. ; 

Mr. Murray Anthony Potter, San Francisco, Cal.; 

Mr. James Hardy Ropes, Andover, Mass. ; 

Mr. William A. Rosenzweig, New York, N. Y.; 

Rev. W. Scott Watson, Jr., Guttenberg, N. J.; 

Prof. Theodore F. Wright, Cambridge, Mass. 

As Corresponding Members: 

Mr. George A. Grierson, Bengal Civil Service, Howrah, Bengal 
Dr. A. F. Rudolf Hoernle, Madrassah, Calcutta, Bengal ; 
Rev. W. A. Shedd, Missionary at Oroomiah, Persia ; 
Dr. John C. Sundberg, U. S. Consul at Baghdad, Turkey. 

And as Honorary Members: 

Prof. Edward B. Cowell, Cambridge, England ; 

Pro J. Friedrich Delitzsch, Leipzig, Germany ; 

Prof. Ignazio Guidi, Rome, Italy ; 

Prof. Hendrik Kern, Leyden, Netherlands ; 

Prof, Jules Oppert, Paris, France ; 

Dr. Reinhold Rost, London, England ; 

Prof. Archibald H. Sayce, Oxford, England. 



Time and place of next meeting. v 

The report of the Directors being thus finished, the Society 
proceeded to the election of new members; and, ballot being 
had, the above named gentlemen were duly elected. 

Mr. Talcott Williams, Chairman of the Committee appointed 
to confer with several Societies for the purpose of agreeing upon 
a common time and place of meeting, presented a written report 
embodying the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the Directors of this Society be requested to make 
arrangements with any of the following Societies, to wit : 

The American Philological Association ; 

The Archaeological Institute of America ; 

The Anthropological Society of Washington : 

The Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis ; 

The Modem Language Association of America ; 

The American Folklore Society ; 

The American Dialect Society — 
or any other Societies of a similar purpose, for a joint meeting in con- 
nection with the next annual meeting of this Society. 

Resolved, That the Directors have authority* to appoint a meeting of 
this Society either in the Christmas vacation of 1803-94, the Easter 
▼acation of 1894, or the Christmas vacation of 1894-5, if an alteration 
from the usual date be necessary in order to secure a joint meeting. 

The resolutions were adopted, and the Committee, Messrs. 
Williams, Haupt, and Lanman, continued over for another year. 

The following names of recently deceased members of the 
Society were reported: 

Dr. Thomas Chase, of Providence, R. I. ; 
Brinton Coxe, Esq., of Philadelphia, Penn.; 
Mr. Ceorge E. Eby , of Philadelphia, Penn. ; 
Dr. Andrew P. Peabody, of Cambridge, Mass. 

On Friday morning. Professors Elwell, G. F. Moore, and Thayer, 
as the Committee on the nomination of Officers, reported. Dr. 
Ward having intimated his desire not to stand for re-election, 
on account of the pressure of his other duties, which made 
it impracticable for him to give to the position such time and 
care as he felt that it demanded, the Committee nominated as 
President of the Society, Pres. D. C. Oilman; as Vice-President, 
in Mr. Oilman's place, Dr. Ward; and as Vice-President, in 
place of the late Dr. Peabody, Prof. Toy ; and for the remaining 
offices, the incumbents of the preceding year. The gentlemen so 
nominated were elected. The Board for 1893-94 is accordingly 
as follows: 

* In accordance with tlie palpable intention of this resolution, it should read 
"Directors be requested to appoint," etc 



vi American Oriental Society*8 ProceedingSy April 1893, 

President— Prea. D. C. Gilman, of Baltimore. 

Vice-Presidenta—Dr, William Hayes Ward, of New York ; Prof. C. 
H. Toy, of Cambridge ; Prof. Isaac H. Hall, of New York. 

Corresponding Secretary— Prof, C. R. Lianman, of Cambridge. 

Recording Secretary— Prot. D. G. Lyon, of Cambridge. 

Treasurer— Mr, Henry C. Warren, of Cambridge. 

librarian — Mr. Addison Van Name, of New Haven. 

Dire<dors— The officers above named ; and. Professors Bloomfield and 
Haupt, of Baltimore; Mr. Talcott Williams, of Philadelphia; Prof. E. 
W. Hopkins, of Bryu Mawr ; Prof. A. L. Frothingham, of Princeton ; 
Prof. R. GK)ttheil, of New York ; Prof. George F. Moore, of Andover. 

The session of Thursday afternoon was held at the Room of 
the Faculty of Arts and Sciences of Harvard University. Soon 
after assembling, the Society took a brief recess, while tea was 
served in the office of the Dean of Harvard College. Upon ad- 
journment, some of the members went to the house of Prof. Toy 
and others to the house of Prof. Lanman, for supper and an in- 
formal evening gathering. 

The session of Friday morning was held in the house of the 
Treasurer, Mr. Warren. This is the same house in which the 
Society used to assemble in the days of Professor Beck, who 
formerly lived in it. At the close oi the morning session, upon 
the invitation of Mr. Warren, the members of the Society took 
their luncheon at his house. 

The session of Friday afternoon (April 7) was held in the 
Library of the American Academy, in Boston. This meeting 
was on the precise fiftieth anniversary of the first meeting of the 
incorporated Society, which was dialled to meet at the house of 
Mr. John J. Dixwell, No. 5 Allston street, Boston, at three o'clock, 
Friday afternoon, April 1, 1843. The anniversary meeting was 
devoted to reminiscences of the founders and of the history of 
the Society, contributed by Dr. Ward, Prof. Lanman, Prof. 
Thayer, Rev. Henry L. Jenks, Prof. G. F. Moore, and Prof. 
Lyon. 

Twenty-one members of the Society dined and spent the even- 
ing together at the Parker House. 

Saturday morning's session was held in Claflin Hall of Boston 
University, Somerset street, Pres. W. F. Warren of Boston Uni- 
versity acting as Chairman. During the session, Col. T. W. 
Higginson gave some very interesting reminiscences of Theodore 
Parker and Charles Beck. On motion, there were passed votes 
of thanks to Harvard University, the American Academy, and 
Boston University, as also to Messrs. Lanman, Toy, and VVarren, 
for the various kind offices which had contributed to make the 
meeting a pleasant and successful one. At the close of the final 
session, twenty-six persons were present, all being membere of 
the Society. The Society adjourned at quarter before one o'clock. 



Saupty New edition of the Hebreud Old Testament. yii 

The following communications were presented: 

1. On a new critical edition of the Hebrew text of the Old 
Testament ;* by Professor Paul Haupt, of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md. 

The first part of the new edition of The Sacred Books of the Old Testa- 
ment contains the Hebrew text of the Book of Job, with notes by 
Professor Siegfried of the Universifcy of Jena. The Hebrew text fills 27 
pages, and the Critical Notes 21 . With the exception of the portions writ- 
ten in prose, namely the prologue (chapters 1-2) and the epilogue (42. 
7 -17), as well as the introductory verses prefixed to the discourses of 
Elihu (c. 32. 1-6), the text is printed artxv^SVf in double columns. The 
composite structure of the Book of Job is illustrated by the use of three 
different colors. The original portions of the poem are printed in black 
without any additional coloring, while subsequent additions are placed 
in blocks of different colors, namely blue, red, or green : blue indicat- 
ing parallel compositions ; red, corrective interpolations conforming 
the speeches of Job to the spirit of the orthodox doctrine of retribu- 
tion ; and green indicating polemical interpolations directed against 
the tendency of the poem. The Elihu speeches (chapters 32-37) are 
given in a special appendix printed in green. Later interpolations 
and glosses are relegated from the text and appear in the foot-notes. 

The traditional order has often been changed to restore the proper 
sequence. After c. 13. 1-27 there follows for instance c. 14. 4, 8, 6, 18, 15, 
16, 17, 1, 2 ; 13. 28 ; 14. 5, 7-12, 14, 18-22, etc. In order to facilitate 
references to verses apx>earing out of the traditional order, there has 
been appended a Concordance^ giving the received arrangement of the 
verses and the corresponding pages and verses of the new edition. For 
the sake of clearness, the whole text has been divided into jxaragraphs 
wherever the change of subject seemed to require it. 

The emendations adopted (ca. 600) are not given in the notes, as in 
Graetz'sf posthumous work, but appear in the text. They are all care- 
fully indicated by special diacritical marks, shovnng in every case 
where the QSrS has been adopted instead of the KHhib ; whether the 
new reading involves merely a departure from the Masoretic points or a 
different division of the consonantal text, whether it is conjectural or 
based on the authority of the ancient Versions. Doubtful words are 
marked with notes of interrogation, lacunar are indicated by ^ * * * *, 
and hopelessly corrupt passages by .... : the received text in such 

♦ The Sacred Books of the Old Testament. A critical edition of the Hebrew text, 
printed in colore, with notes, by eminent Biblical scholare of Europe and America, 
edited by Paul Haupt. Part 17: Tfie Book of Job. By C.Siegfried. Leipzig: 
J. C. Hinrichfl'flche Buchhandlung ; Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1893. 

f Emendationes in plerosque SacrtB Scriptures Veteris TestamenU lihros secundum 
yeterum vereiones nee non auxiliis criticis caeteris adhibitis. Auctore H. Graetz. 
Ex relicto defunct! auctoris manuscripto ed. Guil. Bacher. Breslan, 1 892. New 
York: Gustav E. Stechert. 



viii American Oriental 8ociety*8 Proceedings^ April 1893. 

cases being given in the notes appended. The Hebrew text has been 
left unpointed except in ambiguous cases. 

The Notes contain brief philological justifications of the emendations 
adopted, with constant references to the ancient Versions as well as to 
modem critics. Above all, Merx*s well-known book * is cited through- 
out the Notes. It has not been deemed necessary to classify all the 
divergences exhibited by the ancient Versions. As a rule, there have 
been recorded only those variations on the authority of which an 
emendation has been adopted by the editor of the book. The Hebrew 
text is cited in the Notes according to the pages and lines of the new 
edition. But it is proposed to add in the subsequent parts, in the outer 
margin, the number of the chapters and verses, in order to facilitate 
references as much as possible. The Elnglish translation of the Notes 
has been most carefully prepared by Professor R. E. Brtlnnow, of the 
University of Heidelberg. 

The chief aim of the new edition of the Hebrew text is to furnish 
the philological foundation for our new translation of the Bible now in 
course of preparation. The edition of the Hebrew text exhibits the 
reconstructed text on the basis of which the new translation has been 
prepared by the contributors. At the same time, it is hoped that the 
edition will prove useful for the class-room. It will save the instructor 
much time in giving in a brief and distinct form the critical analysis of 
the book in question. It will moreover have a most wholesome effect 
on the student, in forcing him to read unpointed Hebrew,! a practice 
which, unfortunately, is too much neglected in most of our Universities 
and Theological Seminaries. But, above all, I hope our new edition 
will become an indispensable help for all Hebraists who study the Old 
Testament from a critical point of view. It will show the student at a 
glance whether the received text is unquestionably correct, whether a 
passage is original or a subsequent addition. Thus it will, I think, place 
not only the historical but also the grammatical and lexicographical 
study of the Old Testament on a new basis. ^ A good deal of space is 
taken up in our Hebrew grammars and dictionaries with the explanation 
of unusual forms and words. § Most of these will be found eliminated 
in our edition. 

The munificence of Jacob H. Schiff, Esq., of New York, to whom 
Harvard University is indebted for the new Semitic museum, has 
enabled us to place the new edition within the reach of all students. 
Though the work is perhaps the most sxmiptuously gotten up Hebrew 
book ever published, the parts will be sold, in handsome covers, at the 
nominal price of about $1.00. Bibliophiles will be glad to learn that 



• Das Gfdicht von Hiob. Hebraischer Text, kritisch bearbeiiot unci uberwtzt, 
nobst sachlichcr und kritischcr Emieitung. von Adalbert Mcrx. Jcna^ 1871. 

f We must remember that a pointed Semitic text prejudices the reader. The 
adding of the vowels is a semi-interpretation. 

X Cf. the remarks of Paul de Lagardo pretixed to the second part of his Orien- 
ialia, Gottingen, 1880. 

§ Cf. Stado*s Lehrbnch der hebr. Grammatik (Leipzig, 1879), p. vi. 



Jlmipty Modern reproduction of the N'imrod Epic tablet, ix 

there will be an Edition de luxe, limited to 100 copies, printed on the 
most costly hand-made Dutch paper, in a beautiful ornamental binding 
specially designed for the work by Professor Stroehl, of Vienna, who 
also has designed the new ornamental headings and tail-pieces for the 
Hebrew text. 

In conclusion, I should like to say a few words a{K>ut an objection 
that will most likely be raised against our new edition. Some people 
will say, I presume, that the critical analysis is more or less subjectiye, 
that there is not a general consensus of opinion concerning the depart- 
ures from the received text, even among the most competent Biblical 
scholars ; perhaps none save the editor of the book in question will 
believe in his reconstruction of the text. Now it is undoubtedly true 
that in a great many cases we cannot as yet give the final dictum of 
science. Like all progressive research, Biblical criticism is in a state 
of fluctuation. A student who uses our new edition must rely on his 
own judgment. We cannot expect to find the final solution of all diffi- 
culties at once. We must be satisfied to recognize the difficulties as 
such, to realize that the received text and the traditional order is not 
intact. If we do not always hit the mark in reconstructing the text, 
we may find some comfort in the maxim, which I at least adhere to, 
that the probably right is preferable to the undoubtedly wrong. Ultra- 
conservatism bars all progress. A man who is afraid of making a mis- 
take had better not write on the Bible* — or, for that matter, on any 
scientific subject at all. Nor do I think that honest work can do any 
harm to the cause of religion. It is a pity to think that faith and rea- 
son should be incompatible. Reason is a divine gift. Let us exercise 
it, but (as I stated in the first programme of our work)f with the vere- 
eundia due to the venerable documents which form the basis of our 
faith. 

2. On a modem reproduction of the eleventh tablet of the 
Babylonian Nimrod Epic and a new fragment of the Chaldean 
account of the Deluge ; by Professor Haupt. 

The Johns Hopkins Press has now on sale a few plaster casts of a 
modem reproduction of the Chaldean Flood Tablet, i. e. the eleventh 
tablet of the so-called Izdubar or Gilgamesh^ Legends, commonly 
known under the name of the Babylonian Nimrod Epic. The casts 
have been most carefully made by one of the modelers of the U. S. 



• C£ the concluBion of B. Duhm's preface to his commentary on Isaiah 

(Gottingen, 1892), p. iv. 

f See Johns Hopkins University Circulars, No. 98 (May, 1892), p. 89, § 15, 

i For the name GilgameS = TlXyafiog (A el. n. an. xii. 21), cf. Dr. Casanowicz's 

note in No. 98 of the Johns Hopkins University Circulars, p. 91. Mark Lidzbarski 

(ZA. vii. 110: cf. ihid. 327) suggests that the name of Nimrod's ancestor Aiaotrdpo^ 



L e. Xasisatra or Atraxasis^ may be identical with the Arabic . ^^ , who lives 

at the confluence of tlie two great rivers ( ^^ J %;^uu ii^^Uo : cf. Koran, 

Sura 18, v. 69 ff.). For the name Atraxasis see Beitrage zur Aasyriologie, ii. 401. 
VOL. XVI. B 



X American Oriental Society^ s Proceedings^ April 189S. 

National Museum, WashiDgton, D. C.» from a clay tablet which I 
caused to be prepared some months ago by Rev. Dr. Rudolf Zehnpfund, 
of Rosslau, near Dessau, (Germany. Tlie plaster has been colored 
throughout so as to give the casts the appearance of real baked cunei- 
form clay tablets. The color is about the same as in the two fragments 
of the first column of the Flood Tablet (R»2. n. 890 and 888) which I 
discovered in 1882,* or in the fragment of the Daily Telegraph Ck>llec- 
tion (D. T. 42), containing a different recension of the account of the 
Deluge, f 

Our tablet has the size of the largest Deluge fragment known in the 
Kouyunjik collection of the British Museum as K2252. A diagram 
showing the dimensions of this fragment is given on p. 182 of my edi- 
tion. This fragment, which I refer to as Deluge Tablet A, has been 
pieced together out of about 20 small pieces. The reverse, for instance, 
is composed of 15 different pieces. ^ The text engraved on our modem 
Flood Tablet is the same as the one given on plates 184-149 of my edi- 
tion. It is based on the fragments of 18 different copiesg of the Deluge 
Tablet now preserved in the British Museum. With the help of these 
duplicates the text can be almost completely restored. The only passa- 
ges where we have rather extensive lacunce now are in the lower part 
of the first column, and in the lines describing the building of the ves- 
sel in the upper part of the second column, as well as the lines 
describing the coming of the Flood in the lower parts of the second 
column ; the beginnings of some lines in the fifth column, and the ends 
of some lines in the first paragraph of the sixth column. Unless we 
recover some new fragments, we shall never be able to complete the 
text. 

I have reason to believe that there are still a number of unknown 
Deluge fragments in the collection of the British Museum. Mr. Theo. 
G. Pinches, than whom there is none more familiar with the treasures 
of the Assyrian collections in the British Museum, was kind enough to 
send me some time ago a new fragment of the Flood Tablet, which he 
discovered on August 12th, 1891. It bears the number 81. 2-4, 460. 
The collection 81. 2-4 (i. e. received at the British Museum April 2d, 
1881) seems to have come from the same place as the tablets of the 
Kouyunjik collection.! Mr. Pinches wrote me that he had not been 
able to find out whether the new piece joined any of the other Deluge 
fragments. I am inclined to think that it belongs to No. 64 on p. 128 
of my edition, i. e, 81, 2-4, 296 ; but of course, this can only be settled 
after an inspection of the two fragments. 

• See my Akkadisehe Sprache (Berlin, 1883), p. xli. 

f Cf. Schrader'a kat* 57, n. 2; Delitzsch, Assyr. Worterbuch, p. 143, n. 12. 

X See the engraving in Goo. Smitli*8 Chaldean Account of Genesis (London, 1880), 
p. 9 (German ed. p. 10), or Kaulen's Assyrien tind BabyUmien (Freiburg, 1891), p. 
169. A new piece of the reverse, which was found a few years ago, is published 
on p. 124 of my edition. § Cf. plates 95-131 of my edition. 

I Cf C. Bozold, Die Thontafelsammiungen des British Museum^ in the SttzungS' 
herichte der Berliner Academies phil.-hi8t. Classe, July 6, 1888, p. 7, 61. 



Mtn^, Modem r^rodtiction of the Iflmrod Spic tahlU. xi 

The n«w fragmeDt, though tbtj email {ca. If k { in.)> contains S 
variants to 11. 189-145 of mj edition : viz., lis instead of ll4s in appalU 
' I beheld,' 1. 189 ; the upright wedge for the preposition a-na at the 
beginning of 1. 141 ; in ]. 148. the phonetic complement -a is omitted 
after the number 2 (=:iand); in 1. 145, we have the accusative xaSia 
(character oak) instead of xaMiu 'fifth." If 81.2-4,460 joins 81.3-4, 
3B6, the plural kibrdli ' regions ' would be written defective in 1. 189, 
just as the infinitive kaiddi ' arrival ' is written detective in 1. 180 on 
SI. 3-4, 296. Lines 443 and 144, as well as 11. 145 and 146, form but one 
line each on the new fragment, as well as on the Deluge Tablets A and 
O (and I).t 

Theee graphic variations are not of much consequence, but in 1. 140 
we read on the new fragment, instead of ana IS ta-a-an iteM noffA 
' after 19 double hours^ there appeared an island '%, ana H ta-a-att etc., 
i. e. ' after 14 double hours there appeared an island.' The number 13 
is only preserved on Deluge Tablet B, i. e. K8375 (p. 109, 1. 81 of my 
edition). This variation is not Burprising ; fr^nent I exhiints a cum- 
berof peculiar readings; e.g. inan&rubnisBdtiial. I3e,and JobMftiphl- 
hmu instead of hattaA ; r&du after i&ra in 1. 129 ; and in 1. 189 a-ab-ba = 
t&mdu"\ follows immediately after kQrr&ti. 

I give here a reprodoction of the new fragment, based on the copy 
kindly sent me by Hr. Pinches. 




• Cf. IV 6, 22 ; zoSb stands for jeanJu (IT', addiiiona ad pi. 66, 1. 6) = xamiu, 
juBt aaSttndu 'his name ' occasionally appearaaa stiiiuflV' 12, rev. 32, n, 20). 

t Cf. p. 133 of my edition. 

I See Jensen in his review of Tallquiet's Sprache der Cmtracle Nabund'id'a, 
ZA. vi. 348. 

§ See Meiasner, AUbabyL PHsahKkl (Leipzi^r, ISSS), p. 124. CC. the name of 
Ihe Elamit* city ffagUu (Delitteoh, Paradici, p. 324). 

I Deluge Tablet B baa in 1.133 app<^d-ma feinuito ' I beheld the sea.' A and I, 
however, read tau-ua instead of In-tna-ta, and this TAif-UA cannot be eiplained 
as a masculine form of Idmdu (Beilr. z, Assyr, i, 135). I think it should be read 
vd-ma = nOIK 'land.' It is possible that we should also read utlniti instead 
of Amu in 1. 119, udntv. ulli ana ttli li-itir-via, although the frequent occurrence 
ot bne vllili ^c (Delitzsch, AW. 449) seema to be in lavorofthe reading flma. 



xii American Oriental Societj/^s Proceedings^ April 1893, 

Our reproduction of the Flood Tablet is intended especially for use in 
academic classes, to enable students who have not access to original 
tablets to study the cuneiform writing. An accompanying statement 
gives explicit directions for the making and engraving of clay tablets, 
based on various experiments made by Dr. Zehnpfund, who is undoubt- 
edly the most skilful modem cuneiform scribe. He engraved, for 
instance, the cuneiform congratulatory tablet which the contributors 
of our Assyriologische Biblioihek presented to the head of the firm of 
J. C. Hinrichs, Leipzig, at the centennial anniversary of the firm.* He 
also engraved the text of the legend of the demon kater printed in the 
famous menu of the Stockh<»lm Ck)ngress of Orientalists, f A photo- 
graph of this tablet will be published in the Transactions of the Con- 
gress. ^ A copy of the Stockholm Congress tablet is exhibited in the 
museum of the University of Pennsylvania, as well as in the U. Si 
National Museum. Some notes on the subject are published in the 
Report on the Section of Oriental Antiquities in the U. S. National 
Museum, printed in the Smithsonian Reports for 1890, p. 189. 

[Postscript. A note from Mr. Pinches, just received, informs me that 
my conjecture regarding the new Deluge fragment is right ; 81, 2-4, 
460 joins 81, 2-4, 296. Ana 14 ta-a-an in 1. 140 is also perfectly clesur.] 

3. On recent studies in Hindu grammar ; by Professor 
W. D. Whitney, of Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

An abstract of this paper, which will appear in full elsewhere (in the 
Amer. Journal of Philology, vol. xiv.), is as follows : 

In May, 1884, I read before the Society a paper entitled ** On the 
study of Hindu grammar and the study of Sanskrit '* (it was pubJished 
in abstract in the Proceedings, and in full in the Ainer. Joum. Philol. , 
vol. v.), intended to point out the true place and value of the gram- 
matical division of the Sanskrit literature. Since then have appeared 
a number of contributions to knowledge in that department, by two 
younger scholars, at that time unknown, and these it is proposed to 
examine briefly. 

The first, published in Bezzenberger*s Beitrdge zur Kunde der indo- 
germaniachen Sprachen, vols. x. and xi., 1885 and 1886, has for title 
*' the case-system of the Hindu grammarians compared with the use of 
the cases in the Aitareya-Brahma^,'^ and is a doctorate-dissertation 
by B. Liebich (now privat-docent at Breslau). Its first part was a 
digest of Pacini's rules as to the case-uses, and was very welcome, as a 
contribution to the easier understanding of his treatment of one import- 
ant subject. In the second part, the author arranges under the Paninean 
scheme all the facts of case-use in the Brahma^ mentioned : a careful 

♦Cf. Johns Hopkins University Circulars, No. 98, Mar, 1892. p. 92. 

t Menu du dtner offert au VIII^ Congre^ International des Oriental istes, Stock- 
holm, le 7 Sept 1889. 

X I have seen the photograph, but I do not know vrhen the Transactions of the 
Semitic Section I^ will be published. I understand that the first volume of the 
Transactions of the Stockholm Congress, containing the papers of the lalamitic 
Seetion I*, has just been issued. 



Whitnei/t Recent studies in Hindu grammar, ziii 

and creditable piece of work. The results of the comparison are pre** 
cisely what we, knowing well the relation of the Brahma^jia language 
to the classical language, should expect to find them; there is gen- 
eral agreement, with plenty of special differences. Nothing indicates 
in the slightest degree any particular relation between P&^ini's system 
and this text. The general conclusion is that the native case-simtax, in 
spite of its striking defects of theory, is a fairly good practical scheme ; 
the great grammarian comes out of the trial with credit. The author, 
however, mistakenly adds to his work the secondary title ** a contribu- 
tion to the syntax of the Sanskrit language," and this it plainly is not ; 
we see here another example of the too common misapprehension that 
what illustrates Panini casts light upon Sanskrit. Of the author's own 
summary of results, the only item to be approved, as really following 
from the investigation^ is that ** the doctrine of Pacini reposes upon a 
careful and acute observation of the actual language :" and this ought 
not to have required proof. Better, also, **of an actual language,'* 
since P§.9ini's care and acuteness are less in question than the char- 
acter of the tongue he represents. That that tongue was especially a 
book-language, as the author's further remarks seem to indicate that 
he regards it, is doubtless an untenable view. 

Four years later, in the same Joum^,l (Bezzenberger's Beitrdge etc., 
vol. xvi., 1890), a kindred subject is taken up by Dr. R. Otto Franke 
{now privat-docfiut at Berlin), in a paper entitled ** the case-system of 
Pacini compared with the use of the cases in Pali and in the Agoka 
inscriptions." The author builds upon Liebich's foundation, looking 
in the later dialects mentioned for agreement with the Paninean 
scheme as drawn out by the latter, and finding as much as was reason- 
ably to be expected, besides, in other departments of syntax, a curious 
coincidence or two which were beyond expectation. As the ground is 
less worked over, his harvest of new facts is fuller than that of 
Liebich. His general views as to P&i^ini and his Sanskrit seem open to 
criticism. He greatly exaggerates the importance of Liebich*s articles, 
and writes as if it were possible for any reasonable persons to imagine 
that the Aitareya-Brahma^a, or the Pali and the inscriptions, were the 
exclusive, or the principal, basis of Pacini's rules ; or that Paigdni may 
have ** collected the phenomena of very diverse dialects, and fused 
them together into an integral whole." 

But the question as to what Pacini's language really was is approached 
again by Dr. Franke under the heading ** what is Sanskrit?" in Bezzen- 
berger's Beitrdge, vol. xvii. (1891 ; but the article is dated at the end 
Nov., 1889). The first half of the discussion turns on the question 
what Pacini means by hhn^d, and reaches the very plausible conclusion 
that it is no Prakrit, but unapproved Sanskrit. Of the second half the 
result is that '* Panini's Sanskrit is accordingly in the main bhd^d. 
And yet, on the other hand, it is neither bhasd nor a living language :" 
which is not very clear. It is quite unaccountable that these authors 
take no notice of the dramas, which set before us a state of things, 
unquestionably at one time a real one, when educated people talk 



XIV American Orieniat Society^s ProceedingSy April 1893. 

Sanskrit and uneducated Pr&krit. That is precisely the present char- 
acter of Sanskrit, the spoken and written tongue of the educated class ; 
that has been its character for over 2000 years ; and that must have 
been its character at the beginning, when the distinction of Sanskrit 
and Pr&krit first arose. That it was originally a vernacular is a matter 
of course, though one soon stiffened and made somewhat unnatural by 
grammatical handling ; it was the tongue which P&^ini and his like 
themselves spoke, and which they thought alone worthy to be spoken 
by others — of which, therefore, they tried to lay down the laws. In 
his conspectus of the views of various scholars upon the subject, 
Franke quotes a very old statement of Weber's, to the effect that '* the 
development of Sanskrit and of the Prakrit dialects out of their com- 
mon source, the Indo-Aryan mother-tongue, went on with absolute 
contemporaneousness {voVstdndig gleichzeitigy^ But this seems scien- 
tifically untenable. It would imply, for example, that attd (or appd) 
and dtmdy that pakkhitta and prak^pta, that hadu and hhavatu, and 
their like, are contemporaneous developments, while it is clear that the 
former in each case is the altered representative of the latter, than 
which nothing older and more original is attainable even by linguistic 
inference on Indian soil. The great mass of Pr&krit words, forms, 
constructions imply the corresponding Sanskrit ones as a stage through 
which they have themselves passed. That here and there exceptions 
are met with, altered items of which the original is not found in Sans- 
krit, or is found in Vedic Sanskrit, is without any significance what- 
ever against the mass. The history of dialects shows no dialect 
descended tn bloc from an older one, and such exceptions might 
equally be relied on to prove Italian and French "absolutely contem- 
poraneous" with Latin. 

In the same year (1891), Dr. Ldebich published a valuable collection of 
studies entitled " P&npni : a contribution to the knowledge of Sanskrit 
literature and grammar** (8vo., 164 pp.). The first study, or chapter, 
deals with P&^^i*s period, reviewing briefly the opinions of scholars, 
and, without bringing forward new evidence, arriving at the date 
"after Buddha and before Christ" as a merely probable conclusion. 
The second treats of Paij^ini's chief successors and commentators, as to 
whom much the same chronological uncertainty prevails. The third 
is an attempt to find his place in the literature, by a new method, a f>ta- 
tistical one : the author counts off a thousand successive personal 
verb-forms in four works, the Aitareya-Brahma];^a, the Brhad-Ara?- 
yaka, two Gfhya-Sutras, and the Bhagavad-Git&, and applies to them 
the rules of the native grammar, to see how many and what of them 
are against rule. The test is made with creditable learning and indus- 
try, and the results are interesting, but really illustrative only, as 
bringing to light nothing that was not well known before. The mat- 
ter is one to which the statistical method is not very well suited ; this 
is decidedly more in place in the secondary inquiries raised in chapters 
six and seven, where it is cleverly shown that the last chapters of the 
Aitareya-Br&hma^a are of later origin than the rest (as already 



WhiUiet/f Recent studies in Hindu grammar. xv 

believed, on other grounds), while the whole substance of the B^had- 
Anupyaka is fairly homogeneous. It is much to be regretted that, 
instead of the acknowledgedly late Bhagavad-GIt&, the author did not 
select as example of the epic language some part of the Mah&bharata 
which could plausibly be regarded as belonging to its original nucleus. 
The fourth chapter, headed *' Pacini's relation to the language of India^" 
is chiefly made up of a review of the opinions of other scholars as to 
the position of PS^jdni^s Sanskrit among the dialects of India, the 
author adding a statement of the results of his statistical examination 
as his own view ; and he closes with a new and wholly unacceptable 
general classification of the entire body of dialects. He makes three 
principal divisions : pre-classical, classical, and post-classical. To the 
first he assigns only the language of the Vedic saihhit&i, the mantra- 
dialect ; the second he makes include the Br&hma^jia and Sutra lan- 
guage (which he had elsewhere shown to be notably older than Pacini), 
together with " the doctrine of P&^ini ;" and in the third he puts, 
along with the epic or extra-Paninean, all the literature which we 
have been accustomed to call '* classical," by Kalid&sa and the rest I 
Liebich's classical *' doctrine of P&^ini '' can only include, besides 
P&9ini*s grammar itself, what in my former paper I called *'the non- 
existent grammarians* dialect,'* because nothing had ever been written 
in it ; Liebich now acknowledges that this and the real language of the 
literature even belong to different primary periods of the history of 
Indian language— which is more than I had ever ventured to claim I 

Just half of Dr. Liebich's volume is occupied by two so-called Appen- 
dixes, containing digests of the teachings of the native grammar in 
regard to the voice-inflection of the verbal roots (as active or middle or 
both), and to the formation of feminine declensional stems. These are, 
in my opinion, the substantially valuable part of the work, exemplify- 
ing what needs to be done for all the various subjects included in the 
grammar ; and tlie next step must be to compare the schemes with the 
facts of the literary language, in order to see what are the differences 
and to infer their reason. 

There is left for notice only the fifth chapter, in which the author 
attempts to answer the objections of my former paper to thrusting the 
grammarians' Sanskrit on our attention in place of the real Sanskrit of 
the literature. The first point, that of the twelve hundred ungenuine 
roots in the dhdtupdfha, he, after the manner of the students of the 
native grammar in general, slips lightly over, with the suggestion of 
possible interpolations since Paij^ini's time— as if that relieved of respon- 
sibility the native grammatical system as it lies before us, or as if 
interpolation could explain the increase of eight or nine hundred roots 
to over two thousand I Till this increase is accounted for (if it ever 
can be), it becomes the admirers of the Hindu grammar to speak in 
humble tones. It is equally difficult to suppose that P&^ini should 
have accepted the whole list and that any one should have thrust in 
the false roots, undetected and unhindered, since his period. 

As to the middle periphrastic perfect and the middle precative, Dr. 
Liebich says nothing that changes at all their aspect as stated by me : 



xvi American Oriental Society* a Proceedings^ April 1892, 

that they are formations '* sporadic in the early language, and really 
extinct in the later, but erected by the grammarians into a regular part 
of every verb-system.*' And the same is true in its way of the second- 
ary passives. How much shadow of excuse P&^ini may have had for 
giving to them the value he does is a secondary question. Prayoktdse 
at T8. ii. 6.2' is, in my opinion, shown to be 1st sing., and not 2d, by 
the occurrence of te in the sentence with it ; the isolated and wholly 
anomalous ya^iahe of TA. i. 11. 4 may be conjectured to be a corrupt 
reading, and the sole foundation of the grammarians' 1st singular. 

In excuse of Pa^ni's two rules (viii. 8. 78, 79) defining when ^vam 
and 4'hve are to be used in 2d pi. mid., the author first suggests, without 
carrying out and either accepting or rejecting, the theory of a misinter- 
pretation by the later grammarians : the sign in has two very different 
possible meanings ; and it is uncertain what elements of the first rule are 
carried over by implication into the second. These ambiguities are to 
the discredit of the grammar ; especially the second, which is a per- 
vading one : in numberless cases we know not what a Paninean rule 
means until we know from the literature what it ought to mean, and 
then interpret it accordingly. Next it is pointed out that, after all, 4^ 
and dh are very little different, and perhaps Pai^ini's ear failed some- 
times to distinguish them properly t This virtually gives away the 
whole case, making Panini's word worthless not only here but in every 
other question of euphony ; even I have never charged him with any- 
thing so bad as that. Finally, Liebich doubts of the connection of cause 
and effect in matters of language ; we might properly expect to find 
4h sometimes without any reason for it. The utter futility of the whole 
reply is palpable. P&^ini lays down a distinct statement as to when 
dh and when ^7i is to be used ; and he makes the difference depend 
upon a circumstance which evidently can have no bearing upon it ; and 
all the (few) facts of the literature are against him. As for his 
inclusion of the perfect ending dhve in the same rule, that could have 
reason only if the original and proper form of the endings were sdhvam 
and sdhve ; and, if that were so, we should find 4^ in forms of the pres- 
ent-system also. 

Passing over certain topics in my paper (the most important of them 
being the grammarians' derivation of the reduplicated aorist from the 
causative stem instead of from the root). Dr. Liebich takes up finally 
the defense of Pai^ini's classification of compounds, and especially of 
the so-called avyaytbhdva class of adverbial compounds, regarded as 
primary, and codrdinate with copulative, determinative, and possessive. 
According to him, the true fundamental principle of classification is 
furnished by the syntactical relation of the two members of the com- 
pound to one another : in the determinatives, the former member is 
dependent on the latter ; in the copulatives, both are coordinate ; in 
the possessives, both are alike dependent on a word outside the com- 
pound, which they qualify adjectively ; then, finally, in the adverbial 
(e. g. atimdtram * excessively,' from ati * beyond' and mdtrd * measure'), 
the latter member is dependent on the former. Calling the dependent 



Whitney y Recent studies in Hindu grammar, xvii 

element minus and the other plus^ we thus have 'the scheme mirvaS' 
phis, plus-plus, minus-minuSf and plus-minus, which is plainly exhaus- 
tive : no more are possible ; no fewer are consistent with complete- 
ness. The scheme is thus drawn out by some of the later grammarians, 
though not expressly by Pai^ini himself ; but Liebich is confident that 
the latter knew and acknowledged it, being hindered from its full 
adoption by considerations of brevity : brevity, it may be added, being 
in his text-book well known to be the leading consideration, to which 
everything else is to be sacriHced — to us hardly a recommendation of 
the work. But it has never been found, I believe, that the facts of 
language could be successfully treated mathematically ; and so it seems 
to be here. There is no such thing as & plus-minus class of compounds, 
and perhaps Pacini was acuter than his successors (including our 
author) in seeing that this is the case. Not that there is no plus-minus 
relation between the elements of ati-mdtram ; but so there is a minus- 
plus relation between those of the possessive mahaJbdhu * having great 
arms.* As the conversion of the latter to adjective value overrides 
the internal .relation and makes the whole minus-minus^ so does also 
the conversion of the former to adverb value. Calling the adjective- 
making influence a, and the adverb-making b, then, if (minus-plus)<* = 
minus-minus, certainly (plus-niinu^)^ = minus-minus as well. In very 
fact, however, atimdtram is the adverbially used accus. neut. of the 
adjective atimdtra * excessive'; and so, I confidently hold, are by 
origin all its fellows ; and the avyaylbhdva stands at a double remove 
from plus-minus value. The asserted primary class is not even a sub- 
class, but only one group in a list of utterly heterogeneous character. 

At the close of his chapter. Dr. Liebich, conceiving himself to have 
refuted me everywhere, compassionates me for not having made a 
happier selection of points for objection. I, on the contrary, feel quite 
satisfied with them, as having withstood undamaged all his attacks ; 
but I am willing to add one more, which, indeed, he urges on my atten- 
tion. He, namely, lifts up hands of horror (p. 61) at me for pronounc- 
ing (in my Skt. Gr.) something "barbarous" which Pacini teaches. 
The matter alluded to is the formation of comparative and superlative 
predications by adverbial endings : thus, daddti * he gives,* dad&tita- 
rdm * he gives more,' daddtitamdm * he gives most * — precisely as if one 
were to say in Greek didotairefMv, SuSoxtitutov. It may be maintained, 
without fear of successful contradiction, that such formations, no 
matter who authorizes them, are horrible barbarisms, offenses against 
the proprieties of universal Indo-European speech. The total absence of 
anything even suggesting their possibility in the pre-Paninean language, 
and their great rarity later, among writers to whom a rule of Pacini 
is as the oracle of a god, shows sufficiently that they are not real. 
Doubtless they were jocose or highly slangy modes of expression, which 
some unexplainable freak led Pacini to sanction. 

Liebich's Pdnini is reviewed by Dr. Franke at considerable length in 
the Oott. Oel. Anzeigen for 1891 (pp. 951 ff.), though less in the way 
of a detailed examination and criticism of its statements and opin- 

VOL. XVI. 3 



xviii Americctn Oriental Society*8 Proeeeding$y April 1893, 

ions than of an independent disonsaion of some of the points involved. 
Many pages, however, are expended upon P&giini's classification of the 
compounds ; and here the critic by no means suf^Kxrts Liebich's views, 
but rather takes my side, and helps to expose the superficialities and 
incongruities of Pacini's treatment of the subject. In other respects 
the notice is a laudatory one, going so far as to *' thoroughly approve,'* 
as ''very successful,*' Liebich's special pleadings respecting the ending 
4hvam — including, we must suppose, the suggestion of P&^ni's defec- 
tive ear, and the denial of a connection between cause and effect in 
Sanskrit euphony. It even adds a further argument of a like character : 
that in Prakrit 4^ sometimes takes the place of dft, and that Prakritic 
changes sometimes work their way into Sanskrit. So in Prfikrit, and 
on a very large scale, n becomes ti ; but that would hardly support a 
Hindu grammarian who should teach that a r altered the next follow- 
ing n to n only when itself preceded by certain specified sounds. The 
question of the twelve hundred false roots Franke passes over with the 
same cautious carelessness as Liebich, as if it were a matter of no real 
account. 

The last publication we have to notice is again by Liebich, a small 
volume (8vo, pp. xl, 80, Breslau, 1892), entitled "Two chapters of the 
Kagika." It contains a simple translation of the exposition given 
by that esteemed and authoritative commentary for the rules of Pacini 
that concern compounds ; and there is prefixed an ample introduction, 
in which the absolute four-fold classification, spoken of above, is drawn 
out, illustrated, and defended much more fully than in the same 
author's Pdi^ini, This introduction, though dated later, must prol>ab1y 
have been prepared and printed earlier than Franke*s criticism of the 
P&ifinit for the author could otherwise hardly have so ignored the 
rejection of the theory by his fellow partizan of the Hindu grammar. 
The volume is valuable as smoothing the way a little to the compre- 
hension of Pacini for those who shall approach it hereafter : but its 
method is a narrowly restricted one : it refrains from all attempts at 
independent explanation, and yet more from all criticism. It is con- 
tent, for example, to report without a word of comment the two discord- 
ant interpretations which are offered by the Kagika for the extremely 
difficult introductory rule, and which plainly indicate that it did not 
itself quite know what the rule was meant to say. No one can well 
fail to be repelled by the fantastic obscurity with which the subject of 
compounds is presented in these chapters ; and we have seen above 
that the underlying theory is a very defective one : how absurd, then, 
to require that students of Sanskrit should derive from such sources 
their knowledge of Sanskrit composition I 

I would by no means say anything to discourage the study of Pacini ; 
it is highly important and extremely interesting, and might well absorb 
more of the labor of the present generation of scholarB tlian is given 
to it. But I would have it followed in a different spirit and a different 
method. It should be completely abandoned as the means by which 
we are to learn Sanskrit. For what the literature contains the liter- 



Oertel, Jdiminlya Vpanishad-JSrakmana. xix 

ature itself suffices ; we can understand and present it vastly better 
than Pai^ini could. It is the residuum of peculiar material involved in 
his grammar that we shall value, and the attempt must be to separate 
that from the rest of the mass. And the study should be made a truly 
progressive one, part after part of the native system being worked out 
to the last possible degree and the results recorded, so that it shall not 
be necessary for each generation to begin anew the tedious and unre- 
warding task. 

4. Announcement of an edition of the Jaiminiya or Talava- 
kara Upanishad-Brahmana ; by Dr. Hanns Oertel, of Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. 

Dr. Oertel gave a brief account of BurnelPs discovery in Southern 
India of Grantham manuscripts of the Jaiminiya or Talavakara BrS,h- 
ma^a (of which the Upanishad-Brahmana forms the fourth or con- 
cluding book), and of his sending them to Professor Whitney, by 
whom, with the help of other scholars, they were copied and collated 
(see Proceedings for May, 1883, Journal, vol. xi., p. cxliv). The fifteen 
years since elapsed have failed to bring to light any new material. 
Under these circumstances, it does not seem premature to make public 
that part of the BrShmai^ta whose text is least corrupt— the only part 
of the extensive work which admits of being edited in full, namely the 
Upanishad-Brahmana. All the manuscripts are very inaccurate, and 
they also evidently go back to the same faulty archetype, so that in 
many passages they present the same corrupt and unintelligible text. 
Such passages are most numerous in the first chapter (adhydya). It 
may be hoped that, the text being made accessible, difficulties which 
must now be left unsolved will be at least in part removed by farther 
comparison with other texts and by skilled conjecture. 

The work is divided into four chapters. Each of the first three has a 
colophon, and the last three sections {khai)4^) of the third are a vahga. 
Tlie last chapter is made up of heterogeneous material. It opens with 
three sections of mantra. The last two sections of the ninth division 
{anuvdka) are again a vay'i^a. Then follows the Kena-Upanishad, in 
four sections, one division ; and two more divisions end the chapter and 
the work proper : the dr^eya-brdhrnana, published as a separate work 
by Burnell, comes after and ends the manuscript. 

In general, the contents of the Upanishad-Brahmana are of one class 
with those of other similar works. Of most interest to us, perhaps, is 
the legendary material. For more than a dozen legends corresponding 
ones are found in other texts already published, with more or less of 
resemblance and divergence. Of others, to which no parallels have 
been discovered elsewhere, perhaps the most notable is the story of 
Uccaiy^'ravas Kaupayeya, king of the Kurus, and his friend Ke^in 
Darbhya : ** They were dear to each other, and then Uccaig^ravas Dar- 
bhya departed from this world. When he had departed, Kegin 
Darbhya went hunting in order to get rid of his gloomy thoughts. 
While he was roaming about, Uccaii^ravas stood before him. * Am I 



XX American OriefitaJ Societt/a Proceedings^ April 1893, 

crazy, or do I know thee,' said Kegin to him. He answered : * Thou 
art not crazy ; thou knowest me : I am he whom thou thinkest me to 
be.* " And he goes on to explain that he has come back to comfort 
and instruct his friend. ' * Kegin said : ' Reverend sir, let me now 
embrace thee ;' but, when he tried to embrace him, he escaped him, as 
if one were to approach smoke, or wind, or space, or the gleam of fire, 
or water ; he could not take hold of him for an embrace. He said : 
* Truly, what appearance thou hadst formerly, that appearance thou 
hast even now ; yet I cannot take hold of thee for an embrace.' " 
And then the king informs him that he has shaken off his corporeal 
body because a Brahman knowing the saman which Prajapati re- 
vealed to his dear son Patanga sang for him the tidgitha. Thereupon 
Kegin seeks in vain among the Brahman-priests of the Kurus and Pafi- 
calas for a knower of this sdman, till at length he meets Pratrda 
Bhalla, who answers his questions correctly, and whom he chooses as 
udgdtar for his twelve-day sacrifice. 

Bhf gu and Naciketas visif the other world ; but no further example 
is known in Vedic literature of an inhabitant of the other world who 
returns to this in order to comfort and instruct a friend. 

The edition will comprise : 1. The transliterated text, with full list of 
various readings : 3. a purely philological, literal translation ; 8. notes, 
chiefly references to parallel passages ; 4. indexes of names, quotations, 
and the more important grammatical and lexical points. 

6. The influences of Hindu thought on ManichaBism ; by 
Mr. Paul Elmer More, of St. Louis, Mo. 

The Manichsean religion, which was promulgated by Mani, a Persian, 
in the third century of our era, and which spread rapidly from Babylon 
to the east as far as China and ivestward with the Roman Empire, is 
an admirable example of the syncretic method of thought of that age. 
It is the deliberate attempt of a religious reformer to fuse into one 
homogeneous system Zoroastrianism and Christianity, the two relig- 
ions then struggling for supremacy on the borderland of the Persian 
Empire. Probably the Zoroastrianism which forms the background of 
his syncrasis is tinged with the Semitic superstitions prevalent in 
Assyria ; certainly the Christian elements adopted are gnostic rather 
than orthodox. Baur and several of the later historians have endeav- 
ored—unsuccessfully, as I think — to show that the Christian elements 
are not an integral part of Manicha»ism, but rather nominal additions 
to an ethnic religion already complete in itself. Such a view^ appears 
to me altogether to miss the true spirit of Manfs puri)ose, and of the 
manner of thought of his age. However, it remains conceded by all 
that in one way or another Manichffiism is put together out of Persian 
and Christian elements. 

The influence of Hindu thought, and of Buddhism in particular, on 
this religion is more a matter of dispute. The great historians have 
expressed different views on the subject. Geyler, in his dissertation 
Der Manichcvismns mid sriti Verhdltnissziim BtidiUiisnius, merely enum- 



More, Influences of Sindu thought on Manichceisni. xxi 

erates a number of detached correspondences in details of faith and 
practice. Unfortunately, the publication by Flfigel of the portion of 
the Fihrist of Muhammad ben Ishak bearing on Manicha&ism naturally 
fosters such a method of comparison. The Arabian encyclopedist 
adds a number of details to our knowledge of the more extravagant side 
of the heresy, but in a manner which tends to draw the student away 
from the more philosophical presentation by St. Augustin, on whom 
Baur and the earlier historians had mainly to depend. What I wish 
to establish is briefly this : First, that Man! was influenced not by 
Buddhism alone, but by that whole movement of Hindu thought of 
'which Buddhism is a single part ; and, secondly, that this influence is 
seen not so much in the addition of new rites and dogmas borrowed 
from Buddhism as in the subtle spirit of India thoroughly permeating 
those already adopted from Persian and Christian sources. 

In approaching this question, two avenues of information must be 
considered : to wit, historical tradition and internal evidence. As 
might be expected, historical statements on such a subject are sug- 
gestive but extremely vague. It is recorded however in the Fihrist 
that Mani traveled for forty years, visiting the Hindus, the Chinese, 
and the inhabitants of Chorasan. Some tradition also of the Bud- 
dhistic sources from which he drew seems to have lingered in the 
minds of the early chroniclers ; and, as so often happens, these abstract 
ideas became personified, and figure with fabulous names among the 
followers of the reformer. It is not my intention here to discuss this 
side of the question. The following brief quotation from Kenan's 
Histoire des Langues S4mitiques sums up the matter admirably : ** Bud- 
das figure tantot comme maitre, tant6t comme disciple de Man^ ; 
Scythianus (Qakya?), le propagateur du Manich6isme en Occident, 
voyage dans Tlnde ; enfin les auteurs arabes d^signent tous comme 
fondateur du Sabisme un personnage du nom de Budasp ou Budasf. 
II n'est pas impossible que I'Evangile de Man^s, ou I'Evangile selon 
Saint Thomas, ne fiit quelque soutra bouddhique, le nom de Gotama 
etant devenu Kara Ocjuav." 

On the other hand, internal evidence, drawn from a study of the 
religions themselves, justifies a more positive view of their relationship. 
It has been remarked that Hindu thought moves in cycles. Certainly, 
during the centuries just before and after our era, we see such a wave 
of thought sweep over India, changing the whole religious and intel- 
lectual life of the people. The Sankhya philosophy, Buddhism, Jainism, 
and the Krishna cult apparently arose and developed side by side, being 
the various aspects of one great revolution. Their points of contact 
are numerous and essential ; and doubtless, if the complete literature of 
the time were at our command, their origin and growth would show still 
more striking phases of resemblance. Now details of belief and wor- 
ship may be detected in Manichajism which appear to be borrowed 
from one and another of these cults ; but beyond this there is yet a 
deeper influence clearly perceptible. Mani, we must believe, spent a 
number of years in northern India, traveling far and wide. We know, 



xxii American Oriented Society^a Proceedings^ April 189S, 

too, from the Fihrist that the conception of his religious refonn was 
already in his mind when he set forth from Assyria. Accordingly, we 
should expect to find traces of Hindu thought not so much in thu 
framework of his system and in the details of construction as in the 
general tone and coloring of the whole. It is scarcely possible to 
believe that an earnest searcher after the truth should have been for 
years under the influence of this tremendous moral and intellectual 
ferment without bearing away just such traces of it in his mind. In 
the same way the philosophic student even of to-day who reaches this 
old Hindu life through the dust of dictionaries, although his intellects 
ual credo is not altered by the study, finds perhaps that a peculiar spell 
is laid over his whole manner of thought. 

An examination of the doctrines of Man! makes this conjecture a 
certainty. The influence of Hindu thought is seen to be secondary and 
yet very profound. Dogmas already received are given a deeper meaning, 
and forms already adopted take on a new and wider significance. Tims 
Manichaeism starts with the Zoroastrian conception of two co-eternal 
and hostile powers, of good and of evil, of light and of darkness. 
Now, in the Persian books, Ahriman opposes the god of light at every 
point, to be sure ; yet creation was originally good, and the evil works 
of Ahriman are a later corruption. In the Bundahish (xv. 6), we are 
even told that Mashya and Mashy6f first believed that the world was 
created by Ormazd, and that afterwards they believed Ahriman to be 
the creator. From this falsehood Ahriman received his first joy. By 
this falsehood they both became darvanda, and their souls shall remain 
in hell even unto the resurrection. Aji Dahaka, the great dragon, was 
expressly created by Ahriman to destroy the handiwork of the god of 
light. The material world is primarily righteous ; and it is the first 
duty of man to support aaha, the existing order of things, against the 
assaults of the demons. Here the infiuence of Hindu conceptions on 
Manichaeism is evident. The struggle between Manfs god of light and 
Eblis, the prince of darkness, becomes more intimate and far-reaching. 
The contest is no longer carried on in a neutral region between the two 
opposing powers, like two armies in battle array, but is waged in every 
particle of matter between the two natures contained within it. 

The contest comes about in this way : The regnum lucia is threatene<l 
with invasion by the principes tenebraruiUy who from the dark abj-ss 
behold its glory and are enamored of it. An emanation of God, called 
the Primus Homo, descends into the depths to combat them. The five 
gross material elements belong to the regnum tenebrarum ; and to 
oppose these he first arms himself with a panoply of the five finer ele- 
ments representing the spiritual counterpart of these— an idea probably 
suggested by the Sankliyan theory of the five tanmdtras and the five 
mahdbhutas. He is for the time overwhelmed by Eblis, or Saclas. as 
the demon is sometimes called ; part of his panoply is rent away from 
him, and out of the union of these finer elements, or soul, with the 
gross matter of the regnum tenebrarum springs the existing order of 
things, the soul being held by force in the bonds of matter, and giving it 



Morej Influences of Hindu thought on Manichmism, xxiii 

form and life. Creation is then essentially a work of evil ; matter 
as in all the phases of the Hindu cycle of thought, is altogether base ; 
and the great struggle now waging is the effort of the imprisoned soul, 
or emanation of light, to free itself from the bondage of the world. It 
is to be noticed however that Manfs conception of evil, although deep- 
ened and spfritualized by Indian mysticism, remains primarily Persian. 
Evil for him is an actual and active principle, eternal in its nature, and 
far removed from mdyd, or mere illusion. 

The process of redemption is the point of contact with Christianity, 
and from now on our heresy m ill be found Christian rather than Persian. 
In other words, Mani's system may be divided into two great periods, 
one of involution, or mingling of spirit and matter, adopted from 
Zoroastrian sources : and the second of evolution, or the separation of 
spirit and matter, borrowed chiefly from the Christian faith. This 
division is not, of course, a hard-and-fast one, but in the main makes 
evident the nature of the syncrasis. In this second part of the system, 
Christian ideas are modified by Hindu thought in a manner precisely 
similar to the process already described. The Christian terminology 
and ritual are maintained, but the mission of the Christos is deepened 
and extended. The labor of salvation is no longer confined to the 
action of a man or god-man living his life in Palestine, but becomes the 
cosmic struggle of the Weltgeist striving upward toward deliverance. 
It is the Buddhist or Jain a conception of the progress toward release 
aided onward by the appearance of the Enlightener. St. Paul's mysti- 
cal utterance, ** The whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain 
together," makes it easy to understand how such Hindu notions could be 
involved in Christian terminology; and the conclusion of this same 
passage, '^ until now . . . waiting for the adoption, to wit the 
redemption of our body," shows at the same time how far-reaching was 
the change wrought by the influence of India. A brief survey of the 
ManichaBan Christology will make the subject plainer. 

Mani distinguishes between the Christos and Jesus. The general name 
of the emanation from the kingdom of light is the Privius Homo ; this 
is regarded in two ways, as a passive principle {<^Ovafiig TraOirriKJj) suffer- 
ing the bondage of the world, and as an active principle {^vvaut^ 
iStj^iovfyyudi) effecting its own deliverance. Now the former is called the 
Jesus patibilis, while the latter is the Christos. When the world was 
created out of the union of the spiritual Primus Homo and the mate- 
rial regnum tenebrarum, the purest portion of the mixture, that con- 
taining the most light, was placed in the sky as the sun and moon. 
Their light, together with the atmosphere (which is the Holy Ghost), 
acting on the earth, produces life ; life is the struggle of the imprisoned 
soul upwards toward reabsorption into the kingdom of light. In this 
process the sun and moon, the life-giving light (called also the Primus 
Homo, the Son of God), are the Christos ; the spirit dormant in the 
earth and awakened by their touch is the Jesus patibilis. Every tree 
that expands its leaves in the warm breath of heaven, every flower that 
paints its blossoms with the colors of the sky, is only an expresision of 



xxiv American Oriental Society*8 ProceedingSy April 1893. 

the upward striving of the weary Weltgeigt, So the agony of the 
crucifixion became s3rnibolical of the universal passion, and Jesus was 
said to be omni suspensus ex ligno. The feeling which inspired this 
conception of the suffering Jesus is beautifully told in that stanza oi 
Omar Khayyam : 

Now the New Year reviving old Desires, 
The thoughtful Soul to Solitude retires, 

Where the White Hand of Moses on the Bough 
Puts out, and Jesus from the Ground suspires. 

Now when the demons of evil see that the light which they possess is 
thus gradually withdrawn from them, they are thrown into despair. 
They conspire among themselves, and, by a curious process of procrea- 
ting and then devouring their offspring, produce man, who contains the 
quintessence of all the spiritual light remaining to them. Adam is be- 
gotten by Saclas and Nebrod, their leaders, in the likeness of the Primus 
Homo, He is given the glory of the world, is made the microcosm or 
counterpart of the universe, that by the excellence of his nature, as by a 
bait, the Soul may be allured to remain in the body. He is created by 
the lust of the demons ; his own fall consists in succumbing to the 
seductions of the flesh ; and through the process of generation the spirit 
is still held a bond-slave in the world, passing from father to son. As 
the Christos acting in the sun awakens the inanimate earth, so too he 
appears as a man among men, as Jesus of Nazareth, teaching the way 
of salvation. Release comes only with the cessation of desire, and this 
again is brought about only through the true knowledge, or Gnosis, 
imparted by the Savior. In all this we see strong traces of the Zoroas- 
trian sun-worship, as might be expected. The Christos represented as 
distentus per solem lunamque points at once to Mithra, the sun-god and 
mediator. But the significant modification comes rather from India. 
The whole conception of Christ's mission is changed ; and the labor of 
his life is to proclaim the way of release to the spirit already groping 
upward, rather than to act as mediator between man and God. His 
incarnation is only one brief event in the long struggle of Jesus and the 
Christos. In . accordance with this, the doctrine of Docetism was im- 
ported from India, either directly or through the earlier Gnostic sects. 
Docetism is a transparent adaptation of the Hindu Maya which plays so 
important a role in Indian philosophy, in later Buddhism, and in the 
Krishna cult. A single quotation from the Bhdgauata Purdna or the 
Lotus of the True Lata would show the close resemblance of th^se doc- 
trines—and might at the same time throw light on the vexed question 
of borrowing between Christianity and the Krishna cult ; for surely no 
one would care to maintain that Maya is a western conception, origi- 
nating in Gnostic Docetism. For instance, we read in the Bhdgavata 
Purdna (iii. 15. 5, cited by Senart) ** It is through his Mayii, by means 
of Maya, that Bhagavant has taken on himself a body :" and in the 
Lotus of the True Law (chap. xv.. SBE. xxi. 302) it is wi-itten : •* The 
Tath&gata who so long ago was perfectly enlightened is unlimited in 



More, Influences of Hindu thought on Manwhceism, xxv 

the duration of his life ; he is everlasting. Without being extinct, the 
Tathagata makes a show of extinction, on behalf of those who have to 
be educated." Precisely the same words might be used to express the 
Gnostic and Manichaean doctrine of the Christ. 

So too the dogma of sin as consisting in desire instead of disobedience, 
and, in accordance with this, the resulting system of ethics, are dis- 
tinctly Hindu. The chief duty of man is to abstain from satisfaction 
of the desires of whatever sort, that he may not plunge the soul still 
deeper in the slough of sense. Marriage was abhorred as evil above all 
things, in flagrant contradiction of Persian and orthodox Christian 
views. In the constitution of the Manichaean church we see the same 
principles at work. This was divided into two bodies, the electi (or 
rD^toi) and the avditorea, in imitation of the orthodox church, the audi- 
tores taking the place of the catechumens. At first one might be 
tempted to consider the word auditor as a direct translation of the 
Buddhist grdwtka ; but the latter in his duties corresponds perfectly to 
the deetiis and not to the auditor. Furthermore, the adoption of 
Christian sacraments shows that the church was organized after west- 
ern models rather than Indian ; and yet the ^sential meaning of the 
organization leads us at once to the great Hindu religions of the time. 
The chief duty of the elect, besides chastity, was ahinsdy carried almost 
to the extremities found among the Jainas. The whole purport of their 
life, not to go into details, reminds us more of the Bhik^us and Nir- 
granthas than of anything in Western manners. Furthermore, the 
principal duty of the auditors is precisely that of the Buddhist Updsakas, 
Their connection with the elect consisted mainly in providing the latter 
with food, in order that these might be saved the awful sin of destroy- 
ing even vegetable life. Like the UpdsakaSf too, the auditors were 
allowed to marry and mingle with the world. At death the souls of 
the elect were transported up to the kingdom of light, into a state of 
being not unlike the Nirvaijia of the Jainas, and possibly of the Bud- 
dhists. The auditors passed through a long series of transmigrations, 
while the wicked were cast into hell. Metempsychosis plays a com- 
paratively subordinate part in the Manichaean faith, but shows never- 
theless how profound was the influence of India on the whole system. 

Certain of the Christian sacraments, as has been mentioned, were 
accepted by the Manichseans. Of their manner of baptism we know 
little ; but the Eucharist received among them the same curious modi- 
fication. As the Jesus pattbUis was said to be crucified in every plant, 
so the faithful were supposed to partake of the body and blood of Jesus 
at every meal, for they ate only vegetable food. — But it is not my pur- 
pose here to go into the details of the Manichaean syncrasis, or to insti- 
tute any such minute comparison. Sufi&cient has been said, I hope, to 
indicate how the real influence of Hindu thought on Manichaeism is to 
be found in the extension and modification of the whole body of dog- 
mas and rites brought together from Persian and Christian sources. 

VOL. XVI, D 



*,cm 



xxvi AmeHcdfi Oriented Society*s Proceedings^ April 1893, 

6. The plural with pronominal suffixes in Assyrian and 
Hebrew ; by Mr. George A. Reisner^ of Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

In the inscriptions of the time of Hammu-rabi there are traces of a 
diptote declension of the plural: viz., nom. u (ilf), and gen. t {if). 
The plural in u occurs four times, as follows : Biling. Insc. H. Col. ii., 
line 9, nt-5u ra-ap-Sa-tum li-iS-ti-mi-ga-kum ; Cyl. Insc. H. Col. L, line 
7, and also Col. ii., line 4, Sarru Sa ip-Sa-tu-su a-na H-ir Sh. u M, to>~ba ; 
Samsu-iluna, Col. iii., line 1, mu-sar-hv-u Sar-ru-ti-ya. The first three 
are plainly nominatives ; and the last one, I think, is as plainly a nom- 
inative-absolute, such as occurs often in Assyrian. 

It is true that this evidence is meager ; but it is uniform, and it is 
supported in a measure by the contract tablets : cf . Meissner, B, z, 
Altbab, Privatrecht, No. 48, line 25, H^m-tum pa-nu-tum, Sa Mar-Uu- 
Mar-tu i-na bob ilu Nin-mar-ki Uu-ba-ni lu-u ma-ru a-na-ku uL-ki'tnu 
tk'hu-u-ma, kiram u bitam a-na Ilu-ba-ni u-bi-ru; No. 78, lines 4-7, 
a-im ta-az'ki-tim da-a-a-ni ikSu-du-^-ma a-na bit ilu Samas i-ru-hn-u- 
ma una bit SamaS da-a-a-nu di-nam tuSa'fti^zu-tt-ifU'nvrti'ma. Several 
times also a plural in u seems to be used as a nominative absolute. 
Cf. No. 77, line 1, 5 GAN eklim birrua-tum ; and No. 24, line 1, 140 SE 
naraS-pa-ku-tum, where a sentence intervenes before the rest of the 
tablet. 

The evidence is confirmed by the Tel-el-Amama Tablets, which con- 
tain the following examples: Berlin VA. Th. 152 (Winckler, No. 8), 
line 11, uin-mora ki-i ab-bu-ni it-ti a-^-mi-dS ni-i-nu lu fa-txi-nu, * Say- 
ing, as our fathers (were) with one another, we, let us be friendly ;' 
line 13, i-na-an-na damkar-pl-u-a, Sa itti AJ^u-fa-a-bn ti-bu-Uf i-na main 
Ki-na-ah-hi a-na H-ma-a-ti it-ta-ak-lu-u ; Berlin VA. Th. 151 (Winckler, 
No. 6), back, line 4, Sum-ma la-bi-ru-tum ya-a-nu iS-Su-ti li-il- ....,* If 
there are no old ones, let [them take?] new ones' (ace); Berlin, 
unnumbered (Winckler, No. 8), line 14, aSSaiu-pl ba-na-tum i-ba-aS-Sa ; 
and line 24, binatu-pl-u-a i-ba-aS-Sa-a ; Bulaq 28179 (Winckler, No. 9), 
back, line 10, ma-ta-tum ru-ka-tum ni-i-nu, * Distant countries (are) we 
(ours).' These are all apparently nominatives. Once, in (London 81) 
P.S.B.A. vol. X., p. 562, front, line 19, the word gab-bi-Su-nu occurs as 
a plural nominative agreeing with Ku-na-fM-a-u, Besides these exam- 
ples, there are no other nominative plurals in these tablets. Once also, 
Winckler, No. 7, line 37, the phrase Sar-ra-ni ma-afy-ra-nu-ma is a gen- 
itive. Everywhere else, the genitive and accusative end in t. Cf . also 
Agum-kakrimi, col. vii., line 19, ir-bi-tu. 

To sum up, then, I conclude that, in the time of Hammu-rabi and for 
some time after that, the plural in Assyrian was declined after the dip- 
tote scheme, like the Arabic sound-plurals. Later, however, the dis- 
tinction between the u and the i case was lost. 

Further, with the pronominal suffixes, these terminations u and i 
are retained — see the examples above. So, later, when the distinction 
between the u case and the i case was lost, i + the pronominal suffix is 
found in all cases with both feminine and masculine. Now, comparing 



Iteiwierj Assyrian plural with profiominat suffixes, xxvii 

this with the Hebrew, we find that there too the plural, whether fem- 
inine or masculine, with pronominal suffixes, ends in i. And I wish to 
suggest a similar process of development in Hebrew to that which has 
taken place in Assyrian. First, then, whether the feminine in u-i is 
originally made simply by analogy from the masculine or not, the 

Hebrew feminine ^pH with pronominal suffixes goes back to a 

real usage of this full form without the pronominal suffixes. Second, 

this full form ^p(\ is descended from a diptote declension of the 

plural (masculine and feminine) in tt-t. And, finally, this makes prob- 
able a general Semitic diptote declension in the plural at a somewhat 
early stage in the development of the language. 

7. On the so-called Chain of Causation of the Buddhists ; by 
Mr. Henry C. Warren, of Cambridge, Mass. 

• 

*' Chain of Causation " is the title given by Occidental students to the 
formula which embodies the Buddha's effort to account for the origin 
of evil. The formula itself is as follows : *^ On Ignorance depend the 
sarhkhdras ; on the saihkhdras depends Consciousness ; on Conscious- 
ness depends Name-and-Form ; on Name-and-Form depend the Six 
Organs of Sense ; on the Six Organs of Sense depends Contact ; on Con- 
tact depends Sensation ; on Sensation depends Desire ; on Desire depends 
Attachment ; on Attachment depends Existence ; on Existence depends 
Birth ; on Birth depend Old Age and Death, Sorrow, Lamentation, 
Misery, Grief, and Despair." 

Chain of Causation is an unfortunate title, inasmuch as it involves 
the use of Occidental categories of an exacting kind into which to fit, 
as into a Procrustean bed, Oriental methods of thought. As a nat- 
ural consequence, this same Chain of Causation has proved a 
stumbling-stone and rock of offense to some of the best European 
scholars. Oldenberg, for example, in his Buddha (Hoey's translation, 
pp. 226-7), says : " The attempt is here made by the use of brief pithy 
phrases to trace back the suffering of all earthly existence to its most 
remote roots. The answer is as confused as the question was bold. It 
is utterly impossible for anyone who seeks to find out its meaning to 
trace from beginning to end a connected mea'hing in this formula. 
Most of the links of the chain, taken separately, admit of a passable 
interpretation ; many arrange themselves also in groups together, and 
their articulation may be said to be not incomprehensible ; but between 
these groups there remain contradictions and impossibilities in the con- 
secutive arrangement of priority and sequence, which an exact exegesis 
has not the power, and is not permitted, to clear up." R. S. Coplestone, 
Bishop of Colombo and President of the Ceylon Branch of the Royai 
Asiatic Society, in his book Buddhism, which has just appeared, also 
gives up the problem in despair, saying (p. 122) ** Who will attack 
a metaphysical puzzle which he [Prof. Oldenbergj declares insoluble ?" 

Now a great deal of the difficulty experienced by these scholars 
appears to me to arise from the too strict way in which they use the 



xxviii American Oriental Society^a Proceedings, April 1893. 

word ** cause," and from the idea which they labor under that Time 
plays an important part here, whereas it would appear to have but a 
secondary r61e. 

The term "cause" should be used in a very loose and flexible way, 
and in different senses, in discussing different members of this series. 
The native phrase of which Chain of Causation is supposed to be a 
translation is pa^icca-samuppdda.* Paticea is a gerund, equivalent to 
the Sanskrit pratltya, from the verbal root i * go,' with the prefix prati 
* back ;* and samuppdda stands for the Sanskrit samutpdda, meaning 
'a springing up.' Therefore the whole phrase means 'a springing up 
[into existence] with reference to something else,' or, as I would render 
it, 'origination by dependence.' The word "chain" is a gratuitous 
addition, the Buddhist calling it a wheel, and making Ignorance depend 
on Old Age etc. Now it is to be noted that, if a thing springs up— 
that is to say, comes into being— with reference to something else, or 
in dependence on something else, that dependence by no means needs 
to be a causal one. In the Pali, each of these members of the so-called 
Chain of Causation is said to be the paccaya of the one next following, 
&nd paccaya is rendered 'cause.' But Buddhaghosa, in the Visuddhi- 
Magga, enumerates twenty-four different kinds of paccaya, and, in 
discussing each member of the paticca-aamuppdda, states in which of 
these senses it is a paccaya of the succeeding one. 

The P&li texts very well express the general relation meant to be con- 
veyed by the word paccaya when they say ** If this one [member of the 
series] is not, then this [next following] one is not." 

I will now run over the Chain of Causation, member by member, in 
reverse order, giving my own explanation of the relation of each mem- 
ber to the one before it, and show how comprehensible become the 
relations of the different members to each other if the term '* cause" 
be used in a more flexible manner, and if Time be considered as only 
incidentally involved. I begin, then, with the bottom of the series. 

Old Age etc. are said to depend on Birth. The relation here between 
Birth and Old Age etc. is that which we should express by the term 
"antecedent condition." The fact that I am born as a man or human 
being does not make me necessarily arrive at Old Age ; yet, as the 
natives say, if there were no Birth, there would be no Old Age etc. 

Birth is then said to depend on Existence. Now by Existence is 
meant existence in general, not this or that particular existence, but 
all existence whatsoever to which transmigration renders us liable. 
The relation, therefore, of Birth to Existence is simply that of a 
particular instance to a general category. 

Next, Existence is said to be dependent on Attachment, and Attach- 
ment in its turn on Desire. I group together these two members of the 
series, as they mean much the same thing, Desire being the more gen- 
eral term, and the four divisions of Attachment are four classes of 

• 
* Sec R. C. Childers, Pali Dictionary, p. 359; the same, in Colebrooke's Essays, 
I. 45:i ; Bohtlingk and Kuth, vii. 723, and the references to Burnouf there given. 






Wctrreny Chain of Causation of the Buddhists, xxix 

Desire considered in the light of tendencies. Existence, therefore, is 
said to depend on Desire. Of this Desire it is said : ** Where anything 
is delightful and agreeable to men, there Desire springs up and grows, 
there it settles and takes root f * that is to say, all pleasurable objects 
to which we cling become so much food to create and perpetuate our 
being. It may seem strange to put Desire and Attachment before 
Existence, but the existence here meant is sentient existence, and the 
assertion is that, wherever Desire and Attachment develop themselves, 
there ipso facto we have sentient existence. The relation, therefore, of 
Existence and Desire or Attachment is that of effect to cause, and that 
of Attachment to Desire is identity. 

The statement that Desire depends on Sensation hardly requires any 
special elucidation. In order that we should have Desire, there must 
be objects of Desire— that is to say, pleasurable sensations. Thus Sen- 
sation is the necessary antecedent or condition of Desire. 

Sensation is said to depend on Contact. Contact means the contact of 
the organ of sense with the object of sense. The Buddhist explanation 
of vision, for instance, is that the eye and the form or object seen come 
into collision, and that from this contact results the sensation of sight. 
The relation, therefore, of Contact and Sensation is that of cause and 
effect. 

Contact is said to depend on the Organs of Sense. This statement 
hardly requires any comment, for, of course, if there were no eye, 
there would be no eye-contact and resultant vision. The Organs of 
Sense are, therefore, the necessary antecedent conditions of contact. 

The Organs of Sense are said to depend on Name-andForm. By 
Form is meant the body, and by Name certain mental constituents of 
being. It is therefore perfectly natural to say that the Organs of 
Sense depend on Name-and-Form, for the organs of the five senses are, 
of course, part of the body ; and, as the Buddhists hold that there is a 
sixth sense, namely the mind, having ideas for its objects, this is 
naturally dependent on Name. Name-and-Form are therefore the 
material cause of the Organs of Sense. (I connect Name-and-Form 
with hjTphens, as in P&li they are usually compounded into one word, 
and declined in the singular.) 

Name-and-Form depend on Consciousness, or better, perhaps, on the 
Consciousnesses. There are many different Consciousnesses : those 
belonging to the organs of sense, the eye-consciousness or sight, the 
ear-consciousness or hearing, etc., and many more besides, such as the 
Consciousness connected with the Trances. Now these Consciousnesses 
and Name-and-Form constitute the entire human being. Without these 
consciousnesses Name-and-Form would be lifeless ; and, again, without 
Name-and-Form the Consciousnesses would not be possible. Therefore 
the Consciousnesses and Name-and-Form are interdependent, neither 
of them being able to exist independently — that is to say, in the case 
of the human being. 

The Consciousnesses depend on the sarhkhdras or karma. Sarhkhdra 
and karma are much the same thing ; karma is from the root kar, and 






Icxx American Oriental Society^s ProceedingSy April 189S. 

means 'deed* or 'act'; and saThJehdra is from the same root, and 
means ' doing' or ' action.' This karma may be good, bad, or indiffer- 
ent, and performed by the body, voice, or mind ; but Buddhaghosa 
says they can all, in the last analysis, be reduced to thoughts or mental 
activity. Any dwelling of the mind on an object is a aaihkhdra, and 
the Consciousnesses result from such aafhkhdras. All the sarhkhdras are 
really also consciousnesses, but some thirty-two are marked off as the 
results of the others, and called vipaka-vififidiicu * resultant conscious- 
nesses.' Thus the relation of these thirty-two consciousnesses to the 
others called aarhkhdras is that of effect to cause. 

The sarhkhdras are said to depend on Ignorance, and by Ignorance is 
meant the want of knowledge of the evil nature of all things. So long 
as we remain ignorant of the unsatisfactoriness of all objects of sense, 
we continue to occupy our mind with them — ^that is to say, we con- 
tinue to perform karma. Ignorance, then, is the antecedent condition 
of the samkhdraa. 

I have thus gone over the Chain of Causation, and shown how 
variously the members of the series depend on each other, and that 
only in three instances was this dependence efficient cause. 

My readers will also please notice that I have not assigned one part 
of the series to one point of time, say to one existence, and then the 
subsequent part to the following existence — the reason being that 1 
consider the accounting for re-birth only a special application of this 
formula. For instance, some of the Consciousnesses may depend on 
the aaihkhdras of a former birth ; others (e. g., those of the Trances), 
on saHikhdras of the present one ; also the Existence which depends on 
Desire and Attachment may be a renewed existence, or it may be such 
an existence as is given temporarily by the Trances (i. e., existence in 
the realm of Form by the four lower Trances, or in the realm of Form- 
lessness by the four next above). 

The Chain of Causation would thus appear in some sort to re{>eat 
itself, the assertion that Existence depends on Desire and Attachment 
being the more general statement of how all existence originates ; 
while the description of the Consciousnesses evolving from the sam- 
khdras, and, in the case of re-birth, embodying themselves in Name- 
and-Form, is the specific one of how the human being comes about. 

8. The Parigistas of the Atharva-veda; by Dr. Edwin \V^. Fay, 
University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Dr. Fay has at present the use of the two manuscripts, A and B, 
described by Dr. Magoun, AsurirKalpaj in the Am. Journal of Phi- 
lology, 1889, X. 165 ff. Codex A is a clean MS. of 217 leaves, or of 4^ 
pages, each of nine lines. Twelve ParigigtAs, covering thirty-live pages, 
or about a twelfth part of this material, have been already copied and 
collated by Dr. Fay. The text and translation of the first six have 
been completed, and the text has been settled for several PariQi^^as more. 
It is believed that a tolerably complete and satisfactory text can be 
arrived at from the two MSS. now in hand, even without other manu- 



Lanman^ Emendation of Kathd-sarit-sdgara Hi. 37, xxxi 

script material. Many repetitions of details occur within the compass 
already surveyed. The separate Parigi^t^is are wont to present two 
treatments of the same ceremonial, one in prose, the other in glokas. 
For this reason, it will often be possible to get the general sense of a 
passage, even when the determination of the precise text-reading 
offers insuperable difficulties. 

After all, it is only the general sense of the Parigi^f^s that may fairly 
claim the attention of Orientalists. They present very little of lin- 
guistic interest, apart from occasional new wprds, and the authentica- 
tion of words marked by Boehtlingk as not quotable. But it should be 
added that, for students of folk-lore, ready access to this large collec- 
tion of ritualistic and witchcraft practices is highly desirable. 

Dr. Fay thinks that within the next two years he can finish the work 
of editing all these Parigi^tas, as aforesaid. It is, nevertheless, very 
much to be wished that additional MSS. might be put at his disposal. 
And he would accordingly ask the Sanskritists of India and Europe to 
inform him (through the Secretary of the American Oriental Society, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts), of any such MSS. as might be entrusted to 
the Society for his use. 

9. Emendation of Kathft-sarit-sagara iii. 37 ; by Professor 
C. R. Lanman, of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

In the third Taranga of the Katha-sarit-sagara, three brothers (verse 6) 
marry Bhojika's three daughters (10). A famine arises and the hus- 
bands flee (11). The sisters dwell with Bhojika's friend, Yajfiadatta 
(13), and the second sister bears a son, Putraka, who, as protege of 
^iva, attains in time to fabulous wealth and to kingship (24). On the 
advice of Yajfiadatta (35), Putraka bestows unprecedented largess ; on 
hearing the news of which, his father and uncles return, and (36) are 
most handsomely treated. Then comes (37) one of the frequently 
interjected sententious reflections of Somadeva : 

dqcaryam aparitydjyo dffftdnoffidpaddm api 
avivekdndhabuddhindTii svdnubhdvo durdtmandm. 

In course of time, continues the poet (39), they lusted for royal power 
and strove to slay Putraka, etc. etc. 

In the edition of Brockhaus (1839), the couplet reads as I give it ; and 
so in the edition of Durgaprasad and Parab (Bombay, 1889). Brock- 
haus, in his translation, p. 9, ignores the couplet entirely. In 1855, 
Boehtlingk and Roth set up for anubhdva the meaning ** 8. Gesinnung, 
Denkungsart (?)," but merely for the sake of this one passage. Thus 
sv^-anubhdva {sva = * own *) would amount to nearly the same thing as 
sva-hhdva. And so Tawney appears to take it in his translation, i. 13. 

In 1875, however, Boehtlingk and Roth, again for the sake of this sole 
passage, insert in the Lexicon the compound STJa-anubhava, and render 
it by ** Genuss an Besitz (.9t?a), Sinn fiir Besitz," and direct the reader 
to cancel the meaning and the citation under anubhdva 3. And in 
1879 Boehtlingk gives the same view in the minor Lexicon. Accord- 



xxxii American Oriental Society^ s Proceedings^ April 189S, 

ingly. we should translate : * Strange to say, wicked men, even after 
they have got into misfortune and out again, cannot (so blind are their 
minds for lack of judgment) give up their enjoyment of property 
(or taste for property, or interest in property).* This, although not 
entirely inapposite, is not very pat. 
I suspect that Somadeva wrote the line as follows : 

avivekdndhabuddhindfh svabhdvafy sudurdtmandm. 

Copyist A left out 8U- ; he, or his corrector, placed su- in the margin : 
copyist B put it back from the margin into the text, but in the wrong 
place, thus, sva-su-hhdvo durdtmandm ; for the senseless svdsu-, copyist 
C substituted what in nagari letters looks very nearly like it, namely 
svdnu'. Thus arose the corruption. 

The reading avabhdxmJ}, * own nature,' yields just the sense we want, 
and fits the metre. For the combination sudur-, compare dtU^-spar^a 
(opposite of sU'Sparga) with su-dufysparga, and the like. 

• 

10. On the ajt. Afv. rtfj4ndh, RV. i. 32. 6, with a note on 
haplology ; by l*rof. M. Bloomtield^ of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, Baltimore, Md. 

The hymn containing the word t^jdndfy is one of the most prominent 
of the large class which describe the conflict of Indra and the demon 
of the cloud, Vptra. The passage in question, RV. i. 82. 6 c, d, reads : 

nd ^tdrtd asya admftirh vadhdndih 
sdih rujAndJf, pipyfa indragatruh, 

*(Vftra) has not survived the blow of his (Indra's) weapons, etc.' 
The fourth pada is rendered by Qrassmann : ** im Sturz zerbrach der 
Indrafeind die Klfifte ;" Ludwig translates "die gebrochenen burgen 
zermalmte er (selber noch im sturze) des feind gott Indra." Both trans- 
lators ignore the native treatment of the word. In Yaska's Naighan- 
tuka i. 13 = Kautsavaya 30,* it occurs in a list of words for * river,' 
and in Yaska's Nirukta vi. 4 we have, more explicitly, rujdnd nndyo 
bhavanti rvjanti kuldni^ * the r^^dndJ^ are rivers ; they break {rvj) the 
banks.' This purely etymological rendering is adopted by Saya^ : 
indrena hato nad^u patitah san . . . vrtradehasya pdtena ncuiindm 
kuldni tatratyapd^dnddikath curnlbhutam. Even at the time of the 
present arrangement of the naighan^uka there must have been some 
perplexity, for the word occurs a second time in Naigh. iv. 3, in one of 
those lists which even in Yaska's time stood in need of especial elucid- 
ation. And Madhava, in explaining the parallel passage at TB. ii. 5. 
4. 4, renders quite differently : bhdngaih prdpnuvantih svakiyd eva sendh 
. . . vcijrena hato bhwndu patan san samipavartinali sarvdn gnrdn cur- 
nikftavdn * his own armies while they are perishing, all the heroes 
standing near, (Vptra) slain by the bolt, falling upon the ground, has 

*See the writer in P.A.O.S., Oct 1890; Journal, vol. xv. p. xlviii. 
f Of. under Pacini ii. 3. 54 : nodi kUldni rujati. 



Bloomfield, rfijflnt'fh, R V. L ^i2, 6, xxxiii 

ground ^9 pieces ;' here rt^jdndfy is explained by bhangam prdpnuvantth 
. . . send^y in a manner totally different from the Nirukta. But all 
these translations are certainly incorrect, because they make rvjdndJf, 
an accusative dependent upon sdm pipi^e, which is thus forced to 
assume the function of a middle with active value. Every occurrence 
of the word in the Rig- Veda and the Atharva-Yeda, and, so far as is 
known, every Vedic occurrence of the word, goes to show that the 
middle does not occur with active value ; only the active occurs : see 
especially Qrassmann's Lexicon and Whitney's Index Verhorum, Thus 
8dm pipifa indragatruh cannot mean anything else but * he who had 
Indra as his enemy was crushed/ This grammatical consideration is 
supported to perfection by the facts otherwise known in the case : 
Vftra never crushes anything ; on the other hand, sdmpi§ is used espe- 
cially of Indra, and most frequently when he crushes cloud-demons : 
e. g. RV. iii. 18. 9, giro dAsasya sdm pinak ; iii. 30. 8, ahastdm indra 
sdm pir^k kundrum ; iv. 80. 13, piiro ydd asya (sc. gii§nasya) sam- 
pinak; vi. 17. 10, y6na ndvantam dhim sampirjMk; viii. 1. 28, tvdm 
puraih . . . gu^i€utya sdm pinak. One may say that but for the pres- 
ence of rujdndff> in the pada no one would have ever thought of regard- 
ing sdm pipi^ as an active. We are thus constrained to search in 
rujdndh for a nom. sg. in agreement with the subject of the sentence. 
Another point strongly claims recognition. The root rvj\ simple as 
well as with various prepositions, figures very prominently in descrip- 
tions of the injuries which Indra inflicts upon demons, and it seems 
very natural to suppose that the word rujdndh here states that such 
injury was inflicted upon Vf tra by Indra. Thus RV. x. 89. 6, 7, {indrah) 
gjTidti v%4u rvjdti sthirdn,i . . , jaghdna vftrdth . . . rurqja puraJf, : cf . 
also i. 6. 5 ; 61. 5 ; iv. 82. 10 ; vi. 82. 3 ; ix. 48. 2. Very similar are RV. 
viii. 6. 18, vi vftrdm parvago rujdn ; i. 59. 6, vi vftrdsya . . . pa^a" 
'rujah ; x. 152. 3 = AV. i. 21. 8 = SV. ii. 1217 ; also TS. i. 6. 12. 5, vi 
vftrdsya hdnu ruja. Elsewhere Vala is treated in the same way : e. g. 
RV. iv. 50. 6, vdlaih ruroja ; R V. vi. 89. 2, rujdd . , , vi vdlasya sdnum ; 
AV. xix. 28. 3, hfddljf, sapdtndndm bhindht *ndra iva virvjdn valdm. 
At RV. X. 49. 6, sdih . . . ddsam vftrahd 'rujam, and AV. iv. 24. 2, yd (sc. 
indro) ddnavdndm bdlam druroja, the same theme is treated. At RV. 
vi. 22. 6, the words riijo vi dT(}hd express essentially the same thing, 
the cleaving of the clouds : cf. also vii. 75. 7 ; viii. 45. 18 ; ix. 34. 1. At 
RV. vi. 32. 2 we have rujdd ddrim (cf. i. 72. 2); at RV. vi. 61. 2, 
arujat sdnu girlndm. Again, of Indra it is said at RV. x. 84. 8, rujdn 
. . . gdtrun ; at RV. i. 102. 4 = AV. vii. 60. 4, prd gdtruijAm nmghavan 
vf'^iyd ruja. Every additional example strengthens the impression 
that rujdndh originally stood in agreement with indragatruli, the sub- 
ject of the sentence, and we are at once led to the emendation rujdndli 
* broken ' in the sense of a passive : cf. Delbrfick, Altindisctie Syntax, 
p. 264. But why should the correctly accented and easily intelligible 
rujdndfy have given way to this discordant lectio difficUlima with anom- 
alous accent ? The sense, too, is tautological in the extreme : * Vftra 
having been broken was crushed '. 

VOL. XVI. E 



xxxiv American Oriental Society*s JhroeeedingSj April 189S, 

The suggestion which we have to offer is unoertain, and, but for the 
fact that its rejection does not deprive the negative analysis of the pas- 
sage of its value, it might perhaps not have been offered in print. The 
root rvj is employed very frequently in connection with parts of the 
body. Thus we have above the expressions vi vrtrdsya hdnii ruja ; ri 
vftrdm parvagd rujdn ; rujad . . . vi vdlaeya adnum. In a different 
connection we have AY. ix. 8. 18, figuratively, yi!^ simdnaih virujdnti 
murdhdnam prdty ar^ar.if^ * the pains which break the crown of the 
head and the head ;' A V. ix. 8. 18, ydfji, . . . pdrHUfi virtujdnti ; QB. 
iv. 5. 2. 3, virtijya ^roiii. At R&m. iii. 72. 20 we have pakfatuis4^' 
nakhdify . . . gdtrdryy drujatd ; at Har. 5694, etandn drujya. With this 
use are related the very common expressions like mukha-ruj ' pain in 
the mouth,' Var&h. Bf. S. 5. 82 ; dfg-ruj, ibid. 104. 5 ; aksi-ruj, ibid. 51. 
11 ; 104. 16 ; netra-rujt AK. iii. 4. 26. 208, ' pain in the eyes ;' pdr^va-ruj\ 
SuQr. i. 165. 9, ' pain in the side ;* laldte ca rujd jajAe, R&m. iii. 29. 15 ; 
giro-ruj, VarSh. Bf. S. 58. Ill ; (^iro-ngVl, liBh. iii. 16829 ; gtraso rujdj 
ibid. 16816. 

My suggestion, now, is that rujdn&li is a compound of a derivative of 
the root rvj with some designation of a part of the body. It might be 
= rujdnd + ds ' having a broken mouth ;* but it seems to me more 
likely to be rujdnd + nds * nose,' which would yield n^ndnds, changed 
by dissimilation (haplology) to n^fdnds.* The word would then 
mean ' with broken nose.' In stanza 7 of the same hymn the state- 
ment is made that Vftra was broken into many small pieces : purutrd 
vfird aqaycul vydataJ} ; which augurs that his nose was not exempt 
from the general catastrophe. This, at any rate, yields good sense, 
and accounts for the anomalous ijbahuvnhi) accentuation. The stem 
nds * nose' does not occur out of composition, but it seems to be fairly 
certain in anda^ RV. v. 29. 10 : andso ddgyUhr amp(fo vadMna, The 
padapafha divides an-dao, and both the Petersburg lexicons and 
Grassmann follow, translating the word by * without face or mouth.* 
Ludwig, Rig-Veda ii. 109, translates ' with your weapon you slew 
the noseless Dasyu,' having in mind the flat-nosed aborigines. Cf. 
also his remarks in the notes, vol. v., p. 95. The same interpretation 
was advanced previously by Max Mtkller : see Ad. Kuhn, Die Herab- 
kunft des Fetters, p. 59, note. Especially on the second assumption 
(mjdndllf^ = rujdndndff) it is easy to understand how the composite 
character of the word might have been forgotten, and the earliest 
interpreters driven to propositions entirely out of accord with the rest 
of the sentence and with reasonable sense. 

Note on Haplology. 

Cases of haplology are by no means so rare in the older language as 
would appear from the very few instances which are usually reported. 



*See the note on haplology at the end of this article. A bahuvrlhi with a 
participle in -na as the first member we have in dadfi'dnd-pavi^ yuytgdnd'^apti 
(Whitney, Sk. 6r.' ^ 1299c): cf. also uttdnd-hasia, uUdnd-pad. The participle 
mjdnd is to be regarded as belonging to the root-aorist: c£ ib. 840, 6, 



JSioomJield, Etymology ofidokd, xxxv 

Whitney, Sk. Gr.' § 1031b, mentions irddhydi for Hrddh-ddhydi^ and 
this is the sole example in illustration of the process mentioned by 
Brugmann, Chrundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, i. 484. Other 
examples, in addition to ulokd for *ulu-loka from uru-lokd (see below), 
are : madiigha * sweet-wood, licorice,' for ^madhu-dugha, *madhtigha, 
with loss of aspiration, both intermediate forms being found occa- 
sionally in the MSS. : see e. g. Kaug. 85. 21, note ; tfcd and trica for 
^try-fca * a group of three stanzas * (so already Yaska, Nir. iii. 1) ; hiran- 
mdya for ^hirar^ya-maya * golden,' where the loss of the first ya by dis- 
similation operates across the syllable ma ; ^u^mayd for ^gu^ma-maya^ 
TS. ii. 8. 12. 4, ' fiery,' which the Petersburg lexicon erroneously regards 
as the corruption of a theoretical *Qtufmya ; g^vfdha for ^geva-v^dfia 

* kindly, friendly ' (Grassmann) ; sddas-pdti for *8dda8aspdti * pro- 
tector of home': compounds with pdti having two accents regularly 
exhibit a genitive as the first member : ^ubhdS'pdtif bf'haa-pdH, brdh- 
manas-pdtij and by imitation vdnas-pdtiy jds'pdti, rdthas-pati; gtr^akti 

* head-ache ' may stand for qir^-aakti * affection of the head ' from root 
sac in the sense of * fasten upon :' cf. AV. i. 12. 3, where gir^akti and 
sac occur together alliteratively. The last example is by no means cer- 
tain. There is correlation, surely, between this phenomenon and the 
gliding over of causatives like ksayaydmi^ etc., to thejp-type : k§apay- 
dmi etc. : cf . also the change of rolidydmi of the mantras to ropdydmi 
in the Br&hma^as. 



11. The etymology of ulokd; by Professor Bloomfield. 

The various essays on this expression are instructive alike for the 
keen philological insight and the inadequate grammatical propositions of 
their authors. The expression is distinctively an archaism in the liter- 
ature. In the first eight ma^^al&s of the RV., the word lokd occurs only 
twice without the u preceding : vi. 47. 8 ; viii. 100. 12.* With antece- 
dent tt, the occurrences are i. 93. 6 ; ii. 30. 6 ; iii. 2. 9 ; 29. 8 ; 87. 11 ; iv. 
17. 17 ; V. 1. 6 ; 4. 11 ; vi. 23. 3 ; 73. 2 ; vu. 20. 2 ; 35. 5 ; 60. 9 ; 84. 2 : 99. 4 ; 
viii. 15. 4 (here u loka-kjinum). In the ninth book, there are two 
occurrences of simple lokd^ ix. 113. 7, 9; and three of u lokd, ix. 2. 8 
iu lokaJejinum) ; 86. 21 {u lokakft) ; 92. 5 {u lokdm). In the tenth 
book, there are six occurrences of u lokd : x. 13. 2 ; 16. 4 ; 30. 7 ; 104.10 : 
133. 1 (u lokakft) ; 180. 8 ; and three occurrences of simple lokd ; x. 14. 9 ; 
85. 27 ; 90. 14. In addition, the tenth book, and that alone, begins to 
produce compounds in which lokd is the final member : urulokam, in 
X. 128. 2;jivalokdmj in x. 18. 8; and patilokdm, in x. 85. 43. This 
shows on the whole a perceptible growth of lokd at the expense of 
u lokd in the ninth and tenth books ; and the AV. continues boldly in 



* Correct accordingly Bollensen in ZDMG. xxiii. 607, who claims that there is 
no occurrence of lokd without preceding u in the first eight books ; and Max 
Miiller, Vedic Hyinnn (SBK. xxxii), p. Ixxv, who notes only viii. 100. 12. 



xxxvi American Oriental 8oeiety*8 Proceedinffs, April 189S. 

the same direction. Here lokd occurs so often as to render a count use- 
less, but u lokd occurs only three times, in one hymn of the Tama- 
book, xviii. 4. 11, 44, 71, in the obviously archaizing phnae mUtft&m 
u lokdm, I do not count three other occurrences which coincide with 
the RV., namely viii 84. 2=Ry. x. 180. 8; xviiL 2. 8»RV. x. 16. 4; 
xviii. 8. 88=RV. x. 13. 2. The A V. abounds also in compounds in which 
loka forms the second member ; see Index Verborum, p. 267a. In the 
Yajus-texts, both u lokd and lokd occur ; but we have no means of con- 
troling their frequency or proportion. We have 9uraibh/i u Mod in VS. 
xii. 85=TS. iv. 2. 8. 2=MS. ii. 7. 10;* mukft&m u lohdm in VS. xviiL 
52=TS. iv. 7. 18. 1=MS. U. 12. 8; and in VS. xviii. 58. The parallel of 
VS. xviii. 58 in TS. v. 7. 7. I has sukftaeya lokdm instead of wkftdm 
u lokdm. That is precisely the favorite manner in which the AV. 
manages to circumvent the archaism : see e. g. iv. 11. 6 ; 14.6 ; vi. 119. 1 ; 
120. 1 ; 121. 1, 2 ; vu. 88. 4 ; xi. 1. 8, 87, etc. In VS. xi. 22=MS. ii. 7. 2 
occurs the pada dka^. eii lokdth eiikrtatn pfihivydm, which is varied in 
TS. iv. 1. 2. 4 to dkal^ sd lokdih Meitam pfihivjfdh. Both eii and «d 
are modem variants of ii ; and they testify that the combination u lokd 
had become perplexing. It is to be noted also that the compound 
lokakfty which is preceded by u in the two sole occurrences in the RV. 
(ix. 86. 21 ; x. 188. 1), occurs in other texts always without u : AV. xviii. 
8. 25 ; TS. i. 1. 12. 1 ; TB, iii. 7. 2. 10 ; AQS. iv. 18. 5. 

Most Vedic scholars have recognized the unusual character of u before 
lokd. In many, cases it makes no sense ; and in RV. iii. 2. 9; 87. 11 ; 
V. 4. 11 ; viii. 15. 4 ; ix. 2. 8, it stands at the beginning of a pfida, in 
defiance of the rule that enclitics cannot stand at the beginning of any 
verse-line. f There is no connection from which u lokd, regarded as 
two words, could have been propagated secondarily ;X hence all the 
interpreters have agreed in assuming ulokd as a single word, misunder- 
stood by the padap&tha and the Pr&ti^&khya of the RV., owing to the 
occurrence of lokd in the same text. 

Adalbert Kuhn, in Ind. Siiui. i. 350 ff., after comparing lokd with 
Lith. and Old Pruss. laukas, Lettish lauko, all meaning ' open space, 
field,' Low Germ, louch, loch * village,' derives the words from Skt. urii, 
evpi'-^, and sees in the u a trace of the fuller form of the stem, which 
was lost for reasons not stated. The Pet. Lex. suggests that the word 
is a derivative from the root rue * shine,' preceded by a preposition 
K, a reduced form of ava. Bollensen, ZDMG. xviii. 607 ff., xxii. 580, 
derives it from an adjective *urt?-aflc, through the weak stem ^urv-cu:, 
extended into an a-stem *urvakaf *uroka, Ascoli, Corsi di glottologia, 

* The same expression occurs in RV. v. 1.6. 

f Hence the RV. Prati^akhya (978), which, like the padapatha, regards u in 
these cases as the particle, is led to insert a special provision exempting u from 
the law of enclitics; anudattam tu pddddau notarjam Hdyate padam, 'do 
unaccented word is found at the beginning of a pada except u/ 

X A somewhat mechanical propagation of the particle u must be assumed for 
its persistent occurrence after infinitives in -tacd't (-tava' u). 



Sloomjieldy ^ymology ofulokd. xxxvii 

p. 286 ((German translation p. 195), Fick, Vergleichendes Wdrterbuch (all 
editions), and Joh. Schmidt, Vocalismus, ii. 220, assume a phonetic 
development of u out of the initial I. Grassmann modifies the view of 
the Pet. Lex. by assuming a reduplicated stem *rtiroka which lost the 
r of the reduplicating syllable. 

The germ of what seems to me the true explanation is contained in 
Kuhn's view : there is some connection between ulokd and the word 
uru, I assume a simple stem lokdy and a descriptive compound uru- 
lokd, changed by assimilation of the Unguals to *ululokd\ and by 
haplology to ulokd. Naturally, after the loss of one of the syllables, 
the origin of the word was forgotten, and the padakara, perplexed by 
the existence of the simple word lokd, construed u as the particle. 

The Vedic poets themselves had lost all knowledge of the composite 
character of the word ; but the expression ulokd clearly betrays its 
elective affinity for the word ttru, which frequently occurs as its pred- 
icate : e. g. RV. i. 93. 6 ; vi. 23. 7 ; vii. 33. 5 ; 60. 9 ; 84. 2 ; 99. 4 ; x. 180. 3. 
The case is therefore one of the unconscious doubling of equivalent lin- 
guistic elements ; the first uru having been exhausted by its phonetic 
fate, a second uru is put into requisition ; its fitness as a predicate 
of lokd {ulokd) has not passed by.} But there appears to be a certain 
shyness in putting uru near uiokd ; in all cases where the two occur 
together, urU stands at the beginning and ulokd at the end of the 
pada : e. g. i. 93. 6, uruih yajUdya cakrathur u lokdm. So also vi. 23. 7 ; 
vii. 86. 6 ; 60. 9 ; 84. 2 ; 99. 4 ; X. 180. 3. 

The occurrence of the ok. Xey. uruloka in RV. x. 128. 2 = AV. v. 3. 3 = 
TS. iv. 7. 14. 1, does not stand in the way of the assumed phonetic pro- 
cess. In the first place, the word occurs in the tenth book, and we 
may assume that the phonetic law had ceased to operate. Further, the 
cases are not the same : *urulokd changed to ulokd is a karmadharaya, 
and accordingly oxytone ; uruloka is a bahuvrihi in both function and 
accentuation. It is quite likely that the identical grave intonation of 
the two similar first syllables in wrulokd favored a process of dissimila- 
tion uncalled for by the two initial syllables of urxdokam, contrasted as 
they were by accent and perhaps also by syllabification {ur-ul-o-kd, but 
ti-ru-to-Awi). But there seems to be also a chronological diflference ; 



f Cf. Bechtel, Ueber gegenseitige Assimilation und Dissimilation der beiden 
Zitterlauie, pp. 45 ff. Aufrecht's essentially similar view, ZDMG. xlii. 152. did 
not come to my notice until the i resent article was in type. Perhaps the totally 
independent arrival of both of us at the same result may impart an element of 
security to the construction. 

X Cf. cases like Vedic prtsiisu * in battles,' with double loc. plur. ending su. 
This is rendered natural by a compound like pftsutUr, where prtsu may have 
been felt as a stem-form. Similarly patsu-tds ' at the feet ' and patsutah-^i 
'lying at the feet;' comparatives and superlatives like t^Mhatama, nMis- 
thatamu ; Pali abhirttyhitva for *abhiniyhitva = Skt. abhiruhyay ogayhivd 
tor *ogayha = avagdhya, etc. See R. Kulin, Pali-gram ma tik, p. 120. 



xxxviii American Oriental 8ociety*8 Proceedings^ Ajprtl 1S9S. 

since the AY., though it does not directly compound uHi and lokd,. 
places them closely together, e. g. ix. 2. 11, uriiih lokdtn cUcaram mdh- 
yam edhatum; xii. 1. 1, uriifh lokdm pfthivt naff, kp/iotu; see also 
xiv. 1. 58 ; xviii. 2. 20. The RV., as indicated above, avoids this, and 
exhibits in its place six occurrences of the type uriifn , . . ulokdm, e. g. 
vii. 84. 2. urufh na indraJi kp^avad u lokdm. Each expression is typ- 
ical for the text from which it is quoted. 

12. The doctrine of the reRurrection among the Ancient 
Persians ; by Professor A. V. Williams Jackson, of Columbia 
College, New York City. 

This paper was presented in abstract. The main points of its discus- 
sion, however, may briefly be given ; and the most important passages 
from which citations were drawn are perhaps worth recording for 
future reference, if the paper be printed elsewhere in full. 

Attention was first called to various likenesses and resemblances in 
general between the religion of Ancient Iran, as modified by Zoroaster, 
and the doctrines of Christianity. The most striking among these par- 
allels are those to be found in the views relating to eschatology and the 
doctrine of a future life. It is the optimistic hope of a regeneration of 
the world and of a general resurrection of the dead that most markedly 
characterizes the religion of Persia from the earliest times. The pious 
expectation of a new order of things is the chord upon which Zoroaster 
himself rings constant changes in the O&thfis or ' Psalms.' A mighty 
crisis is impending (Ys. xxx. 2, mazS y&oAh6) ; each man should choose 
the best, and seek for the ideal state ; mankind shall then become per- 
fect, and the world renovated (fraSem ahum,fraS5tema : ct fraidkeretiy 
etc.). This will be the establishment of the power and dominion of 
good over evil, the beginning of the true rule and sovereignty, *• the 
good kingdom, the wished-for kingdom" {vohu khSathra, khSathra 
vairya). It is then that the resurrection of the dead will take place. 
It will be followed by a general judgment, accompanied by the flood of 
molten metal in which the wicked shall be punished, the righteous 
cleansed, and evil banished from the world (cf. also A.O.S. Proceed- 
ings for Oct. 1890, Journal, vol. xv. p. Iviii). 

After this general introduction, various classical passages in Greek 
authors touching upon the ancient Persian belief were examined in the 
light of the Avesta. The citations were drawn from Theopompus, 
quoted by Diogenes Laertes, ProoRmium p. 2, ed. Mdller, Fragtnenta 
Historicorum Chrcecorum i. 289, and again by .^Sneas of Gaza, Dial, de 
animi immort. p. 77, both cited by Windischmann, Zoroastrische 
Studien p. 288. The allusion in Plutarch (/«. et Os, 47) was discussed, 
and the interesting passage Herodotus 8. 62 was reconsidered. All these 
classical passages were found to be quite in keeping with the general 
results won from the Avesta. 

A more detailed investigation of the Avesta and the Pahlavi books 
now followed in regard to the doctrine of a millenium, the coming of 
the Saoshyant * Saviour,' the destruction of evil, the establishment of 



pJacksoii^ Persian doctritie of the resurrection, xxxix 

the kingdom and sovereignty of good, and the renovation of the uni- 
verse, all which are directly associated with the doctrine of the 
resurrection. 

In connection with the idea of a coming millennium, a final change 
and regeneration of the world — a belief parallel in a measure with ideas 
found in the Revelation— such passages were discussed as Ys. xxx. 2; 
xxxlii. 5 ; xxxvi. 2 ; Iviii. 7 ; li. 6 ; xliii. 5, 6 ; xxx. 9 ; xlvi. 19 ; 1. 11 : 
cf. Yt. xix. 11 ; Vd. xviii. 51 ; Ys. Ixii. 3 ; Yt. xiii. 58, 128 ; and Ys. li. 
9 ; xxx. 7 ; Vsp. xx. 1 ; Yt. 17. 20 ; together with numerous allusions in 
the later Pahlavi books, such as Bundahish i. 25 ; xxx. 1 fif . ; xxxii. 8, et 
al. Some of the classical passages were again used in comparison. 

A treatment of the doctrine of the idea of a Saviour, as directly con- 
nected with the resurrection belief, was next briefly given ; certain 
parallels with the Messianic ideas of Judaism were drawn. Quotations 
used for discussion upon this point were made from Ys. xlvi. 3 ; xlviii. 
9; Ys. xiv. 1 ; ix. 2 ; Yt. xiii. 128; xix. 89; Bund. xxx. 2ff.; BYt. iii. 
61 ; Dd. ii. 13, et aL, and a passage in a Syriac MS. commentary on 
the N. T. by 'Isho'dad, as well as Apocryphal N. T., Infancy, iii. 1-10. 

Finally, the resurrection passages Yt. xiii. 128 ; xix. 89-96 ; Fragm. 
iv. 1-3 were translated in full and commented upon. The latter frag- 
ment (iv. 1-3) appears in the Dinkart ix. 46. 1-5 as taken from the 
Varshtmansar Nask (cf. West, Pahlavi Texts transl. S. B. E. xxxvii. 
302). A number of Pahlavi allusions were then instanced, occurrences 
of Phi. tanu-ipasin * the body hereafter* were treated, and an expended 
discussion was given of the well-known Bundahish passage xxx. 1-32, 
and of its relation to the ancient Damdat Nask. Statements bearing 
upon the resurrection were also cited from the accounts given in the 
Dinkart and the Persian Rivayats, of the contents of the original Avestan 
Nasks or * books,' to show that this doctrine must have been often re- 
ferred to or discussed, and that it was evidently a prominent article of 
faith. 

Having given a summary, and shown the perfect uniformity and 
accord between the Avesta, the Pahlavi Books, the old accounts of the 
original Nasks, and the early allusions in the classics, the paper came 
to the conclusion that the doctrine of the resurrection of the body is 
one of the oldest in the religion of Persia ; that it may have been 
developed or even modified at different times ; but that it was charac- 
teristic of Mazdaism in all its periods, so far as we can judge, and was 
a tenet undoubtedly inculcated by 2k)roa8ter some centuries before the 
Christian era. 

13. Sanakrit- Avestan Notes ; by Professor Jackson. 

1. Skt. gambhlrd, gdbhlrdy Av. gufra. 

In Ameincan Journal of Philology xi. 89, 90, P. Horn of Strassburg 
has drawn attention to the possible existence of an occasional Avestan 
tt or tl which answers to an a, or is the representative of the nasalis 
sonans. Dr. Horn has since somewhat questioned the correctness of 
his own suggestion ; I think much may be said, however, in its favor. 



xl American Oriental Society* s Proceedings^ April 189S, 

The examples which Horn originally bronicht forward to support his 
theory were, it is true, by no means all sure ; but a comparison with 
the Sanskrit seems to make, on this principle, the Ayestan word Qufra 
' deep ' quite clear. Presumably, Av. gufra stands for *gmf-ra : cf . A v. 
jaf-ra. This can be none other than Skt. qamlbh-l^^ ffobhrl^rd. On -i- 
see also Bartholomae Studien z, Hndog. Spraehffeadiiehte ii. 170, 179. A 
proportion may thus be constructed : 

Av. guf-ra : Av.* gmf-ra, cf. /d/-ro ; Skt. gambk-l-rd : 
Skt. gmbh-i-rd, cf. gabh-l^. 

We have thus an At. u representing a, m. 

The writing u in Av. may indeed not be truly orthographic : the 
variants at Yt. xv. 28 for the similar word guf-jfo, gaf-ffa would seem 
to show that fact ; but that such a u does occur in Av. for m, a, seems 
unquestionable, and an acceptance of Horn's suggestion may perhaps 
clear up other words. 

2. Skt. aeh&yd, RV. x. 27. 14, and At. aaaffa, Yasna IviL 27. 

In the Avesta, Ys. Ivii. 27, the divine horses of Sraosha are thus 

described : 

yim eathwaro aurvaHtd 

aurwki raokhSna frdderesra 

speOta vidhvdoiM agaya 

mainiv€uaM6 vszefUi 

* Four white steeds, bright, shining, sacred, knowing, and . . . . , bear 
Sraosha through the heavenly spHce.^ 

The epithet asaya, left untranslated, is obscure. Dr. EL W. West, 
under date Dec. 5, 1888, wrote me that the Pahlavi version of the word 

seems to contain sdyako, with which he compared Mod. Pers. ajLuw 

' shadow.* The hint was an excellent one ; asaffa might well mean 

* not casting a shadow.' 

Turning now to the Sanskrit, we find a precise parallel in the word 
a-ehdyd 'shadowless' in a passage of the Rig- Veda, x. 27. 14 : bj-hdnn 
achdyO' apaid^ drvA, The meaning at once becomes clear, and the 
form^ match exactly. For the phonetic changes (Skt. d = Av. d : Skt. 
eh = Av. s), see my Avesta Orammar, g§ 17, 142. 

With reference, moreover, to the force of the attribute ' shadowless ' 
Professor (Jeldner has happily suggested a parallel in the familiar 
epithet ehdyddvittya * accompanied by a shadow,* the characteristic 
mark distinguishing Nala from the gods in the well-known episode 
MBh. iii. 57. 25. A further support, 1 think, may also be brought in 
from a passage in the classics. Plutarch, in Is, et Os. 47, describee the 
millennium which the Zoroastrian religion pictures as coming upon 
earth at the end of the world ; in this connection he notes as one of the 
characteristics of men beatified that they shall no longer ^cast a 
shadow :' a»>6|puToi*f evdaiuovaq hnadai^ fifjre rpof^ Seofi^irrvg fjofre muav Totovmc. 
See also Windischmann, Zor. Studien, p. 384. 

The epithets Skt. aehdyay Av. asaya are therefcnre quite p^ymll»l in 
signification ; and the wonderful coursers of Sraosha, besides all their 



Jackson, Sanskrit- Avestan notes. xli 

other divine attributes, become 'shadowless' as they dart through 
the sky.* 

8. Data for Zoroaster's Life. 

In P.A,O.S. for April, 1892 (Journal, vol. xv., p, clxxx), attention 
was called to the Zartusht-Namah as possibly furnishing a number of 
old traditional facts connected with the actual life of Zoroaster. Men- 
tion was made, for example, of Zoroaster's reputed teacher Barzin- 
karus. Possibly that name may rest upon some good foundati<th 
Allusion to a spiritual teacher (a^thrapaiti) of Zoroaster is at any rate 
now quotable from an ancient A vesta fragment of the Hadhokht Nask, 
cited in Sad Dar xl. 4 : see also Dinkart viii. 45. 9. The Avesta text 
(emended) is thus given in West, Pahlavi Texts transL, S. B. E, xxiv. 
802 ; xxxvii. 488 : 

md dzdrayoiS, ZarathvMra ! md PouruSaspem md Dugh- 
dhovdm, md a&thrapaitis ; 

which may be rendered : * Mayest thou. O Zoroaster, not anger thy 
father, Pourushaspa, nor thy mother, Dughdhova, nor thy spiritual 
teacher.' Might Barzinkarus be the very aethrapaiti here alluded to? 
According to the Zartusht-Namah, Zoroaster was given into a learned 
teacher's charge at the age of seven years. 

The passage cited is also especially interesting as it gives us an actual 
occurrence of the name of Zoroaster's mother in an Avesta text. Her 
name had previously been quotable only in Pahlavi and Persian writ- 
ings. See, for instance, Bd. xxxii. 10 ; 81. x. 4 ; xii. 11, and the refer- 
ence in A.O.S. Journal xv. 228. 

Items like this have their value as contributing something toward our 
knowledge of Zoroaster's life and the facts connected with him as a 
historical personage. It is for just such points as this that we must 
look to Pahlavi scholars to provide us with new material and data. 

14. The independent particle sibi in the Rig-veda ; by Prof. 
Herbert C. Tolraan, of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

As an inseparable prefix, the particle sii is used, in all periods of the 
Sanskrit language, with the familiar meanings which flow naturally 
from its primary signification * well.' On the other hand, as is well 
known, the Veda furnishes many examples of su used as an inde- 
pendent word. 

The German translators either omit the word entirely, believing it to 
be used simply as a metrical expletive, or else they render it by schon , 
which is a good German reproduction of the padding of the original, if 
padding it be. They also render it by gut, recht, sehr^ ja, recht bald 

* Since the alx)vc was written, I am intcrostod in tinding that Darmesteter, in 
his new translation, Ijti Zt'iul-AvesUi, vol. i. 3(>r>. a^sij^ns precisely tlic same moan- 
ing i04Msaya, 'sans faire d' ombre ' To have the support also of such authority is 
gmtifying. 

VOL. XVI. F 



xlii American Oriental 8ociety*8 Proceedings, April 1S9S, 

(Lud wig), aogleich ; and md u ^ is rendered by nimmer : thus, for exam- 
ple, in RV. i. 38. 6, md ^u nafy . . . nirrtir durh(jtnd vadhtt. But is not 
the meaning rather ' Kindly (t. e. please), O Maruts, let not destruction 
(and) disaster slay us '? 

The particle au occurs as a word in the first book of the Rig-veda in 
some forty-one passages, counting the refrain of i. 112. 1-23 as one. If 
we examine these passages, we shall find that the renderings ' kindly/ 

* pleaee,' ' be so good as to,* fit in all but eight. In these eight we can 
insist either a. on the simple adverbial meaning of the particle, or else 
b, that its force consists in representing the action of the verb as desir- 
able. 

Thus, as an example imder a. may be cited i. 97. 14, tdtro ^ mdda- 
yddhvdij * so enjoy yourselves as their (the Kai^vas' : tdtra = kdnve^) 
guests, well or thoroughly : i. e, have a rousing good time with them.' 
And, as examples under 6. : i. 136. 1, prd su jif^thath nicirdbhydm 
bfhdn ndmo . . bharatd, * proffer well (t. e. acceptably or so that it may 
be most acceptable) as your best offering to the two needful (gods) 
exalted homage ;' i. 164. 26, abhVddho gkarmds tdd u fu prd vocam, 

* the kettle is hot and I announce it (to you) acceptably : i. 6. you'll be 
glad to hear me say so.'*^ 

But it is the meaning ' please ' which I desire especially to empha- 
size, and which, I think, is the most appropriate in no less than 
twenty-three of the forty -one passages. In each case I render by * be 
so good as to.' Thus, i. 9. 6, asmdn 9U . . codaye ^ndra rdyi, *• be so 
good, O Indra, as to help us on to prosperity ;* i. 17. 7, asm&n sii 
jiffyv^aa kftaniy ' be ye two so good as to make us victorious ;' i. 26. 5, 
imd u (tit pnidTil girah, * and be so good as to hear these (our) songs ;* 
and similarly in the others, in which the verb is an imperative or its 
equivalent. And not essentially different is i. 118. 10, td rdtfi nard sv 
dvase . . hdvdmafie, * therefore we call on you two, O heroes, to be so 
good as to help us.* 

It seems to follow that the meaning ' please ' or * I pray * must be 
conceded for the detached 8u. The logical development of the mean- 
ings presents no difficulty : thus, * well, acceptably, kindly, we pray.' 
Moreover, there is in various languages a tendency to tone down the 
harshness of a direct ^command. In this way the Roman noli facere 
and nefeceris took the place of nefac. And the use of quominus with 
verbs of hindering and so on was developed under the same tendency. 
In late Greek, izapaKoki:) was attached for a like purpose to the impera- 
tive, so that to-day in Athens it is the reeular word for * please. *f • 

The functions of the detached aii in the Rig-veda I hold to be : 1, to 
soften a command (* please') ; 2, to make acceptable a wish (* I pray ') : 



♦The other five passages are i. 135. 9; 184. 2; 52. I ; 53. 1: 139. 8. But 
it may be noted that in all these eight examples, save one, it is quite possible 
to apply the rendering ' please.' 

f Af)c fioiy TapaKa?Mj ra^ t?xiiac* * Please hand me the olives.' Compvi' the 
Latin bent^ in nunc te opsecro ut me bene iuves. MostelL iv. 3. II. 



Chester y Early Moslem promissory notes, xliii 

and 3, to modify the verb as a simple adverb (* well, agreeably '). Of 
the last use there are somewhat less than a dozen instances. 

The particle, then, has a definite significance in every case of its 
occurrence, and ought not to be slighted by the translator. In most of 
the instances where the German versions attempt to render it, its sense 
is quite different from that of schon, sogleich, wohh etc. 

15. On early Moslem promissory notes ; by Mr. Frank D. 
Chester, Assistant in Arabic in Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

In the Kitdb al-Ag&ni (ed. Bulak, I, p. 17, 1. 16), first-rate evidence is 
to be found that the Arabs of the time of Mo&wiya, the first Damascus 
calif, had already excellent financial arrangements in private business 
transactions, particularly the custom of giving what we now call a 
''promise to pay" for money lent on specified terms. A tradition 
there reported from Mo^'ab ibn *Amm&r, a descendant of the famous 
Ibn az-Zubeir of Medina, relates that Sa'td, grandson of Umayya, 
before his death had instructed his son *Amru to make over certain 
property to his cousin Mo&wiya, in order to pay off the debts that had 
accumulated upon him during his lifetime. For it was the custom 
that near relatives should take upon themselves all indebtedness of the 
deceased. In this case, Sa4d desired that 'Amru should be able to offer 
the calif something that he might sell to advantage and incur no 
expense. Accordingly, Mo4wiya accepted his relative's offer with the 
words ** What* has he made over to me?" *Amru replied ** His castle 
in Al-*Ar9a." He said **I take it for his debt." He answered *'Iti8 
yours on condition that you have the amount transported to Medina 
and converted into wdfis." He said ** Ay," and had it transferred to 
Medina and divided among his creditors. ''And the greater part,^' 

says the tradition, "consisted of promises to pay (\j^yjS\ ^K* 






The Arabic word sJl^ here used appears to have a technical sense, 

an illustration of which is afforded by the conclusion of Mog'ab's story, 
which runs thus : 
A young man of the Koreish came to him (viz. 'Amru, on his return 

to Medina) with a document (dLo) to the amount of twenty thousand 

dirhams with Sa'id's own signature and the signature of a freedman of 
his upon it. He sent for the freedman, and made him read the docu- 
ment. When he had read it, he wept and said " Ay, this is his writing, 
and this is my signature upon it." Then 'Amru said to him ** How 



♦ Read ( -JLfc) \j^^^ wO , not ijdy£\J , which makes little sense : cf. 
'Amru's reply. 



xliv American Oriental iSociety*8 Proceedings^ AprU 189S, 

comes there to be twenty thousand dirhams for this youth upon it ? 
Why, he is the poorest of the poor of the Koreish !" He said ** I will tell 
you about it. Sa'td was passing along after his loss of office, and this 
youth happened on him, and journeyed with him till he arriyed at his 
home. There he stopped and said 'Do you wish anything?* (The 
youth) said * No, except that I found you traveling alone and desired 
to come to your protection.' Then he said to me ' Bring me a sheet of 
paper,' and I brought him this. He wrote out this debt himself, and 
said ' You shall not suffer anything at my hands ; take this, and, when 
anything comes in to me, you come to me.'" 'Amru said ** By Allah, 
he surely shall not receive it except in xiodfia. Give it to him." And 
the twenty thousand dirhams were weighed out to him in wdfia!* 

The legal point of this story is that Sa'fd's great generosity led him 
to incur money obligations when he had no means to fulfil them. 
This fact really invalidated his note, at least according to the Moham- 
medan law of the present day ; and so also did the fact that he speci- 
fied no time of payment. 



o ^ 



One is naturally led to inquire whether the word ^^vjO , which was 

here used of the transaction with the impoverished youth (1. 24), had 
acquired the technical and limited usage that it now possesses, to sig- 
nify the simple * loan-obligation.' The Moslem law-books of the present 



o ^ 



time provide for two sorts of legal obligations to pay, the ^^vjO and the 

uaJLmI aJLm , treating them under the same category with contracts 

of sale. Thus the creditor is looked upon as buyer to the amount of 
the obligation, and the debtor as vender of the same, so that the Mos- 
lem manages to evade the Koranic prohibition of usury. Such legal 
squinting, it may be said, is characteristic of the Orientals, and has its 
parallels elsewhere in their institutions. Accordingly, in the second 
species of contract, the debtor promises to deliver goods or money to a 
stipulated amount over that actually borrowed, and the creditor con- 

trives to get his interest. The ^^jO , however, which more concerns 

us here, is a promise to restore merely the amount lent, at the end of a 
specified term. In case the debtor fails to keep his agreement, the 
Hanifite and the unorthodox Shi4te sects insist still further that the 
creditor may claim no interest ; but the Sh&fi*ites more rationally per- 

mit him to convert the contract immediately into the uaJLm* aXww . 
Ordinarily, a written contract is made out, with the signatures of sev- 



Ar. aucdlaJL) (= in wCifi kiud). The wdji wjis then eciuivalent to the silver 
l^%0 , about 20 cents. There would Ix? no ]^iiiit to the end of tliis storj* if it 



^ u 



were translated by 'in full.' Cf. *Amru's rcniuci^t above. How improper to have 
asked Modwiya to pay in full ! 



Chester^ Early Moslem protaissory notes, xlv 

eral witnesses, in whose presence the loan must be made. Yet the 
contract is valid if oral only, provided the creditor pronounces the 

word c:a^^i *I lend,' and the debtor v:>JLo *I receive," 

To return to our story of Sa^d and the time of MoAwiya (7th cent. 



b ^ 



A.D.): we can say this much, that j^vJi> was then used of a ' promise 

to pay,' though it connoted in fact much more than i$ Jlc (cf. loc. cit. 

lines 11, 16, 24) ; that one witness, at least, was required, though prob- 
ably more, this being a peculiar case ; that the custom of writing out 

c?l Jlc was very common, especially when rich men had fees to pay ; 

finally that, as another tradition, adduced (loc. cit.) to show that Sa*id 
was generous to a fault, also indicates, local if not inter-territorial sys- 
tems of credit prevailed. Sa*id ordered a freedman, it is said, to 

'' take what he liked on his security (auLol V" in order to marry off 

one of his young servants. 

But now let us pass from Modwiya to Mohammed, half a century ear- 
lier. Have we proof that there existed in his time such financial 
facilities as are above suggested? Oris it correct to draw the usual 
picture of a system of barter, in which the precious metals had a value 
not as a circulating medium, but as natural products, for ornamental 
purposes? The testimony of the Koran (ii.- 282-284) would tend to dis- 
establish this latter view : ** O ye who believe !" it reads, ** if ye engage 
in debt for a stated time, then write it down, and let a scribe write it 
down between you faithfully ; . . . . unless, indeed, it be a ready-money 
transaction between you, which ye arrange between yourselves ; . . . . 
but bring witnesses to what ye sell one to another ; . . . . but if ye be 
upon a journey and ye cannot find a scribe, then let a pledge be taken." 

It looks as if in Mohammed*s time at Medina, where these words 
were said to have been uttered, and at Mekka^ there was a class, not 
necessarily a school of men, who, knowing how to write, had fallen 
into the custom of recording transactions for their neighbors, and 
acted as scribes to the merchants passing in and out of the city. 
Mohammed thus favors their employment, as calculated to assure the 
systematic recording of business acts, and to prevent unfair dealing. 

With this evidence we may compare that of the traditions of the 
Sahih of Al-BokhArf, in his chapter on *' Borrowing, Payment of 
Debts, Cheating, and Failure " (ed. Krehl, ii. § 44). Here is reported 
Mohammed's behavior m matters of trade. The first two traditions 
represent him as paying his creditors promptly or else giving security 
«e. g., an iron cuirass for some food obtained from a Jew), while the 
fourth states that he was in the habit of keeping by him one din&r, no 
more, with which to meet any obligation. Somewhat discrepantly, 
we find here no use of scribe or witness, but only pledge-giving, which 
grew out of simple barter, or holding of ready money as a medium of 



xlvi American Oriental Society^ 8 Proceedings^ April 189S, 

exchange. Probably Mohammed's own social and commercial rela- 
tions expanded in proportion as he and his religion advanced into 
greater popularity. 

On the other hand, we have good reason to believe that the advent 
of the Prophet gave one forcible turn to the commercial life as well as 
to the religious cult of the Arabs. In his day, the Bed&win flowing in 
from the desert to the cities were confounded, and too often thrown 
into great straits, by the class of men who swarmed the market-places 
and acted as money-changers. Fortunately, there are extant lines 
from old poets, a couple of them perhaps pre-Mohanunedan, which 
depict this condition of things in the Arabian business world (see 
Noldeke, Beitrdge zur Poesie der alien Ardber^ pp. 183-198)*. Each 
fragment or piece of poetry expresses the great joy of a man who, in a 
very wily manner, has been able to foil his creditor. In all these lines 

the word ,^ ji> has only the general sense of * debt,' usually referring 

to a simple bill of sale. It is interesting to notice the word ILftA^SLO, 

which was used in the story of Sa*id to signify the * sheet of paper ' on 

which the ^jO was recorded. The Koranic prohibition of usury, 

however, is our best evidence of the fact that money-changing was a 
widespread practice in Mohammed's time, along with some sort of 
banking and account-keeping (ii. 276-279). The policy of that revela- 
tion was to protect the pooi;er classes of his converts against the fraud- 
ulent extortions of those quasi-brokers. With the new era, therefore, 
the purely financial side of trade fell into the hands of Jews and other 
foreigners alone, with whom it largely remains at the present time. 

The last purpose of this inquiry is to ask whether the Arabs were 
borrowers of these financial arrangements, especially the use of docu- 
ment and witnesses. Until the sixth century, when some homage was 
paid to the kings of Ilira and Ghassan, and appeal was made to their 
jurisdiction, they had never seen political union ; under tribe or clan 
rule there was no recognized authoritative opinion. Some exception 
to this must be taken from the fact that certain highly respected fam- 
ilies, like the Koreish at Mekka, rose early to a controlling influence in 
the cities. But more and more, particularly in the sixth century, the 
Arabs came into living contact with Egypt, Syria, and Persia, whose 
inhabitants were well aclvanced in their organization of private as well 
as political rights and regulations. Through the Christians then set- 
tled in Arabia, and especially the Ghassanite Arabs in the north of the 
peninsula, the Beddwin were confronted with Greek civilization, and 
borrowed much of Byzantine culture as time went on. But, if in 
Mohammed's time such documents were used, it must have been 
through the influence of the caravan -trades to the north and east that 

♦ For this reference I am indebto<l to Pr. C. C. Torrey, of Andover. 



WinslotOy Palm-leaf column from Ahnas, xlvii 

the usage was introduced, thougli even at that early period the Jews 
and Christians might have disseminated European habits of business 
from Alexandria and other important commercial centres. Never- 
theless, it is equally probable that the Arabs, no less than the Babylo- 
nians, from whom we have all kinds of contract-tablets reaching far 
back into antiquity, were original in this particular ; that they were 
early led to require written testimony to business transagtions ; and 
that their increasing commerce with the outside world developed in 
their best representatives the sense of justice ; so that under Moham- 
med, who was himself a keen trader, they easily adopted a regular 
requirement of documentary evidence in the undertaking of business 
obligations. 

16. A palm-leaf column from Ahnas; by Rev. W. C. Winslow, 
of Boston. 

This column, now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, was one of 
six belonging to a vestibule of a temple that once stood at Ha-Khen- 
ensu, referred to in Assyrian texts as Hininsi, afterwards named 
Heracleopolis by the Greeks, and called by the natives at present 
Ahnas, sometimes Henassieh ; it is referred to in Isaiah xxx. 4, as 
Hanes. Henassieh may be a corruption of Hanes, the eh being a com- 
mon terminative. As to the age of the site, Brugsch {Dictionnaire 
O^ographiquey i. 604) quotes a text stating that here Ra, the second 
king of the initial divine dynasties, began his earthly reign. Dr. 
Naville, the explorer of the Egypt Exploration Fund, searched in vain 
for inscriptions of the IXth and Xth Dynasties, whose seat of govern- 
ment was here ; but among his disclosures were the columns of a side 
entrance to a temple undoubtedly dedicated to Arsaphes, a form of 
Osiris, usually represented with a ram's head. For the large text on 
the basement declares : **The living Horus, the mighty Bull who loves 
Ma, the lord of praises like his father Pthah, King Rameses, erected 
this house to his father Hershefi (Arsaphes), the Lord of Two Lands.'' 
The great Harris Papyrus (British Museum) states that Rameses HI. 
presented slaves to **the temple of Hershefi, the king of the Two 
Lands": the peculiar designation of the god thus occurring in both 
cases. The six shafts, 17 feet in height, were probably taken by 
Rameses H. from an edifice of Usertesen U. of the Xllth Dynasty, as 
the architraves bear the cartouches of that king : but they can be abso- 
lutely dated only from the reign of Rameses. 

The royal inscriptions, clearly emblazed, run from the bending palm- 
leaf to the base, on this wise : Emblems of the shoot of a plant and a 
bee (wasp form), verbally suten cheb; the six-worded cartouche, Ra 
user ma Sotep en Ra ; si Ra ; the cartouche, Ramessu mer Amon ; the 
symbol Crux ansata, or tau of the Nile ; the plant and bee repeated ; 
Neb Taui ; the six -worded cartouche repeated ; Si (or Se) Ra ; Neb 
khaui ; the smaller cartouche repeated ; the symbol of life repeated ; 
JVe6 Taui ; the larger cartouche repeated ; Neb Khaui ; and the smaller 
cartouche. On the column's right, with the same or equivalent titles, 



xlviii American Oriental Society^s Proceedings^ April 1893. 

Rameses is offering to Horus (figures 2 feet 9 inches in height) ; on the 
left a replica of the right, and, on the rear, of the front. The colunin 
from Ahnas in the museum of the University of Pennsylvania is with- 
out its capital : the Boston shaft is unrivalled by any other monu- 
mental work in this country from Egypt for its peculiar grace and 
beauty. 

17. Professor D. G. Lyon, of Harvard University, gave an 
account of a collection of Phoenician glass-ware recently acquired 
by the Harvard Semitic Museum. The objects are said to have 
been found in tombs in the vicinity of Tyre, and they are believed 
to belong to the period between Alexander and the beginning of 
our. era. There are forty-eight specimens, consisting of vases, 
tea bottles, kohl holders, bowls, goblets, and pitchers. They are 
well preserved, and several of the specimens are of unusually fine 
workmanship. 



gn fBfitrtxoxjg of 



William Dwight Whitney 



IHoxn ^jebintarg 9, 1827 
§ltA Suitje 7f 1894 



PROCEEDIl^GS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY, 



AT ITS 



MEETING IN NEW YORK, N. Y., 



March 29th, 30th, and 3xst, 1894. 



The Society assembled at New York, in the Room of the 
Trustees of Columbia College, on Thursday of Easter Week, 
March 29th, at 3 p. m., and was called to order by its President, 
President Daniel Coit Gilman of the Johns Hopkins University. 
Professor Henry Drisler welcomed the Society to New York and 
to the hospitalities of Columbia College. 

The following members were in attendance at one or more 
of the sessions : 



Adler 


Dickerman 


Jackson 


Rudolph, Miss 


Arbeely 


Drisler 


Jastrow, Jr., M. 


Smith 


Arnold, W. R. 


Elwell 


Kent 


Smyth 


Babbitt 


Fay 


Lanman 


Steele 


Barton 


Frame 


Levias 


Torrey 


Binney 


Frothingham 


Lyon 


Toy 


Bloomfield 


Gilman 


Macdonald 


Ward, W. H. 


Bradner 


Goodwin, C. J. 


McConnell, Mrs. 


Watson 


Bnggs 


GottheU 


Myer 


Webb 


Brinton 


Grieve, Miss 


Oertel 


Werren 


Carpenter 


Hall, I. H. 


Olcott 


Williams 


Casanowicz 


Haupt 


Perry 


Wise 


Chambers 


Hazard 


Peters 


Wood 


Chester 


Hopkins 


Prince 


Woodward 


Collitz 


Howard 


Ragozin, Mrs. 


Wright, T. F. 


Dahl 


Ilyvemat 


Rogers 


Yohannan 


Deinard 






[66] 


The minutes 


of the last meeting:, at Boston and Cambridfire, 


were read by the Recording Secretary, Professor Lyon of Har- 


VOL. XVI. 










1 American Oriental Society^a Proceedings^ March 1894- 

vard University, and accepted by the Society. The report of the 
Committee of Arrangements was presented by Professor Jackson, 
of Columbia College. It was in the form of a printed program, 
with a cyclostyle supplement, and was accepted. 

The reports of outgoing officers were now in order. 

The Corresponding Secretary, Professor Lanman, of Harvard 
University, presented some of the correspondence of the year. 

This included letters of regret from the Right Rev. C. R. Hale, of 
Cairo, 111., from Prof. G. F. Moore, of Andover, Mr. Ome, of Cambridge, 
and Prof. Hilprecht, of Philadelphia. The last reports part 2 of volume 
I. of The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania as 
well under way, and that he hopes to have it in the printer's hands be- 
fore leaving for Constantinople and the Hittite region in May, 1894. 

The Secretary called the attention of the Society to the valuable and 
interesting volumes of transactions of the International Congress of 
Orientalists held in London in 1892. Application for them may be made 
to E. Delmar Morgan, Esq., care of the Royal Asiatic Society, 22 Albe- 
marle St., London. 

Messrs. Wijayaratna and Co. write from Maradana, Colombo, Ceylon, 
offering various works in P&li, Sanskrit, and Singalese, and declaring 
their readiness to procure similar books for those concerned with these 
studies. 

Dr. John C Sundberg, recently appointed United States Consul at 
Bagdad, writes from Bagdad under date of April 27, 1893. He gives an 
interesting account of his journey from San Francisco to Bagdad, by 
way of Hong Kong, the Straits Settlements, Calcutta, Bombay, Bandu- 
Abbas on the Strait of Hormuz, Bushire on the Persian Gulf, the Schatt- 
el-Arab, and the Tigris. He says : ** Owing undoubtedly to the very 
filthy habits of the poor, there is a great amount of eye-disease here, 
and I treat from sixty to eighty patients (poor) gratis every day. I 
have also a few rich patients, and among them the Nakib, tiie most in- 
fluential man in Bagdad, the Wall not excepted. I have made a few 
short excursions into the desert, but shall postpone my visit to Babylon, 
perhaps till next fall. There are sold here a great many antiquities of 
modem make ; in fact, there are several Assyrian antiquity factories 
in Bagdad, and spurious seals and cylinders as well as coins are 
sold in the bazaars to gullible tourists/' 

Rev. George N. Thomssen, of the American Baptist Mission, Kurnool, 
Madras Presidency, India, writes under date of September 28, 1893, con- 
cerning the Yadagalai and Tengalai sects of Vaishnavas in that region : 

" In India great religious revivals occasionally occur. At such 
times a wave of deepfelt enthusiasm sweeps over the land, and some- 
times the effects of it can be traced after many centuries have elapsed. 
About 1000 years ago the great Vedanta philosopher and Brahman revi- 
valist, Sankaracharya lived. We have few facts of his life — all we 
know is that he lived as a celibate in Sringeri, Mysore. Among the 
Hindus, or rather among the Vaishnavites among the Hindus, he is 




Correspondence, li 

called the Adiguru, the first priest. His enthusiastic teaching of 
the Vedas with his own philosophical interpretation soon won for him 
disciples in all parts of India. Finding that he had not sufficient 
strength to look after all his adherents, he founded monasteries in 
convenient centers, and appointed his most prominent disciples to be his 
representatives. One of the centers selected was Ahobolam, in the 
mountains of the Kumool District of the Madras Presidency, a place 
about 200 miles north-west of Madras. The madham or monastery is 
in the mountain-range known as the Eastern Ghauts. It is a lone- 
some place, where tigers and the wild beasts of India have their haunts. 
There are two temples, one near the foot of the mountains, where the 
Pujari or worshiper (a man paid by grant of land and presents from 
pilgrims) lives ; and about 2 miles distant, in a very retired part, is the 
most sacred temple, in a cave. 

**The god worshiped at Ahobolam is called Ugraha-Nara-Simham, 
the austere man-lion. Nara-simham is the name of the fourth avatar 
or incarnation of Vishnu. In this avatar Vishnu is said to have sprung 
out of a stone pillar as a man-lion, and to have in this shape destroyed 
the Asura or demon Hiranyan. When Vishnu is represented as the 
avenger, destroying the man-lion, he is called Ugraha, the austere, the 
awful one ; on the other hand, when he is represented as the pacified 
man-lion, quieted by the slokas chanted by Hiranyan*s son Prachladen, 
he is called Lakshmi-Nara-Simham, the merciful man-Uon. Before this 
severe idol the high-priest and the disciples of the Vadagalais are to 
worship, but at the present day the idol is very much neglected. It is 
questionable whether the present high-priest living in Tiruvellur near 
Madras has ever taken the trouble to go to Ahobolam, and hence many 
of his followers do not believe in him. He carries about with him a 
small gold idol representing Ugraha-Nara-Simham, and this his disciples 
worship. He is, like most of the other prominent priests of the 
Hindus, a wealthy man, and goes where he can get the most money 
with the least trouble — so a prominent Hindu says. Ahobolam is still 
considered a very holy place, and annually many pilgrims go there from 
all parts of India. The reason why this of all other centers is so sacred 
is that after the death of the Adiguru Sankaracharya each one of his 
principal disciples, in their respective centers, claimed to be the holiest 
and that their monasteries or madhams were the most sacred, and so 
tried to gain the greatest possible influence. All the different centers 
in the course of time became Tengalai centers, except Ahobolam, which 
became the great Vadagalai center. 

'* Teng means south and Vada north, and Galai means mark ; hence 
the great difference between the two sects consists in the mark they 
wear on their forehead. These marks cause great dissensions at the 
great annual feasts, and even the courts are often called upon to settle 
the disputes. In the temples both sects claim the right of placing the 
mark of their sect on the forehead of the idol. The Tengalais claim 
that this mark represents both feet of Vishnu, resting on a lotus throne ; 
hence the mark, looking like a trident, is to extend down to the bridge 
of the nose. .Some of the very orthodox Brahmans, in order to make 



lii American Oriental Society^a Proceedings^ March 1894, 

this very plain, even put five toes to each slanting line representing a 
foot. On the other hand, the Vadagalais claim that the mark repre- 
sents only the right foot of Vishnu, from which the holy river, the 
Ganges, sprang ; and hence there is to be no throne, or mark half way 
down the nose. The center line is said to represent Lakshmi, Vishnu^s 
wife, since, according to the allegorical interpretation, as God has no 
wife, this represents the mercy of God which Lakshmi personifies. Form- 
erly the great disputes were about more spiritual things, but, as 
both parties have become materialistic, their great disputes now are 
about these little caste-marks. Of course there are even now spiritually 
minded men in both sects, and these still keep up the quarrel about 
man*s relation to God. Both parties have their own theories, which 
they defend with all the obstinacy of the proverbial Scotchman who is 
open to conviction, but who would like to see the man that could con- 
vince him. 

** The question raised at these discussions is : ' Is a man a free agent or 
not?' To this the Tengalais reply : ' He is not ! All of man's actions are 
controlled by GK>d. Man has no will of his own, and can do nothing 
aside from God. He is as dependent on God as the kitten is on the cat ! ^ 
Hence the theory of the Tengalais is called the Marjalapattu, or cat- 
hold theory. On the other hand, the Vadagalais say : * Man is a free 
agent ; he can do as he wills to do. He has a will of his own, and is not 
under the sole control of God. Man's relation to God is that of the 
young monkey to its mother ! ' For this reason this theory is called the 
Markattapattu or monkey-hold theory. Of course there are still many 
other differences, differences in ritual, in regard to priority at worship, 
in regard to mantras or sacred incantations ; but these would be too 
wearisome to enumerate. The Tengalais are the most numerous 
among the Vaishnavites, and also seem to be the most materialistic^ 
while the Vadagalais still seem to retain a trace in their character of 
the severity of the god they worship." 

A letter from the Geographical Society of the Pacific invites us ta 
take part in their " Geographical Day," May 4th. Mr. W. E. Coleman 
was subsequently appointed to represent the Oriental Society on that 
occasion. 

Mr. Edward Naville writes inviting our Society to take part in the 
International Congress of Orientalists to be held at Geneva, Switzer- 
land, September 3-12, 1894. Messrs. Brinton, Gottheil, Haupt, and 
Jackson were appointed Delegates to represent the Society. 

The Secretary announced the death of the Corporate Member — 
Mr. Alexander Isaac Cotheal, of New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Cotheal was bom in New York City, November 5, 1804, the eldest 
son of Henry Cotheal, and grandson of Isaac Cotheal of Revolutionary 
times. At the age of twenty-one he entered the house of his father and 
uncle, Henry and David Cotheal, a well-known shipping-firm trading 
to Central America, especially the Mosquito Coast, to San Bias, and to 
California. In 1840, Mr. Cotheal was a frequent visitor to the ship 



TVeasurer^s Report. liii 

SiUtanee, then in port at New York, and became greatly interested in the 
Arabic language. In 1851, he embarked for the east coast of Africa, 
Zanzibar and Mozambique. Later he visited Nicaragua ; and he was 
Consul Qeneral for Nicaragua from 1871 until his death. He also trav- 
eled in Europe, particularly in Spain. It was of his personal experi- 
ences there that he liked especially to talk, and he seems to have had 
warm friends there. 

He retired from business early in life and devoted himself to congen- 
ial literary pursuits. He was one of the founders of the American (Geo- 
logical Society and President of the American Ethnological Society. He 
filled various o£Bces in the St. Nicholas Society, of which, at his death, 
he was the oldest member. He was a life-long member of Trinity 
Parish. He was the author of a " Sketch of the language of the Mos- 
-quito Indians/* which was published in the '* Transactions of the 
American Ethnological Society." Of Oriental tongues, besides Arabic, 
he studied Turkish, Persian, Hindustani, and Gujaratti. 

His Arabic was chiefly learned at home, by hard study, and by con- 
stant teaching from natives whom he chanced to find in New York and 
who would come to his house and read with him. At the request of 
the late Sir Richard F. Burton, Mr. Cotheal translated the rare Arabic 
text of ** Attappa, the Generous." This is published in the sixth vol- 
ume of Sir Richard's ** Supplemental Nights." 

He was elected a member of the American Oriental Society Septem- 
ber 80, 1846, and came to be the oldest living member of the Society. 
His presence was to be counted on at the New Haven and New York 
meetings, and he more than once entertained the Society at his resi- 
dence. He was a Director of the Society for over a quarter of a cen- 
tury, from 1865 to 1891. In 1800, he made what was the first gift to it 
by way of endowment of a publication fund : to wit, one thousand 
dollars. This was reported in the Proceedings for May, 1890, as 
** intended by the donor as a nucleus of a Publication Fund, and pre- 
scribed by him to be invested, that its interest may be used to help in 
defraying the costs of the Journal and Proceedings." 

Mr. Cotheal was unmarried. He passed away February 25, 1894, at 
his residence in New York. His nephew, Mr. Henry Ck)theal Swords of 
New York, writes : ** He died, as he had always lived, at peace with all 
the world ; and I trust that our last end may be like his." 

The Treasurer, Mr. Henry C. Warren, of Cambridge, Mass., 
presented to the Society his accounts and statement for the year 
April 6, 1893 to March 29, 1894, and suggested the desirability 
of annually appointing an Auditing Committee to examine the 
securities of the Society at the place where such securities may be 
stored. The Chair appointed gentlemen residing in the neighbor- 
hood of Boston : to wit, Professors Toy and Lyon of Cambridge. 
To them the Treasurer's accounts, with book and vouchers, and 
with report on the state of the funds, were referred. The Commit- 
tee reported to the Society and certified that the accounts were in 



liv American Oriental Society^s ProceedingSy March 1894, 

due order and properly voached, and that the funds called for 
by the balances were in the possession of the Treasurer. The 
usual analytical summary of the General Account follows : 

Receipts. 

Balance from old account, April 6, 1893 $1,045.96 

Assessments (168) for 1893-4 $840.00 

Assessments (34) for other years 170.00 

Sales of publications 114.26 

Income of investments, so far as collected 36.46 

Interest on balances of General Account 80.60 

Supplement to anonymous gift of $ 1 ,0(X) 8.00 

Total collected income of the year 1,199.22 

Total receipts for the year $2,245.18 

Expenditures. 

Journal, xv. 3, and distribution $212.52 

Journal, xvi. 1 (part) 154.12 

Proceedings, April, 1893 188.49 

Authors' extras from Journal and Proceedings 31.75 

Paper 106.10 

Job printing 21.00 

Postage, express, etc 33.69 

Total disbursements for the year 696.67 

Credit balance on Gtenl Account, March 29, 1894 1,548.51 

$2,245. 18 

The supplementary gift of $8 was intended to offset the excess 
over $1,000 of the cost of the eight shares of bank-stock (at 126) 
in which the original gift was invested. 

The interest of the Bradley Type-fund is regularly passed to 
the credit of that fund for further accumulation. 

Exclusive of that interest, the amount of the interest, collected 
and uncollected, for the year is $110.40, and belongs to the credit 
of the General Account. 

The state of the funds is as follows : 

1893, Jan. 1, Amount of the Bradley Type-fund $1,369.88 

Interest for one year 55.32 

1894, Jan. 1, Amount of the Bradley Type-fund $1,425.20 

Amount of Publication-fund $2,127.19 

1894, March 29, Balance of General Account $1 .548.51 

Total of funds in possession of the Society $6,100.90 

The bills for Journal xvi. 1 have not yet been all presented. 



Librarian's Report Iv 

The Librarian, Mr. Addison Van Name, of New Haven, 
presented the following report for the year 1893-94. 

The additions to the Society's Library for the year now closing have 
been 90 volumes, 87 parts of volumes, 118 pamphlets, and a plaster 
cast of the Chaldean Deluge tablet. The number of titles is now 4,648. 

No sales having been reported by the Paris agency* for ten years 
past, orders were sent for the return of the volumes of the Journal on 
hand, except vols, ii.-v., of which the Society already had a more than 
sufficient supply. In accordance with the instructions given, ten sets 
of these four volumes were distributed to certain designated libraries 
and institutions. From one of these, the Mvsee Ouiinet, we have just 
received an unexpectedly large return, no less than fifty volumes of 
its publications, including twenty-three quarto volumes of the Annales 
and twenty volumes of the Revue de Vhistoire des religions. The 
Society will no doubt authorize the sending of the volumes of the 
Journal needed to complete the Museum's set. 

The Imperial Russian Archaeological Society has invited an 'ex- 
change of publications by sending the latest volumes of three separate 
series of its issues, an invitation which should be promptly accepted. 

The standing appropriation of $25 a year for binding voted at the 
last meeting has not been expended. There will be a certain advantage 
if two years' appropriations may be combined so that $50 may be 
available every second year. 

During the past summer a much needed rearrangement of the 
Society's library was completed by Dr. Oertel, with the aid of Dr. 
Haskell, a service for which the thanks of the Society are due to them. 

For the Committee of Publication, Professor Lanman reported 
as follows : The Proceedings of the Society at Boston and Cam- 
bridge, April 6-8, 1893, were issued, as a pamphlet of xlviii 
pages and as a part of volume xvi. of the Journal, on the 1st of 
June, 1893. The printing of the first half of volume xvi. of the 
Journal (260 pages) is so nearly completed that the part can 
be issued a few days after the meeting. 

The Directors reported by their Scribe, Professor Lanman, as 
follows : 

1. They had appointed the next meeting of the Society to be 
held at Philadelphia at some time during the Ciiristmas week of 
1894, in case the American Philological Association or any 
of the other Societies addressed by us upon the subject should 
finally determine to unite with us in a joint meeting at that time 

* The stocka of publications of the Society long held by Messrs. Trubner and 
Co. of London, and by the firm F. A. Brockhaus of Leipzig, have now been 
returned ; and likewise those held by Prof. Lanman. The Societ}' has therefore 
now no scattered agencies whatever for the sale of its publications, and the entire 
stock thereof^ along with its library, is gratuitously stored and cared for by the 
Yale University Library. 



Ivi American Oriental Society*s ProceedingSy March 1894. 

and place. The Committee on Joint Meeting was continued 
over. As eventual Committee of Arrangements had been ap- 
pointed the Corresponding Secretary, and Professors Haupt, 
Hopkins, and M. Jastrow, Jr. [The next annual business 
meeting will be held in the week beginning with Easter (April 
14), 1896.] 

2. They had appointed, as Committee of Publication for 
1894-96, Professors I. H. Hall, Haupt, Lanman, G. F. Moore, 
and W. D. Whitney. 

3. They had appointed Mr. W. E. Coleman to represent the 
Society at the meeting of the Geographical Society, and Messrs. 
Brinton, Gottheil, Haupt, and Jackson as delegates to the Ge- 
neva Congress: all as noted above, page Hi. 

4. They had authorized the exchanges suggested in the Re- 
port of the Librarian, and the biennial combination of the annual 
appropriations for book-binding. 

6. The Directors voted to recommend to the Society that an 
invitation be extended to the International Congress of Orien- 
talists convening at Geneva in 1894, to meet in this country in 
1897, under the auspices of the American Oriental Society. The 
Directors were careful to refrain from committing themselves to 
any question of details as to the place of meeting and the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements ; and not to commit the Society to the 
expenditure of money. 

6. They had voted to recommend to the Society for election 
to membership the following persons : 

As Corporate Members : 

Mrs. Emma J. Arnold, Providence, R. I. ; 

Rev. E. E. Atkinson, Belmont, Mass.; 

Hon. Truxton Beale, Washington, D. C. ; 

Dr. William Sturgis Bigelow, Boston, Mass.; 

Prof. G. R. Carpenter, New York, N. Y.; 

Rev. Camden M. Cobern, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; 

Mr. Ephraim Deinard, Kearny, N. J.; 

Mr. Joseph H. Durkee, New York, N. Y. ; 

Prof. Ernest F. Fenollosa, Boston, Mass. ; 

Miss Lucia O. Grieve, New York, N. Y. ; 

Rev. J. B. Grossmann, Philadelphia, Pa.; 

Prof. Joshua A. Joffe. New York, N. Y. : 

Mr. Nobuta Kishimoto, Okayama, Japan ; 

Mr. Robert Lilley, New York, N. Y.; 

Prof. Samuel A. Martin, Lincoln University, Pa.; 

Prof. Edward S. Morse, Salem, Mass. ; 

Mr. George W. Osbom, Westfield, N. J. : 

Rev. Ismar J. Peritz, Mattapan, Mass.: 

Mr. Edward Robinson, Boston, Mass. ; 

Mr. Sanford L. Rotter. New York, N. Y.; 

Miss Adelaide Rudolph, New York, N. Y.; 



Election of Officers. Ivii 

3fr. Macy M. Skinner, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
Mr. A. W. Stratton, Toronto, Canada ; 
Miss Cornelia Warren, Boston, Mass,; 
Rev. J. E. Werren, Abington, Mass. ; 
Prof. John H. Wigmore, Evanston, Illinois ; 
Rev. Stephen S. Wise, New York, N. Y.; 
Rev. A. Yohannan, New York, N. Y. [28.] 

The recommendation contained in the fifth paragraph of the 
report of the Directors was unanimously adopted by the Society. 
And the persons recommended for election to membership, after 
ballot duly had, were formally elected. 

On Saturday morning. Rev. Dr. Ward, and Professors Toy 
and Hopkins, as Committee on the Nomination of Officers, re- 
ported. The Corresponding Secretary, Professor Lanman, who 
was elected to that office first in 1884, and had performed the 
somewhat similar duties of Secretary of the American Philolo- 
gical Association from 1879 to 1884, having expressed a wish, 
after fifteen years of such service, to be relieved, the Committee 
nominated in his stead Professor Edward Delavan Perry of 
Columbia College, New York ; and, for the remaining offices, the 
incumbents of the foregoing year. The gentlemen so nominated 
were duly elected by the Society. For convenience of reference, 
the names of the Board for 1894-95 may here be given : 

Preftident—Frea. D. C. Oilman, of Baltimore. 

Vice-Presidents— J)r, William Hayes Ward, of New York ; Prof. C. 
H. Toy, of Cambridge ; Prof. Isaac H. Hali, of New York. 

Corresponding Secretary — Prof. E. D. Perry, of New York. 

Recording Secretary— Fto(. D. G. Lyon, of Cambridge. 

Treasurer — Mr. Henry C. Warren, of Cambridge. 

Librarian — Mr. Addison Van Name, of New Haven. 

Directors — ^The officers above named : and Professors Bloomfield and 
Haupt, of Baltimore ; Mr. Talcott Williams, of Philadelphia ; Prof. E. 
W. Hopkins, of Bryn Mawr ; Prof. A. L. Frothingham, of Princeton ; 
Prof. R. Gottheil, of New York ; Prof. George F. Moore, of Andover. 

In taking the Chair on Friday afternoon, the President of the 
Society made a brief address, in which he expressed his grateful 
appreciation of the honor that the Society had conferred upon 
him. 

In assuming the office, in order to be quite familiar with the policy 
that had been pursued, he had made it his duty to read with attention 
the minutes of the Directors as well as of the Society, during the past 
half century ; and he spoke particularly of its new birth in 1857. At 
that time, the question had arisen as to the possible enlargement of 
resources and membership, and an elaborate report, drawn up by Pro- 
fessor Whitney and approved by an able committee, was presented and 



Iviii American Oriental Society^s ProceedingSy March 1894. 

adopted.* This report is still worth consideration. It lays stress upon 
the importance of publishing contributions to Oriental learning, as the 
chief condition of usefulness and honor. The long series of learned 
papers that bear the Society's imprint shows how steadily this principle 
has been observed. There are no indications that the standard will be 
lowered. On the contrary, the increasing number of scholars in this 
country devoted to Oriental learning gives assurance that the Journal 
and the Proceedings will continue to publish important contributions 
to Oriental science. Thus the highest object of the Society has been 
and will be attained. 

In respect to the scope which should be given to Oriental studies, the 
report of the Committee makes these remarks, which, in view of the 
tendency of the Society toward philological studies, are worth repeat- 
ing : 

** We believe that Oriental studies have a high and positive value for 
all who are studying the history of the human race ; that natural his- 
tory, that geography, that ethnolo^, that lin^istics, that the history 
of religions, of philosophy, of political institutions, of commerce cannot 
be pursued without the most constant reference to the Orient. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

*' We need not fear ♦ ♦ ♦ to welcome into our number any person 
who has enlightenment and culture enough to take an interest in our 
objects and to be willing to contribute to their furtherance. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

'* We do not regard Oriental scholarship as a requisite for admission 
to the Society, but only that liberal culture which inspires an apprecia- 
tion of our objects and a willingness to join heartily in promotiug 
them. ♦ ♦ • " 

After other introductory words, the Chairman called attention to the 
fact that in a very few days, on the twelfth of April, it will be a hun- 
drfd years since the birth of the distinguished geographer, Edward 
Robinson, who held the office of President of the American Oriental 
Society for a period of seventeen years, from 1846 to 1863. But few of 
the actual members of this association knew him personally. There 
are some, however, who remember how constantly he attended the 
meetings, which were then held semi-annually, as a general rule in 
Boston and New Haven ; how dignified and courteous he was as a pre- 
siding officer ; and how much lustre was derived from his acquisitions 
as a scholar and his fame as an explorer. The published memorials of 
his life are brief, consisting chiefly of the discourses delivered soon after 
his death by his colleagues in the Union Theological Seminary of New 
York, Professors Henry B. Smith and Roswell D. Hitchcock ; but this 
brevity is not a reason for serious regrets, because his writings consti- 
tute his memoira, and because the outward incidents of his career were 
not of extraordinary interest. He belongs to the class of men who 
confer great benefits upon their generation, and acquire corresponding 
renown, by accurate, patient, prolonged, and unostentatious researches, 
the results of which are important contributions to human knowl- 
edge. Although he was a minister of the Presbyterian church, it is not 
as a minister that he is remembered. He secured the reverence of his 

♦ The Committee included Dr. Edward Robinson, President Woolsey, Professor 
C. C. Felton, Professor Iladley, and Professor Whitney. 



Address of the President, lix 

papils, but not so much by the inspiring qualities which were charac- 
teristic of his own biblical teacher, Moses Stuart of Andover, as by the 
thoroughness of his scholarship and the reputation of his works. As a 
grammarian and lexicographer he won distinction , especially in the 
early part of his career ; but his lasting reputation is due to the thor- 
ough explorations which he made in the peninsula of Sinai, in the 
Desert, and in Palestine. Part of his fame may perhaps be attributed 
to the fact that in this modern epoch of scientific researches he was a 
pioneer in the field of Biblical geography ; but far more depends upon 
his accuracy and thoroughness, as an observer, a recorder, and an inter- 
preter. He would himself award the heartiest praise to his companion 
in travel, Rev. Eli Smith, whose name is associated with Robinson*s 
upon the title page of the Biblical Researches. To his extraordinary 
preparations for the journey the most ample references are made, both 
in the preface and in the earliest chapter of the narrative, which is based 
upon the diaries of both the travelers. 

In the archives of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions (the speaker continued) I have recently read the letters which 
were addressed by Eli Smith to Dr. Rufus Anderson, one of the Secre- 
taries in Boston. I cannot say that they throw much light upon the 
well-known Researches in Palestine, but it is more than possible that 
they will interest those members of the Society who regard the journey 
of Robinson and Smith as an epoch-making expedition. Some extracts 
from this correspondence I therefore present to the Society, in com- 
memoration of the life which began one hundred years since. 

Here is added also the substance of President W. Hayes Ward's 
address at the meeting in Boston last year (April 7th, 1893 : see 
the Proceedings of that meeting, p. vi). 

A few gentlemen held an informal meeting, fifty years ago last 
August [1842], in the office of John Pickering, of Boston, to consider the 
practicability of organizing an American Oriental Society. They ap- 
pointed a Committee to draft a constitution. They met again in the 
same place on the 7th of September, when the draft was reported, 
amended, and adopted. Again they adjourned till October 18th, when 
the organization was perfected by the election of John Pickering as 
President; William Jenks, Moses Stuart, and Edward Robinson as 
Vice-Presidents ; William W. Greenough as Corresponding Secretary ; 
Francis Gardner as Recording Secretary and Librarian : and John James 
Dixwell as Treasurer. The incorporators were John Pickering, William 
Jenks, and John J. Dixwell. The first Directors were Rufus Anderson, 
Bamas Sears, C. C. Felton, Sidney Willard, and Bela B. Edwards, and 
the object of the Society was stated to be the cultivation of learning in 
the Asiatic, African, and Polynesian languages. 

I ask you now to stop for a moment and look at those names. You 
will notice, in the first place, that they do not represent particularly 
either Harvard College or Tale College. Professor Felton's name is a 
famous one in the history of Harvard, but he was a Grecian, and his 



Ix American Oriental Society^ 8 Proceedings, March 1894, 

own studies were not especially in the line of those of the Society of 
which he was made one of the original Directors. Yale was not rep- 
resented at all. It was inevitable that John Pickering should be 
elected first President of the American Oriental Society. It was to hia 
initiative and that of Rev. Dr. Jenks* that its organization was due. 
He was for the first two or three years of its existence its life and soul. 
Mr. Pickering was — more, perhaps, than any other man we have ever 
had — our admirable Crichton, or Mezzofanti. He was, according to 
Charles Sunmer, ^* familiar with the English, French, Portuguese, 
Italian, Spanish, Grerman, Romaic, Greek, and Latin languages ; less 
familiar, but acquainted, with Dutch, Swedish, Danish, and Hebrew ; 
and he had explored, with various degrees of care, Arabic, Turkish, 
Syriac, Persian, Ck>ptic, Sanskrit, Chinese, Cochin-Chineee, Russian, 
Egyptian hieroglyphics, Malay in several dialects, and particularly the 
Indian languages of America and the Polynesian islands." 

He was invited by Harvard College to the chair of Hebrew, and 
afterward of Greek, and declined both. He was pioneer in the study 
of the languages and antiquities of our American Indians. He wrote 
numerous books and papers, of which the one which will now be best 
remembered is his dictionary of the Greek language. Pickering's 
Lexicon succeeded Hedericus and Schrevelius in the use of our schools 
in the first half of the century, and did not lose its currency even down 
to the time when Liddell and Scott took and possessed the field. He 
was also a lawyer in full practice, City Solicitor for Boston, State Sen- 
ator, and reviser and editor of the Statutes of Massachusetts. Such 
a man was a whole Oriental Society in himself, and his decease so 
soon after its organization seemed at first to be fatal to its survival. 

The two oldest foreign Missionary Societies were very definitely rep- 
resented in the two directors Rufus Anderson and Bam as Sears. It 
was more than anything else to provide a place where the grammatical, 
geographical, and historical studies of missionaries could be received 
and published, that the American Oriental Society was founded. 

Rufus Anderson was the most distinguished director of missionary 
work that this country has ever seen. He was a tall, smooth-shaven, 
very dignified and very positive man, and made one great mistake in 
the conduct of the mission work under his charge. He undervalued 
the direct and indirect work of education, and to this day the injury 
is felt which resulted from his suppressing certain advanced schools 
after his visit to India. While he was not a contributor himself of 
articles to be read at the meetings of the Society, his hearty oodpera- 
tion was of great value, as encouraging the missionaries under his 
care to prepare and send valuable contributions. 

Barnas Sears, Professor in Newton Theological Seminary, was closely 
related to the second foreign Missionary Society organized in this coun- 
try, and which found its field in what was tlien the almost utterly un- 
known land of Burmah. But to the public Barnas Sears was known as 

* See Proceedings for May, 1875, p. iii (Journal, vol. x., p. cix). 



JPf'esident Ward's Address in 1893, Ixi 

one of the very foremost representatives of education in this country, 
not simply as connected with seminary or college, but by his activity 
in all matters which concerned public education. He was no more of 
an Orientalist than Dr. Rufus Anderson, but his sympathy was genuine 
and his help hearty. 

An entirely different class of men was represented by Moses Stuart, 
Edward Robinson, and Bela B. Edwards. These men were scholars 
such as we cannot easily equal, the men who first introduced our 
youth to German learning. Moses Stuart was the pioneer of Hebrew 
studies in America, Professor of Hebrew at Andover Seminary, a man 
of free, open, and honest mind, thoroughly devoted to the truth, the 
author of excellent Hebrew grammars and Chrestomathies, and of 
numerous able commentaries and learned discussions and excursuses. 
If any man in this country was the morning star of Oriental learning, 
it was Moses Stuart, a man far in advance of his day. I never saw him, 
although I learned as a boy to believe him the chief of American schol- 
ars, and I went to Andover Academy in time to hear, ten years after 
the organization of the Society, the commemorative funeral discourse 
preached at the opening of the term following his death. As might be 
expected, he was a theologian as well as an Orientalist ; but his singu- 
larly candid mind always put him in advance of the conservatives of 
his day, although I remember that it did not prevent him from defend- 
ing the paternal institution of African slavery against the intemperate 
attacks of the troublesome Abolitionists. 

Edward Robinson was a younger man, who lived for a while in Pro- 
fessor Stuart*s family, and was induced by him to devote himself to 
Oriental studies. He was then in the prime of his power, and had the 
year before published his famous '* Biblical Researches'' in Germany 
and the United States. His edition of Gtesenius' Hebrew Lexicon had 
not yet appeared, nor his Hebrew grammar. The young Hebrew stu- 
dents of the day still used Stuart's Grammar and Chrestomathy, and 
Gibbs's Lexicon. I well remember Edward Robinson, and indeed I 
recited to him a few times while he was still teaching in Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, but in feeble health, in 1857. He was a bluff, some- 
what gruff man, strongbodied and large, with a kind heart under a 
rough exterior. I recall a recitation in the Harmony of the Gospels— 
for at this time he had ceased to teach the Old Testament— in which, 
when he had mentioned Good Friday, one of the junior theological stu- 
dents from Puritan New England asked him in perfect innocence, and 
with an ignorance that did not all surprise me, '' What part of the year 
does Good Friday come on?" "Are you," was his severe reply, "from 
Connecticut, and don't you know that Fast Day always comes on Good 
Friday ?" We all of us knew the annual Fast Day, if we did not know 
Good Friday. Moses Stuart and Edward Robinson were the fathers of 
a real school of Hebrew students, and he created an enthusiasm in Sem- 
itic studies which might have borne much more fruit if the time had 
been ripe for it, as it was ripe when men of our own day created a new 
interest in the same studies. But then little advance seemed possible. 
There was no key to the Semitic problems. Scholars seemed able to 



Ixii American Oriental Society*s Proceedings^ March 1894, 

go only round and round in the same circle, and so enthusiasm was 
soon dampened. Besides, the key to Aryan lang^uages was then found 
in the new study of Sanskrit, which attracted all the attention of our 
ambitious young men. And yet Moses Stuart and Edward Robinson 
were pioneers to whom we cannot give too much credit. Even the best 
methods of modern teaching were not unfamiliar to them. The Sem- 
inary method, of which we make so much, was familiar to them, if I 
may judge from a single specimen of their labors which I found a day 
or two ago in looking over some pamphlets belonging to my father, 
who was one of Moses Stuart's pupils, and a member of the class which 
prepared this pamphlet. It is a collection of all the quotations in the 
New Testament, arranged in parallel columns, giving the Hebrew and 
Septuagint forms from the Old Testament, with the quotations as they 
stand in the New Testament, and prepared by the junior class of Ando- 
ver Theological Seminary, under the superintendence of Moses Stuart, 
and published in 1827. The texts of both Greek and Hebrew are the 
latest and best available, the Septuagint being taken from that of the 
Vatican manuscript. 

Bela 6. Edwards, another of Moses Stuart's pupils, was a yet younger 
man, and a very brilliant scholar ; but he died at an earlier age. I will 
not stop to recount his career and character, but I have mentioned 
these men as the typical Oriental scholars of their time. All that the 
schools of the day could do for Oriental studies was to teach Hebrew 
to theological students, with a little Syriac to those who wanted it. 

It is at first surprising that, with so many theological seminaries, 
every one of which had a professor of Hebrew, there was so little done 
worth recording. It was only a very few enterprising men like Moses 
Stuart and Edward Robinson that attempted anything new and credit- 
able ; the rest simply taught the dry rules of grammar, as the grammar 
gave it, to their pupils. There was not a professor of any Semitic lan- 
guage in any of our colleges or universities, with the sole remarkable 
exception, soon to be mentioned, of Edward E. Salisbury in Yale Col- 
lege. Indeed, there was no professor of Arabic in Harvard, our oldest 
University, until, not many years ago, our own Professor Toy was 
called to the chair of Semitics. The reason is clear — the time was not 
ripe for any unifying principles which should give basis for compara- 
tive study. Among the Aryan languages. Comparative Grammar was 
in its infancy ; and outside of that family, where the key had been 
found in Sanskrit, it was unknown. 

I have said that the organization of the American Onental Society 
was perfected at the October meeting in 1842 by the election of the first 
board of ofiicers. At the next May meeting, in 1 843, the President 
read an admirable introductory address, in which he outlined the pur- 
poses of the Society and the advantages which it possessed, and then 
gave a general view of the progress of Oriental studies up to that time. 
One who now observes that our country is full of young and ambitious 
scholars devoted to these studies in our institutions of learning will be 
surprised to see that it was not to such men that our first President 
looked for the learned papers which should justify the existence of the 



President WarcTs Address in 1893, Ixiii 

Society, but chiefly to the missionaries in foreign lands. It was they 
only, or travelers like Edward Robinson, that seemed to have any 
opportunity to make original researches. We must look, he said, to 
the ** intelligent and energetic American missionaries and scholars 
who are now spread over some of the most interesting regions of the 
civilized Elast and of uncivilized Polynesia." There are, he added, 
'* more American missionaries masters of these languages than of any 
other nation on the globe." On these men he depended; but he 
pointed witli special pride to the monumental work of BMward Robin- 
son, issued the year before. Then he cast his eye over the entire globe, 
but stopped a moment in Egypt, where, he said, it is now proved that 
history goes back as far as the nineteenth century before Christ, in 
Carthage, Phenicia, Asia Minor, in tlie Nestorian country of Persia, 
where Justin Perkins had honorable mention, and in Mesopotamia, 
whose records were yet unexcavated. 

It is interesting, now that Cuneiform literature holds so prominent 
a place in our studies, to hear President Pickering speak thus of the 
few cuneiform inscriptions then known, mostly from Persia: "The 
eminent Dr. Grotefend, of Frankfort, has recently applied himself to 
the task of deciphering them, and his success thus far does the greatest 
credit to his learning and sagacity." Only the Persepolitan was known, 
and the angular style of the writing shows, said he, that the cuneiform 
characters were used ** exclusively for the purpose of engraving on 
stone, and were never intended for the ordinary purposes of writing." 
It is evident that libraries of cuneiform writing to be unburied in every 
ancient city were then unimagined. Not yet were the names of 
Rawlinson, Oppert, Hincks, and Norris known to the world. 

After going the circuit of the East and of Polynesia, attracted to the 
latter region by the labors of the missionaries in the Sandwich Islands, 
President Pickering makes one observation which was a prophecy, and 
which anticipated what proved to be almost a complete revolution in 
the work of the Society and in the linguistic scholarship of the country. 
These words deserve to be quoted. He says (JAOS. i. 42) : 

"It is a high gratification to every American, who values the reputa- 
tion of his native land, to know, that some of our young countrymen are 
now residing in Germany — that genial soil of profound learning— with a 
view to the acquisition of the Sanscrit language ; and that we shall 
one day have the fruits of their learning among us." 

To this was appended the following note : 

** Since this Address was delivered, one of our countrymen has 
returned from Germany, with a rich coUection of Oriental manuscripts 
(formerly in De Sacy's library), and a valuable body of works in Sans- 
crit literature ; which, it is said, are to accompany him to the ancient 
and respectable College at New Haven." 

That young man was Edward E. Salisbury, who had gone to Tale 
College to take the chair of the Sanskrit and Arabic languages, and alflo 
was destined to become very soon after this the Corresponding Secre- 
tary, and to take on his willing and capable shoulders the burden of the 
Society, to prepare or secure its papers, and to pay the expense of their 



Ixiv American Oriental Society^ Proceedings^ March 1894. 

publication. That chief burden he bore until, in 1857, he succeeded in 
shifting the responsibility of the office upon William D. Whitney, the 
most distinguished scholar among all the names on our records. 

Such was the origin of the American Oriental Society in 1842, just 
twenty years after the organization of the Asiatic Society of France, 
and nineteen years after the organization of the Royal Asiatic Society of 
England. The German Oriental Society, it may surprise us to recEdl, 
was organized in Dresden in 1844, two years after the American Orien- 
tal Society, and the first number of its Zeitschrift, issued in 1846. has 
an article on Oriental studies in America, prepared, I think, by Bela B. 
Edwards, in which a very handsome tribute is paid to the excellent 
work of Edward Robinson, EH Smith, and others, and mention is made 
of the publications of this Society and of the excellent introductory ad- 
dress of Bir. Pickering, whose death is lamented, as he was the life of 
the Society, and it had seemed to be in a state of suspended animation 
since his decease. 

The first article in the first issue of the Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, following the President's address, is on Buddhism, 
and is by Edward E. Salisbury. Every other article in this volume — 
and the same is very nearly true of the second— is by some American mis- 
sionary. One of these, on the Zulu language, is by Lewis Grout, and 
it is a remarkable fact that he ofl^ers an article for this meeting on a 
kindred topic. In vol. iv. there are twelve articles, ten by missionaries, 
one by Edward R Salisbury, and one by William D. Whitney. Professor 
Whitney's first contribution to our Journal is in the Second Fart of 
vol. iiL and is on '* the Main Results of the Later Yedic Reeearchee in 
Germany." 

Such was, in brief, the condition of Oriental studies in the United 
States during the first four years after the organization of the Ameri- 
can Oriental Society. Then followed immediately what we may call 
our Sanskrit era. From this time the two men who carried the Oriental 
Society on their shoulders, and who gave it its fame and glory, were 
Edward E. Salisbury, the elder scholar, and his distinguished pupil, 
WilUam D. Whitney. Philology had found its key. The great school 
of American philologists found their teacher and master at ** the ancient 
and respectable College at New Haven.** The generous expenditure of 
time, lal>or, and money by these two men in behalf of this Society is 
beyond all praise. 

During the season of Saturiiav morning, a telegram was 
recei veil "from Professor Theodore ^. Wright, who had meantime 
retumeil to Cambridge, to the effect that permission had been 
granted by Government to the authorities of the Palestine Explo- 
ratiou Fund to conduct excavations for two vears in Jerusalem. 

Mr. Talcott Williams, a member of the fixecuiive Committer 
OQ the Babylonian Section of the Archaeological Association of 
the UniveraitT of Pennsylvaoia, announced that exploraiions had 
been re^umedl at Xiffer bj Mr. John Henry Haynes, vbo had 
prosecuted the work with great success daring the past yemr» and 
would be kept in the field for a year to come. 



Plan of Sessions, Ixv 

Rev. Dr. Ward presented the following minute, and added 
some fitting words showing how great have been the services of 
Professor Salisbury to the Society. By vote of the Society, the 
minute was adopted for record and for transmission to Professor 
Salisbury. 

The American Oriental Society, at it« annual meeting in New York, 
this the thirtieth day of March, 1804, remembering with gratitude 
the eminent services rendered for many years to it, and through it to 
American scholarship, by its oldest living member and most efficient 
founder, Edward Elbridge Salisbury of New Haven, Connecticut, 
desires heartily to congratulate him on occasion of his eightieth 
birthday, now almost attained, and to express its fervent wish that 
he may long continue to encourage and aid it with his interest and 
his counsels. 

In the program for the meeting, the Corresponding Secretary 
had ventured to insert the following paragraph : 

The plan of the sessions allows about nine hours for the presentation 
of communications. It is evident that, in fairness to all, no one 
speaker has a right to more than fifteen minutes for the presentation 
of any one single communication. It is, moreover, palpably inappro- 
priate to read a long or a highly technical paper before persons of so 
varied interests as are they who now compose the Society. It is there- 
fore suggested that in case of such papers no attempt be made to read 
the manuscript ; but that a resume of the paper be given, along with a 
brief account of the methods employed in reaching the conclusions. 
It is believed that the results of an enforcement of such a rule on the 
part of the presiding officer would commend the rule to the hearty 
approval of the Society. 

The suggestion was in fact adopted as a rule, and was enforced 
with all desirable strictness by the Chair, and with excellent 
effect. If a continuance of this rule should also prove effectual, 
for a time at least, in staving off what is proposed as an other- 
wise inevitable division of the Society into Aryan and Semitic 
sections for the reading of papers, no one can doubt that we 
should all be the gainers. 

The suggestion was made that all papers be handed in some 
weeks prior to the meeting and distributed in print to the 
members before they leave their homes, so that the time now 
devoted to reading might be free for discussion ; but such a 
course would appear for the present hardly feasible. 

The Society held four formal sessions, all in the Room of the 
Trustees of Columbia College. The afternoon sessions of Thurs- 
day and Fridav began at about three o'clock ; and the morning 
sessions of Friday and Saturday, at about half-past nine. To 
break the continuity of the sessions, several recesses of five 
minutes were taken. Between the morning and afternoon ses- 
sions of Friday, certain New Tork members entertained the 

VOL. XVI. H 



Ixvi American Oriental Sodety^s Proceedings^ March 1894. 

Society at luncheon at No. 54 East Forty-ninth Street, opposite 
the College. On Friday evening, at about seven o'clock, some 
thirty-five members dined together at Hotel Wellington. Both on 
on Thursday evening, and also on Friday evening after the dinner, a 
very considerable number of the members met informally in a pleas- 
ant hall, and spent several hours in agreeable social intercourse. 

It was voted that the thanks of the Society be sent to the 
authorities of Columbia College for their hospitality, and to the 
Committee of Arrangements for their work, which accomplished 
much for the comfort and pleasure of the members and for the 
success of the meeting. 

Final adjournment was bad on Saturday at 12.35 p. m. 



The following communications were presented : 

1. Report of progress of work upon Buddhaghosa's Visuddhi- 
Magga ; by Henry C. Warren, of Cambridge, Mass. 

Several years ago I 'began to make translations from the Buddhist 
Scriptures as contained in the Pali language. My plan was by a series 
of translations to present Buddhist doctrine in Buddhist phraseology, 
so to speak. The work has proved very pleasant. The thoughts, the 
dialectic, the point 'of view, the whole mental and moral atmosphere 
in which one is immersed, in the study of native Buddhist texts, are 
each and all so different from anything to which we Occidentals are 
accustomed, and so much that seemed important truth rewarded my 
search, that, though the work has grown but slowly, my interest has 
never flagged. 

In order the better to carry out my plan of giving a consistent view 
of Buddhist teaching, it was necessary to consult and, if possible^ 
master Buddhaghosa's Visuddhi-Magga. Buddhaghosa was a Buddhist 
convert who flourished in the fourth century of our era. He wrote in 
Pali, and his masterpiece is, no doubt, this same Visuddhi-Magga, which, 
being interpreted, is * The Way of Purity,' or * The Way of Salvation.* 
This Visuddhi>Magga is a treasure-house of Buddhist doctrine, and 
elaborates in an orderly, systematic manner the Buddhist plan of sal- 
vation. 

As the Visuddhi-Magga, however, is only to be had in native manu- 
script, I had recourse to one owned by Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids^ 
Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society, and began to transcribe. It 
seems almost impossible to understand a Pali work written on palm- 
leaves until it has first been transcribed. The natives do not divide 
the words, and they make use of almost no devices to help the eye, so 
that it becomes a question of spelling one's way along letter by letter, 
and it is hardly possible to read currently. Accordingly I was obliged 
to copy, and to copy not once but a number of times, and thus I found 
myself editing the VisuddhL In order to better the readings of the 
passages I wanted to translate, I obtained from Rev. Richard Morris, 
of England, another palm-leaf manuscript, written like the first one, 
in the Singhalese character. As these two manuscripts, however. 



Warren^ Buddhaghosa^a Viauddhi-Magga, Ixvi 

were very similar, and repeated each other's. mistakes, and as I now 
felt myself fairly embarked on the task of editing the Visuddhi, I 
borrowed the copy belonging to the India Office Library of London, 
England. This is a very correct manuscript in large Burmese charac- 
ters, and on it I rely as much as on both the others put together. 
Lastly, a fourth manuscript has just been received, written like the 
India Office Library copy in the Burmese character, and, so far as I have 
yet had opportunity to judge, with very similar readings. 

Thus the volume of translations and the editing of the Visuddhi 
have gone on hand in hand ; but the volume of translations, as having 
been first undertaken, I am intending to publish first. In fact, the 
first chapter is being printed, and the electroplates made ; but the next 
three chapters occasion me more difficulty, and are still in a backward 
condition. As they are largely of a philosophical character, and 
contain with the fifth and last chapter what will make some seventy- 
five printed pages of translations from the Visuddhi ; and as, moreover, 
there is much of a technical nature in the Visuddhi which must be 
mastered in order to understand the thought, my progress in my 
volume of translations is conditioned by my comprehension of the 
Visuddhi ; and, per contra, in order to edit properly I must understand 
what I am editing, and to that end translation is greatly helpful. 
Thus I do not find it advantageous to let one undertaking far outrun 
the other, and hence also it seems impossible at present to fix the date 
when either one will be finished. However, two complete type- 
written copies of the Visuddhi have been made, and about a third of 
another one. My design is to have this third copy be the last, for there 
would appear to be no need of a fourth complete revision. Therefore 
I am in hopes that, when this third copy is finished and the various 
readings have been affixed, it will be fit to send to the printers. 

2. On the Sacrifices ^^3 and 'j^D ti^tff in the Marseilles 
Inscription ; by Professor George A. Barton, of Bryn Mawr Col- 
lege,- Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

It will be remembered that in the Marseilles inscription mention is 
made of three different kinds of sacrifices, which are respectively called 

bb'^ 1 njTlS , and *?*?D D*?B^ • Of these, the HJ^IS is sufficiently 
explained in the Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. The exact mean- 
ing of the other two is, however, much debated. 

As to ^^2 , Vogti6 and Blau think this word an adjective descrip- 
tive of the tlhH , corresponding to the Hebrew D^DH • Th© following 
uses of the word in Hebrew may be urged in support of this opinion : 
y?3 *3 n*£)* * ^^y beauty for it was perfect,* Eze. xvi. 14 ; n^^JS 
♦£)♦ * perfect in beauty,* Eze. xxvii. 3. This view is, however, shown to 

be incorrect by the inscription itself ; for we have in 1. 3. *?*?33 , in 
the case of a *7*73 , where ^7^^ is evidently the name of a sacrifice. 
Saulcy, Munk, Schrdder, Meier, Hal^vy, and the editors of the Corpua 
are therefore in the right when they maintain that there are three sac- 



Ixviii Americafi Oriental Society's PtoceedingSy March 1894, 

rifices, and not two only, mentioned here. The Corpus translates ^^f^^ 
'holocaust/ and in this follows the Hehrew usage. Cf. Lev. vi. 15, 
IDpD ^^^2 nln**? * it shall be to Yah we a holocaust, burned as 
in^nse ;' LeV. W 16, ^^Hn N*? iTHD ^^^2 THb HTOD-^JDI 
' every minkhath of the priest shall be a holocaust ; it shall not be 

eaten;' Deut. xiii. 17, Ham ry^D-^H Y^PD n^lif-^^'Htf^ 

mn*'? '7^^2 nb'7tif-^3-ni<'\ Tirrr-nx cns nfl"iBn ' and it. 

T - • T T T : T V : "^ T V •• T T : - T : 

spoil thou shalt gather together unto the midst of the street, and thou 
shalt bum the city with fire ; it is a holocaust to Yah we ;* 1 Sam. vii. 9, 

rriiT'? b'b2 nb'iy r^by^^ nna 2bn n'jta 'jwotr m^^ • and 

Samuel took a fat Iamb, and offered it as a burnt offering, a holocaust 
to Yah we.* 

From these examples it is clear that ^^^ means ' holocaust ' in 
Hebrew, and there are no Hebrew examples to be adduced on the other 
side. It does not, however, follow from this that it had the same 
meaning in Phoenician. Indeed, our present inscription abundantly 
proves that it did not have that meaning. It prescribes that in the case 
of an ox as a ^^3 the priest should have three hundred shekels of 
flesh,* and that in the case of a calf as a ^^^ he should have one hun- 
dred and fifty shekels of flesh. Whence was the flesh to come, if not 
from the victim ? Moreover, the hide, the viscera, the feet, and the 
rest of the flesh went to the owner of the sacrifice. Whether the owner 
offered all this as a burnt offering, or retained a portion for himself, 
does not appear. It may be supposed that he offered it, but this cannot 
be proved. When the victims were smaller animals, as rams, lambs, 
kids, and birds, the priest received a money-payment only. Were these 
then real holocausts? It is uncertain ; for in some cases, as when the 
victim was a lamb or a kid, the hide etc. went to the worshiper. 

When the victim was an ox or a calf, therefore, we are sure that the 
offering was not a holocaust ; and we cannot be sure that it was so in 
all the other cases. 

It appears, therefore, that the ^^0 did not signify a holocaust, but 
was a technical name for a sacrifice the exact nature of which is not 
yet known. 

Is the nature of the ^^2 D'jtJ^ clear? In this phrase the 0*?^ 
appears to have been the name of the sacrifice, and the ^^ an adjec- 
tive describing it. If so, the adjective meant * complete * or * whole,' if 
we may reason from Hebrew analogy. 

The root-meaning of Ohti^ ^as *be whole.* If etymology were, 
therefore, to have any weight, we should conclude that this sacrifice 
was designed to renew the bond of union between the worshiper and 



* It is true that this statement rests on an emended passage of the text, but of 
the correctness of the emendation there can be no doubt. The reasons for it are 
imtent to all, and in it all agree. 



Barton^ On Sacrifices in the Marseilles Lucription. Ixix 

his god. Among the Hebrews the etymological meaning is supported 
by several statements of the literature. For example, Deut. xxvii. 7, 

n^^*?^t mn* ♦ja*? nnoe^i Dtr' n*?DNi D^o*?ty' nnax^ ' sacn- 

f V V T : •• : • T : - T : t t : - t : • t : t : - t : 

flee 0^12hti^t and eat there, and rejoice before Yah we thy God.' Here 
D*0 /B^ >s a survival of the old commensal idea of sacrifice. Lev. xix. 

5 reads mnam DDJih'? nin**? D'd7t:f nar mam oi ' when 

"^•« ••• I •• • •• • 

ye offer sacrifices of D^D'^B^ ^^ Yahwe, ye shall offer them that ye 
may be accepted.' From Lev. iii. 8, vii. 31, etc., we learn that the fat 
of the D*?tl^ was burned on the altar, and the inwards without the 
camp, and that the fiesh was eaten. Lev. vii. 11-21 divides the 
D^D*?{J^ into thank-offerings and vow-offerings : cf. Prov. vii. 14. 
Whether a similar ritual existed, and similar distinctions held, in Plioe- 
nicia, we have no means of knowing. The analogy of *7*73 as a sacri- 
fice would lead us to think not. The term D*?{J^ has disappeared from 
the Carthage tablet. We have also no means of determining the exact 
force of '?*?3 in the compound expression. It may have applied either 
to the victim, implying that the whole was a D*?tJ^, or to the idea of 
the root Chti^, implying that it effected a complete wholeness between 
the god and the worshiper. The former supposition is more in accord- 
ance with the analogies of primitive thought, and is to be preferred. 

3. Description of the Semitic manuscripts in the library of 
the Hartford Theological Seminary ; by Professor Duncan B. 
Macdonald, of Hartford, Conn. 

I. Syriac. 

Four fragments of lectionaries (P*shita and Harqlensian text), all in 
very similar hands, closely resembling Plate VII. in the facsimiles 
given in Wright's Cat. of the Syr. Mas. in the Brit, Mus., but more 
regular and angular. They resemble, also, but by no means so closely, 
Plate XIV., being much finer in outline and not so clumsy. 

A. A double leaf of vellum, not the inner leaf of a gathering ; double 
cols.; 43 X 81,* written part 26 x 20, between cols. 2.5 ; a full line aver- 
ages 11 letters ; single point punctuation and colored ornaments : Harq. 
text. 

F. la. — John xv. 26-xvi. 8 ; then l^^ca.^ I^^i) coio (colored orna- 



ment across page) l^^^f ^'')''^? t ^ ^ ^ r**? V^^'f9 . 
b. — Ck)lored ornament across page, then ^^ ^'''*'^? i^^^^f^ ^^? 

F. 2«.— tcaXs 1^3^? )£.^Z? Ui^^i-.? Uifii? ; Luke v. 17-20. 

6.— Luke V. 20-25. 

B. A fragment cut out apparently for the sake of a painting of Christ 
raising the dead, which fills one side. On the other, in double cols., 
Luke xxiv. 4-6, 0-10. Breadth of written portion 21, between cols. 2.5 ; 



* All measurements are given in centimetres. 



Ixx American Oriental Society*s Proceedings, Marc/i 1894- 

a full line averages 11 letters ; single point punctuation ; small orna- 
ments between verses 4 and 5, and 10 . Qarq. text. 

C. A single vellum leaf, much shriveled and damaged by fire ; double 
cols.; written portion 28 x 19, between cols. 1 ; a full line averages 11 
letters ; single point punctuation ; rubrics in red and gold ; P*8blt& 
text. 

a. — ^▲[^1^ a].i ^ I s^o]9 ijL^fJi I > hn^m^, ym^ I ^)9 . John xii. 

12-17. 

h, — John xii. 17-22 ; at foot of col. 2 a rubric of 8 lines, but much 
damaged. 

D. A single vellum leaf ; double cols. ; 48 x 32, written portion 80 x 21, 
between cols. 2.5 ; a full line averages 10 letters ; single point punctua- 
tion ; rubrics and colored ornaments : Harq. text. 

g.— [?j| niriV) l^ol^ ^ . Luke xiii. 22-28. 

b, — Luke xiii. 28-30 ; then, in a small hand, \ 4Nni> <n^9 ^'r^^f "^r-^ 
I lib? (along margin ^xpn>S>m*">o). Then, in a larger hand, I V ■ ! . n 

. ^^Q^is )^®^? I >e^ ^jiLik^y^J^) I I^^cj99, then, at head of col. 2, John 

iv.46-50. 
Marginal readings : in Luke xiii. 25, fS ^ne for ^^ >«-^^1 ; in John 

iv. 47, ]ooi wja^i^ for )coi i-^-jc^ • 

[It may, perhaps, serve as an explanation of so elaborate a descrip- 
tion of such small fragments, that they are to be regarded as specimens 
from an as yet untouched collection in Kurdistan. So far as the evi- 
dence goes, we may have here a new find of 8th Centiiry MSS. : and, as 
efforts are being made to get at them, further information may be 
looked for.] 



II. Arabic. 

1. Kufi Quran fragment. 

One very large oblong vellum leaf, written on both sides but mounted 
in such a manner that only the writing on one side is accessible ; size 
of leaf as it remains, 54.5 x 49, of written part 48 x 45.5 ; 25 lines ; a 
rounded regular hand, sloped slightly backwards, and with much 
closer resemblances to Plate LIX. in the Palseographical Society's Fac- 
similes (dated by Wright in the 8th century) than to any other KiXfi 
text I have seen ; but it is firmer and more rounded, and the slope back- 
wards is not so marked ; it is absolutely different from the usual stiff 
artificial Kufi ; words divided between lines ; at the end of line 13 there 
is a little stroke to fill out the line, thus % , and the rest of the word, 

l^jo , comes in the next line ; no vowels ; diacritical points sparingly 

given, in the shape of short slanting lines ; and divisions of verses are 
similarly marked (except end of verse 95, where there is no mark); but 
all these are apparently later additions, for the ink is much blacker and 
fresher; terminal ornament to 1. 14 (end of v. 92)— this certainly by 
original hand, and just before it stand three slanting lines belonging to 



MiMcdoncUdf Semitic Manuscripts cU Hartford. Ixxt 

the later verse divisions ; the page that is accessible contains Sura xi., 

V. 86, jj*.UJI L[-k**dCLoV]^, to V. 98, ^Jk^ Ijau ; there is no ruling 

visible. 

There are the following differences of orthography from the Qur'&u 
text as given in Flugel and in Fleischer*s Bai(f&wl (compare generally 
Ndldeke, Oeschichte des QormiSj pp. 248 ff.): The alif of prolongation 

is omitted in LlJIpil 1. 5, I^aJLLI 1. 8, " ^SLoVl 1. 9, ILo 1. 12, 

Cjllii-J 1. 16, IXjoIXo 1. 20, vLiK' 1. 21, .T^ji^L^ 1. 25, and in all 
the cases of the vocative U , viz. 11. 8, 6, 10, 15, 17, 19 ; the alif with 
hamza is omitted in JlJO M 1. 6 (Nold. , p. 254); in 1. 8 pi^\ and m 1. 16 
db^ are written for jJ^LoJl and 0ICjJ ; in 1. 5 S^^y (accepting 
the later diacritical points) is read for iUwO in Bai^awfs text, but he 



gives iUyJ as a various reading (compare alsoNdld., p. 258) ; but in the 
text given with the Calcutta edition of az-Zamakhsharfs Kashshdf 

several of these words are written as in this fragment— i_JL—A-A-3' , 
^^, 1^, J^, ^j^, >iW=y , |iUX-^.^;l and jinallthe 

cases of the vocative ; in the Qur'an lithographed by Drugulin in 1890 
from a MS. of A. H. 1094 I find the first three of these, and the first 
two are in the Qur'au MS. of A. H. 978 in the Seminary library. I give 
these details as an addition to the growing proof of our need of a relia- 
ble Qur'an text. No one could describe FiageFs edition as reliable, and 
Fleischer edited Bai^awl, not the Qur*an. The following extracts from 



p. 167 of the ^^yXi\ ^^ (^cXa^ >*^wJI ^SAyS^\ ^ AAjJI ouufc 
^aaJ^La-^I (on the margin of Ibn al-Qa^ibi's Ck>mmentary on the Shdti- 
tHya, Cairo, A. H. 1304) may be of interest as to two of the above read- 
ings : 1^1^ auuUJI JltX^b ^y^^ u^r^' '/ (^-^' ^'-^) 

^f^L U;ft ^L&J ^^y ^^ V JwJi ^ |*4^*'rt • ^^ P- ^® ^ ^^^ * 

4^1aJCJI ^V\*nA he explains : Xaa^ (C^^^ ^ju^jyOwrlU ic^U 



Ixxii American OrierUcU Society^s Proceedings, March 1894. 

^y>LJt^ L^UumL, ,|^_JL-e, ^^ U(X«Ai lijf L^ljot 

»l •• •• •• 

2. Qur'an of A. H. 978. 

Carefully written on Oriental glazed paper ; fully pointed and, gener- 
ally, with the ivaqf signs (Kosegarten, Oramm, arab., p. 88 ; Diction- 
ary of the technical terms ttsed in the sciences of the Musalmans, pp. 
1498-1500 ; as-Suytiti, *Itqdn, Calc. edit., pp. 195 ff.; Cairo edit, of A. fl. 
1806, pp. 87 ff.; Nold., Gesch., pp. 352 ff.). Consists at present of 829 
leaves, but one is missing between F. 3^6 and F. 327 (contained Suras 
xciii. — xcvi.): gatherings @ 5, but so many leaves have been mounted 
that the later gatherings cannot be distinguished ; size of page, 
20.5 X 15 ; of written parts, 18.5 x 7.5 ; 13 U. to the page ; catchwords 
to leaves ; no ruling visible ; Sura titles, sections, and pausal signs in 
red ; has been carefully collated, with corrections on margin ; on 6 of 

last leaf came last words of (mUJI Ssm; , and an Arabic-Turkish 

«k <«a OS 



colophon: aJUl (J^l? (sic) A^ y^^j o°o (j*'^^}!^ i^^' (j^ 

^4>^ r^r?' 7^' [^^1 *^^ i-ftji-^t ^Iju Jjl jU^^ ^I 
^ ^^y siiJ3 ^^ &AkLJt ^<X? ur*.U4jLj ijbuJ ^L? 
auU ^^ ^J^^*'^-*' ^US 9J^ ^y^ ^ JJVI ^^ Jot^l 

stamped oriental leather binding ; bookplate with D. G. lOHANNElS 
WILHELMUS D. S. I. C. M. A. & W. | EX BIBLIOTHECA SERENIS- 
SlUM DOMUS I SAXO-ISENACENSIS. 

3. Al-Ghazzali (*Abu Hamid Muhammad b. M. b. M.) ash-Shafi'i— 
Minhdj aWAbidin, and three books of the '//lyd al- Ulum. A. H. 850. 

Written in a legible hand on Oriental glazed paper, without vowels. 



but with many diacritical points ; rulings with dry point (the S JaJLo ?), 

as also slanting on the margin for notes ; many marginal notes and 
corrections ; catchwords to leaves ; sect ion- titles and divisions in red : 
174 leaves ; 17 gatherings @ 5 + 1 @ 2(?) ; the second leaves of the first 
and last gatherings are lost ; leaves la and b, 109&, and 173-4a and b 
are blank ; 27 11. to page ; size of page 27 x 18, of written part 17 x 12. 

Contains, on leaves 3-109, §§ 37-40 of ^.^ jJI |»^JU ^IxsJ , being 

the last sections of the 4th Ti^i^Ll^LJI mJ\) and last quarter of the 
work : compare Gosche, pp. 254 ff . The titles of the sections are : 



MacdoncUdy Semitic Manuscripts at Hartford. Ixxiii 

(87) lUJI v^UT; (38) iLoi ^1, Su^L^JlJI v*-^' ^^^^ T^^^' V^^J 
(40) ScXju L05 v;l9*^I ^i v^Ul5^: they correspond to Vol. iv., pp. 
827— end of Cairo ('Azhariya) edit, of A. H. 1802 ; the beginning of § 37 
is missing down to lUo^L^Jt ^v>ljL) *^ (7*^^ , p. 327, 1. 26 of above 

edit.; on leaves 110-171 is ^jljJuIjlII ^Lojuo v^LaI^, complete down 

to ^UQJ^) ^l« l-^H^^ ' P- ^^> ^* ^ ^^ Cairo (Maimuniya) edit, of A. H. 

1805 ; the closing four lines and the colophon were on the lost leaf, 172 ; 
on leaf 109a is colophon to the ''Ihya al- Uhlm (in this and in other 
notes I supply diacritical points, which are 'mostly lacking) : 



On the margin there comes in the same hand : 
xJUu SJuuLit ^(> -^ ^j,ijJ»A ^^c\A■ ^\Laj ^^' ^1 



On the blank pages there are seyeral notes scribbled in very illegible 
hands, of which the following may be of some interest : 

.... » JJD . . . . ^ ^Jjl ^^^ ^UJI ^aAJI ^^J ^^JJI 

JLu- ^^ ^ 0^1 v«**.; ^ ^ ^^U ^^\ j.^ ^jjt 

SJUJ U-Lfl lyU iJUt sL^t XjLc ^Ui'j c^^'Ur.'^ (C^^^f 

jJJI ^4-i vj"'/'^^ y-joLa. pJ;LSJ ^aJLiJI v; *^ **^' 



Ixxiv Americ<zn Oriented Society^s JhroceedingSj March 1894. 

This Tolume has apparently been a Waqf at one time ; for on leaf la 
stands dLu (•I>aj v.^« . On the same page : £z bibliotheca ducali 

Hilpertohusana. Stamped oriental leather binding ; book-plate as No. 2. 

4-5. Al-ldrisi (the Sharif *Abu <Abd Allah b. Mu^^ammad b. M. b. 
'Abd Allah b. Idris)— iViiz^^ al-mushtdq fl ikhtirdq al-'dfOq. 

A very careful collation (with Roman abridgment ' e typographia 
Medicea,' 1592?) of the Oxford MSS., Pococke 875 and Qrav. 42, 
DCCCLXXXIV. and DCCCLXXXVn., in Bibl Bodl, Cat. Vol. I., p. 192. 
The collator was Rev. Oeorge Cecil Renouard, and in the second vol- 
ume the date 13 Aug., 1828, is given. At the end of the first volume is 
the following note : Eztraits du traite de geographic d'Edrisi d'apres les 
deux exemplaires de la biblioth^ue d'Oxford, et collation de quelques 
passages des deux manuscrits, par le r^v^rend Oeorge Cecil Renouard, 
qui avait enterpris une ^ition du texte arabe avec une version anglaise. 
C'est ici le premier volume. Les deux volumes m*ont k^ik offerts par 
M. Renouard le 80 Juin, 1854, dans une lettre dat6e de Swanscombe, 
Dartford, Kent. Reinaud. 

The collation extends over Climate I., parts 1-10, II. 1-7, III. 1-5, 
and rv. 1. Of the Oxford MSS. there have already been used by Dozy 
and de Goeje in the Description de VAfrique et de VEspagne, 
Climates I. 1-5, II. 1-4, III. 1-4, and IV. 1. ; by Gildemeister, in IdriHi 
PalcBstina et Syria (Bonn, 1885 : compare, too, Rosenmidler, Analecta 
arabica III.), in. 5 and IV. 5 (extracts); by Schiaparelli and Amari, in 
Ultalia descritta nel ** Libra del re Ruggero " (Rome, 1883), IV. 2 and 8, 
V. 2 and 8; by Amari, in Biblioteca Arabo-Sicula (Leipzig, 1857), IV. 2. 
This leaves a comparatively small unpublished part for which this col* 

lation is available. In view of Gildemeister's note on p. f A , it may be 

worth mentioning that Renouard read the date of Pococke 375 as A. H. 
960, in opposition to Gagnier's 806 and Uri's 906. Dozy read it as 860. 

From a notice' prefixed to Lee's translation of Ibn Ba^uta (London, 
1829) it would appear that this was a preparation for a translation to be 
published by the Oriental Translation Committee. 

6. Ibn Duraid ('Abu Bakr Mu^mmad b. al-Hasan) SLl-Azdi—Al-qa^" 
da al-maq^ira, 

Az-Zamakhshari (Jar Allah 'Abii-1-Qasim Ma^mud b. 'Umar)— J^t7d6 
aa-Sawabigh fi shark an-nawabigh, 

A carefully written manuscript in a European hand (Schultens*). with 
few vowels. It begins — 

^UiJLaaJI [S)iyo xjlw^ f^^r^ Xm»»<* ^)^ y^^ Sjuuioj 

is^dOXo [the space of a line blank] Hyoj aJJI ycl r^ShJ^ dUUI 



Macdonaldy Semitic Manuscripts at Hartford, Ixxv 
^5^1, UUwJf ^^ ««i1; L4JL? ^^ i;if iUJi b U 

iAAlflJIL, L4!? auAj JUxi^jJI gyLJI ^^ff, SL^ ^ L4JI 

It oy^JLjt 

Thus it is a commentary that follows, and not a , ■■■ ^1*^ : at the end 
is the following colophon : c vij >^^y* y^y*'*^^ *^^ Oy*^ (^ 

The date and the name of the transcriber are the same as those of Cod. 
1073 Warn. (Cat. Bibl. Lugd., Vol. ii., pp. 49ff.) and this maj be from 
that MS. : then the Nawabigh begin : 

i' "3; 

It appears to be a copy of Cod. 814 (8) Warn., leaves 219-343 {Cat. BiM. 
Lugd., Vol. i. [2d edit.], p. 210) ; and contains the text with extracts 

from at-Taftaz&nfs Comm. up to xj'L^PlJb aJL^^I lH^9 ^^ P* ^^^ 
of Schultens' edit. (Lugd. Bat., 1772) ; there it breaks off abruptly, and 
there follows immediately : Explicit MS. CI. Schultensii manu descrip- 
turn nullo finiti operis addito indicio. There are interlinear and mar- 
ginal glosses in Latin. 

7. Al-JurjanI (*Abd al-Qahir b. *Abd ar-Rahman) — Al'awdmil ahmfa. 
With a commentary. Written in at least two generally legible hands, 
on oriental glazed paper, without vowels, but with diacritical points ; 
some marginal corrections ; catchwords to leaves : text sometimes 
underlined in red, sometimes in black, but both irregularly ; 105 leaves ; 
gatherings (a 5 but very irregular; 11 lines to page; size of page 
14.75 X 10.5, of written part 9,5 x 6.5. 

The commentary is anonymous, and in the manuscript catalogues 
accessible to me I can find traces of two other copies only, also anony- 
mous, and both in the ECscurial : see Derenbourg, Les manuscrits arabes 
de VEseiirial, Vol. i., pp. 108-4 ; Casiri, Bihliotheca Arabico-Hispana Es- 
curialensis. Vol. i., p. 40. Casiri gives name of author as Kh&lid b. *Abd 
Allah b. *Abr Bakr al-'An^ari, but apparently through confusion with 
another work in the same volume. It begins after the basmala— 



Ixxvi Americati Oriental Soclety^a Proceedings^ March 1894* 

v-^ ^ J;^ V ^Jy sj*^' UuJU s^a.5 ^J (sic) 2JJI J^l 

4X1^ ^^ (sic) St^JLsJIj 8^La^ UJU pAjJI [Derenb. ^^aaa.] 

JuoLaJU L^%Ju (sic) v«j>JLkj ^jJuJUaJt v:>jlx L4J (V^ ^^^j 

It is incomplete at the end, breaking off abruptly in the treatment of 
the mubtada* and JjLahar at the foot of leaf 105b : 8vaS> mjo IJUuliJI* 

tjv^'/jO XjU ^k^ Fy^T^ J^iO^JuO ^y^yfO fJ^:^ 

The remainder is missing, with the colophon. 

8. Ibn 'Abi 'Usaibi^a (Muwaffaq ad-Din 'Abu l-'Abbas 'Al^mad b. al- 
Qasim b. Khalifa b. Yunus as-Sa'di al-Khazraji) — Kitah'Uyun al-anbd 
fl fabaqat al-*attibd. 

A copy of the Vienna MS. Mxt. 180 (II. 880 No. 1164 in FlGgers Cat.), 
apparently made for Mtiller by Hassan and Lianger. It consists of 848 
large leaves, in 9 fasciculi. On the value of the MS. see MQUer's edit., 
Vol. ii., p. xviii. Further description of this transcript is unnecessary. 

4. Non-Jewish religious ceremonies in the Talmud ; by 
Dr. I. M. Casanowicz, of Washington, D. C. 

The Talmud is not only the storehouse of the Jewish religious and 
mental life for more than seven centuries, but also a panopticon, as it 
were, of the whole ancient world. For just the time which this 
encyclopaedia of the Jewish mental history encompasses, namely from 
the 4th century before to the 4th after Christ, was the period in which 
the Jewish nation was drawn into the circle of the pagan world, not 
only in political life but also in the domain of culture and civilization. 
Long before Palestine was brought under the supremacy of Rome, it 
came into close contact and conflict with that phase of Greek culture 
and civilization which is called Hellenism, and it might be expected 
that the mental life of the prominent nations of that period, which, 
moreover, was characterized by its cosmopolitanism and syncretism, 
will be found in some way reflected and mirrored in the Talmud. 

Limiting ourselves to the representation of the religious ceremonies 
of the nations that came under the observation of the authors of the 
Talmud, we give in the following pages a specimen of the material 
which the Talmud contains for a study of the religious practices of the 
ancient world, as found in the tract Aboda Zarah. 

This section of^ the Talmud, as its name indicates, cultiia alienua sive 
extraneuSf which in the talmudical and rabbinical usage of language 
means 'idolatry,* contains the laws relating to idolatry and the 
enticers or seducers to it, and treats in eight chapters of : 1. The 



CcuanoioicZy Religious Ceremonies in the Talmud, Ixxvii 

festivals of idolaters ; 2. The social and commercial intercourse with 
them ; 8. Images and other objects of pagan worship ; 4. Matters 
pertaining to idolatry. 

The treatise is written with the object of protecting and guarding 
Judaism against the encroachments of Paganism. 

We arrange the statements of the Talmud, adding the parallels from 
the classical writers where there are such, under the following head- 
ings : 1. Seasons ; 2. Places : 8. Objects ; 4. Offerings and mode of 
worship ; 5, Witchcraft. 

1. Seasons of Worship, 

** It is forbidden to enter into any transactions with idolaters three 
days before their festivals. . . . And these are the festivals of the 
idolaters : the Calendaey Saturnalia, Cratesim, the day of the Oenesia 
of the kings, the days of birth and death. These are the words of 
Rabbi Melr.* The (other) wise men say : the death at which a (public) 
cremation takes place is connected with idolatry, otherwise not ; while 
in case of shaving the beard and front-lock, of returning from a sea- 
voyage, of release from prison, or of giving a festival to a son, it 
is forbidden to have converse with this single man and on this single 
day only." (i. 1. la ; 8. 8a.) 

" Rab Chaninf says the Calendae takes place eight days after the 
solstice (of Tebeth= December), the Saturnalia eight days before the 
same solstice." (i. 1. 6a.) 

Calendae means properly the day of summoning, from calare * sum- 
mon.* Macrobius^ and Varro§ mention that it was the duty of one of 
the pontifices to watch for the first appearance of the new moon, and, 
as soon as he descried it, to carry word to the rex sacrorum, who then 
summoned the people and offered a sacri6ce. The Calendae, i. e. the 
first day of each month, were consecrated to Juno. Also to the 
Lares gifts were offered on the Calendae. | The Calendae of January, 
which are alluded to in our passage, were celebrated with special 
solemnity, and were called the Calendae jpar excellence,^ 

The Saturnalia were celebrated in December, at first only for one 
day, on the nineteenth,** later for several days, beginning on the 
seventeenth, tt in honor of Saturnus (Cronos), with sacrifices in open 
air, and were accompanied by great merriment, tt 

The meaning of the word genesia (yeveaia) is discussed 10a, and de- 
cided to mean the assuming of the reign by the king, while that of 
eratesim (icpar^eig) is said to be the obtaining of the supremacy of 
Rome, 86. The Latin equivalent of yevetria, natalis, was also employed 
in a wider sense. Thus Spartianus, Vita Adriani 4, says: **quando 



* Lived in the second century A. D. ^ Grunl>aum in ZDMG. xxxi. 277. 

t Lived 299-352 A. D., in Machuza. ** Livy ii. 21. 2. 

X Saturn i. 15. ft Dio Cass. 59. 6; Macrob., 1. c, i. 

%Dere rustica i. 37. 10; Suet. Caligula 17. 

I Preller, Romische Mythologie, p. 490. %% Macrob., 1. c, i. 7, 8, 10, etc. 



Ixxviii American Oriental Society'*8 IS'oceedingSy March 189j^, 

et natalem adoptionis celebrari jussit. Tertio Iduum earundem quando 
et natalem imperii instituit celebrandum ; ^ to which Casaubon re- 
marks: ''Antiqui vocanint natales omnes dies propter aliquam 
IsBtitiam insignem sibi solemnes ; inde in historiis principis ejusdem 
tot natales." The Jerusalem Talmud, i. 89c, takes yevetrlc in the mean* 
ing of birthday, and Kpar^eig of the installation of the king in his 
office. 

That these days of the Roman emperors were religiously celebrated 
is attested by Roman writers.* So were also offerings made to the 
Larea on the birthday, at the entering of a son on the age of maturity,, 
on the happy return from a voyage, etc., of private persons. f 

Funerals, with the Greeks as well as with the Romans, were ac- 
companied by a sacrifice and a funeral repast, especially on the ninth 
day after burial. t 

"These (viz. those named above) are the festivals of the Romans. 
Which are those of the Persians? The Motredi, Turiski, Mohameki. 
and Moharin. These are of the Romans and Persians ; and which are 
of the Babylonians ? The Moharneki, the Arquenithi, and the tenth 
of Adar (March- April)." (116.) 

2. Places of Worship, 

Rab§ said there were five principal (established) places of idolatry : 
the house of Bel in Babylon, the house of Nebo in Cursi, Tar'atha in 
Maphog, Qarepa in Askalon, Nishra (eagle) in Arabia." (116.) 

The temple of Bel, i. e. of Bel-Merodach, in the city of Babylon, of 
which he was the tutelar deity, was quite celebrated in antiquity. 
The principal seat of worship of Nebo was, according to the cuneiform 
inscriptions, Borsippa, the sister-city of Babylon. Under Qarepa of 
Askalon probably Serapis is to be understood.) According to Hai 
Gaon,1[ there was in a mosque of Arabia a stone with an eagle engraved 
on it, to which religious homage was paid,** and it is very likely that 
in pre-Islamic times such an object existed as the Ka'aba in Mecca. 

'* It is allowed to assist in the building of platforms and bath-houses ; 
but when the cupola is reached where idols are placed, it is forbidden." 
(16a.) 

*' Proclus the philosopher asked of Rabban Gamaliel, ff while he was 
in the bath of Aphrodite at Acco (Ptolemais), why he was bathing in a 
bath where an idol is set up ? Gamaliel answered : She (i. e Aphro- 
dite) came into our (territory), not we into hers ; the bath was not 



* Suoton. Vespasian 6 ; Tiberius 53 ; Tacit. Histor. ii. 79 ; Pliny, Panegyricus 5.^ 
t Preller, 1. c, p. 491. 

i Juvenal v. 84; Augustine, Confessions vi. 2. 2. 
§ Principal of the Academy of Sora, died A. D. 247. 
I Levy, Worterbuch iv. 222. 
^ Lived 969-1038 in Pumbeditha. 
** Levy, ib. iii. 455. 

f f Gamaliel II., President of tlie Academy and Synhedrion of Jabne (Jamnia) at 
the end of the first and beginning of the second century A. D. 



Ccuanowicz, BeligiotM Ceremonies in the Talmud. Ixxix 

made for Aphrodite, but Aphrodite for the bath (i. e. to decorate it).'^ 
(iii 5. 44b.) 

Baths equipped with halls, libraries, etc., and decorated with statues, 
are often spoken of in the ancient authors.* 

In another passage (iv. 6. 536) ** platforms (3^fM) of kings'* are men- 
tioned, which Bashi explains to have been stone structures erected on 
the road where the kiDg had to pass. On these were placed idols, that 
the king may worship them in passing. 

" Rabbi Meir says it is forbidden to visit the theaters and circuses, 
because they deliberate there on the affairs of idolatry." (18&.) 

8. Objects of worship, 

*' Rabbi Ishmaelf says: three stones, arranged one at the side of 
the other, make out a Mercury, and are forbidden to make use of ; but 
two are allowed." (iv. 1. 49b,) Another authority defines a Mercury 
thus: '* two stones on each side and a third one placed upon them." 
(50a.) It was the old primitive form of worship, and represented not 
the Roman Mercury, but the Greek Hermes, with whom, however, 
Mercury was in later time identified. Hermes was originally con- 
sidered a deity of crops, flocks, and roads, and particularly as Hermes 
iv66toct i. e. the omnipresent protector of roads ; pillars of stone were 
raised in his honor at cross-roads, to which every passer-by used to 
add a stone. As early as Homer these ipfieta or epfteloi X6<pot were 
known, t But it is a well-known fact that the crude primitive 
representations of the deities, like the Xoanes etc. , were through the 
whole i)eriod of classical antiquity most devoutly reverenced in Greece 
and Italy, and survived down to the centuries of the Christian era. 
The Hermse, in particular, not only were seen by Strabo in Egyptg 
and Pausanias in Greece, | but have also been found by recent trav- 
elers in Greece and other countries. U It is therefore probable that 
the Greek settlers also introduced them into Palestine and Sjrria. 

" Rabbi Judah** adds (to that which is to be considered as an idol 
and therefore forbidden to make use of) the representation of a 
suckling woman and Serapis . . . , but this only when he has a 
modius and she a sucking child." (43a.) 

Serapis or Sarapis, Egyptian Asarhapi=Osiris-Apis, was the Egyptian 
Osiris in the character of a god of the lower world, his corresx)onding 
incarnation as a god of the upper world being the bull Apis. Under 
the Ptolemies, Osiris and his sister-wife Isis were amalgamated with 
Greek divinities. As Serapis he included the Egyptian Osiris, Pluto, 



* Cf. especially Vitruvius v. 10 fif. ; Seneca Ep. ii. 2. 

f Died as martyr under Hadrian about 134 A. D. 

X Cf. Odys. xvi. 471. 

§Cf. xvii. 818. 

I Cf. iv. 33. 3. 

^ Cf. Boss, Reisen diureh Griechenlandf L 18, 174. 

*♦ Disdple of Akiba, 100-160 A. D. (?) 



Ixxx American Oriental Society*8 ProceedingSy March 1894. 

i^culapius, and Zeus. His temple at Alexandria, the Serapeion, was 
one of the most famous buildings in antiquity. This new worship 
rapidly spread from Egypt to Greece.* In Rome the Egyptian cults 
make their appearance in the second century B. C, and in 48 B. C. a 
temple was erected in honor of Serapis and Isis by the Triumviis. 
Their worship, favored by the emperors, spread especially in the Roman 
proviDces. The worship of Serapis in Palestine is, moreover, attested 
by coins of Caasarea, Ptolemais (Acco), Neapolis (Shechem), and .£lia 
Capitolina (Jerusalem).! Serapis as Zeus-Serapis was represented — 
as may be seen from the surviving colossal bust in the Vatican— with 
a modius, or corn-measure, upon his head. The suckling woman with 
infant may have been a representation of Isis, who was often conceived 
as having her son Horus on her lap ; or of Juno, who, as goddess of 
childbirth (Juno Lucina), was represented on her festival, the Matro- 
nalia, with an infant in swaddling clothes ; or also of Aphrodite- 
Ashtarte. 

" Rabbi Meir says : all kinds of images are forbidden, because they 
are worshiped once a year ; but the wise men say it is not forbidden 
unless the hand holds a staff, or a bird, or a globe — which shows, 
as Rashi explains, that great importance was attributed to the image.** 
(iii. 1. 406.) 

There are still extant numerous statues with the objects named 
above attached to them, as for instance a scepter or staff to those of 
Zeus, Hera (Juno), Hermes (Mercury), .^Isculapius ; and a bird to those 
of Apollo and Aphrodite (Venus). 

" Fragments of images are allowed, but the representation of a hand 
or foot is forbidden, for these things are worshiped." (iii. 2. 41a.) 

** When one finds vessels with a representation of the sun, the moon, 
a serpent (dragon), upon them, he shall carry them to the Dead Sea 
(i.e. destroy them)." Another authority says: ** All representations 
are allowed except that of a serpent.*' (iii. 3. 42a.) 

The representation of divinities and mythological scenes on vases, 
lekyths, etc., is still extant in numerous specimens. That these vessels 
were objects of religious homage is not known from any other source. 
The serpent particularly was the attribute of many divinities. It was 
also the symbol of .^Isculapius, who was brought from Epidaurus to 
Rome in the shape of a snake when his worship was introduced into 
that city 298 B. C. It was also the popular representation of the Oenii,\ 

''Idolaters who worship mountaiDS and hills— they themselves (i.e. 
the mountains and hills) are allowed, but what is upon them (trees) is 
forbidden *' (iiL 6. 45a.) 

Sacred groves and trees are often mentioned in the classical writers. § 

* Prellerin Berichte der sdchsischen GtseUschaft der Wissenscha/len, 1854, p. 195 ff. 
t Schiiror, GtS'hichte des judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, L 646, 
586; ii. 15 ff. 
X Preller, Romiache Mythologies pp. 76, 566; Vergil, ^Ji. v. 95. 

§ Cf. e. g. Vergil, Gtorg. iiL 332 ; JSVi. L 1 65 ff ; see also Preller, I. c, p. 297. 



OasanowicZy Religious Ceremonies in the Talmud. Ixxxi 

Particular trees were sacred to individual divinities : so, for instance, 
the oak to Zeus, the laurel to Apollo, the myrtle to Aphrodite. The 
worship on elevated places is also often referred to in the Old Testa- 
ment. 

** It is forbidden to put the mouth to the statues which pour out 
water, in order to drink, because it might give the appearance of kissing 
the idol." (12a.) 

'*With regard to the statues of kings the opinions are divided. 
According to Rabbah,* all agree that those of cities are allowed to be 
made use of, because they are made for the sake of ornament [not with 
a view to religious worship]." (41a.) 

It is well known that since Augustus the provinces especially were 
zealous in the cult of the emperors. It was with them an expression 
of loyalty to Rome. Caligula demanded divine worship even from the 
Jews, and only bis timely death prevented the temple at Jerusalem 
from being defiled by his statue. 

4. Offerings and Mode of Worship. 

" It is forbidden to sell to idolaters pineapples, cembrenuts, figs, 
frankincense, and the white cock. Rabbi Judah says it is allowed to 
sell a white cock among other cocks, and in the case of a single 
white cock it may be sold when one of its toes is cut off, for they do not 

offer a defective victim Rabbi Meir says it is also forbidden to 

sell to idolaters dates and palms." (i. 5. 186.) 

The cock was offered to .^^culapius, the god of healing. The specifi- 
cation of a white cock is found only here. 

'* When one finds upon the head of (a statue or pillar of) Mercury 
money, garlands, or vessels, they are allowed for use ; but vines, gar- 
lands of ears, wine, oil, flour, and similar things that are offered upon 
the altar are forbidden." (iv. 2. 51&.) 

** The following objects of non-Israelites are forbidden for any use 
whatever : wine, vinegar that was originally wine, and skins with a 
hole in the region of the heart. Rabban Simeon ben Gamaliell says 
that if the opening (of the skin) is round it is forbidden, if oblong it is 
allowed." (ii. 3. 21M?.) 

The use of wine for libations is well known. The opening of the 
skins in the region of the heart may refer to the inspection of the 
entrails of the victims by the haruspices. 

'* It is forbidden to make ornaments for idols, as chains, earrings, 
and rings." (196.) 

" A city where there is an idol and where there are booths with gar- 
lands and without garlands— the former are forbidden (to enter and 
make purchases in), the latter are allowed." (i. 4. 125.) 

The distinction is made because the booths decorated with garlands 
were used in the interest of the cult. 



* Died 300 A. D., as principal of the Academy of Pumbeditha. 

f President of the Synhedrion at the time of the Judeeo-Roman war. 

VOL. XVI. J 



Ixxxii American Oriental Society'* 8 Proceedings, March 189 J!^ 

'* Rabbi Nathan* says that on the day when taxes are remitted they 
use to proclaim and make known : ' whosoever shall put a wreath upon 
his head and that of his animal in honor of the idol, to him the taxes 
will be remitted." (18o.) 

** Rab Judah said that Rab was teaching concerning an idol that 
was worshiped with a stick (Rashi : a stick was swung in front of it) ; 
that if one broke a stick in front of it he was guilty (of an act of idola- 
try), but if he merely threw it he was free." (506.) 

5. Witchcraft and Superstition. 

'* Said Rabba bar Rab Isaac to Rab Judah : * there is an idolatrous 
house in our place, where, when the world is in need of rain, a dream 
says to them : slaughter a man for me and rain will come. And they 
slaughter a man and rain comes.* " (55a.) 

''Said2k)nan to Rabbi Akiba:f * both of us know that there is no 
reality in idolatry, and yet we see people going to the temples broken 
down (as cripples) and returning restored.'" (55a.) The answer of 
Akiba is to the effect that God does not overrule the preordained desti- 
nies of men on account of their foolishness. 

** When one goes to the stadia and circuses and sees there the snakes, 
the conjurors, the flute-players, the clowns (?), the muledrivers (?), the 
ventriloquists (?), the hierodules (0^ and the sigillaria (?), so is this sitting 
in the seat of the scornful (Psalm i. 1)." (186.) 



These are the references to the religious beliefs and practices of the 
nations who came under the observation of the Jews about the time of 
the beginning of the Christian era, derived from a single treatise of the 
Talmud. Many of the customs recorded are also found in the Greek 
and Roman writers ; some are met with only in this treatise. Alto- 
gether, it would seem that the Talmud is not entirely to be disdained as 
a source of instruction respecting the civilization and religions of the 
ancient world. 



5. On a recent attempt, by Jacobi and Tilak, to determine on 
astronomical evidence the date of the earliest Vedic period as 
4000 B. C. ; by Professor W. D. Whitney, of Yale University, 
New Haven. 

At a meeting of the Society in this city nearly nine years ago (Oct. 
'85), I criticised and condemned Ludwig's attempt to fix the date of 
the Rig- Veda by alleged eclipses. The distinguished French Indianist, 
Bergaigne, passed the same judgment upon it at nearly the same timtf, 
(Joum. Asiat, '86). Although the two criticisms provoked from Lad- 
wig a violent and most uncourteous retort (see his Rig- Veda, voL vi.. 



* Lived about UO-200 A. D. 

f Died as a martyr under Hadrian. 



Whitney y Jacohi on the Age of the Veda, Ixxxiii 

p. x),* his argument appears to have fallen into the oblivion which alone 
it merited. 

Within the past year, a similar attempt has been made, independently 
of one another, by two scholars, one German (Prof. Jacobi, of Bonn, in 
the Fe8tgru8B an Roth, 1893, pp. 68-74) and one Hindu (Bal Gangadhar 
Tilak, The Orion, or researches into the antiquity of the Vedas, Bom- 
bay, 1893, pp. ix, 229, 16mo.), working along the same general line, and 
coming to an accordant conclusion : namely, that the oldest period 
called Vedic goes back to or into the fifth millennium before Christ — an 
antiquity as rem'ote as that long recognized for Egyptian civilization, 
and recently claimed, on good grounds, for that of Mesopotamia also. 
This is a startling novelty ; as such, however, we have no right to re- 
ject it offhand ; but we are justified in demandiug pretty distinct and 
unequivocal evidence in its favor, before we yield it our credence. 

The general argument may be very briefly stated thus : The Hindus (as 
also the Chinese, the Persians, and the Arabs) had a lunar zodiac of 27 
(or 28) asterisms, rudely marking the successive days of the moon's cir- 
cuit of the heavens. Since the establishment of the Hindu science of 
astronomy, under Greek influence and instruction, in the first centuries 
of our era, the series of asterisms has been made to begin with Agvini (in 
the head of Aries), for the acknowledged reason that that group was 
nearest the vernal equinox at the time. But earlier, in the Brahma^as 
etc., the series always began with Kfttika (Pleiades), presumably 
because, owing to the precession, that group had been nearest to the 
equinox : and this was the case some two thousand and more years 
before Christ. Some two thousand and more years yet earlier, the 
equinox was near to Mfga^iras, or the head of Orion ; if, therefore, it 
can be made to appear that the Hindus once began their asterismal 
system with Mfgagiras, and because of the latter's coincidence with the 
equinox, we shall conclude that they must have done so more than four 
thousand years before Christ. But the same sum can be worked in 
terms of months. The Hindu months are lunar, and are named sidere- 
ally, each from the asterism in or adjacent to which the moon is full in 
the given month ; but the seasons follow the equinoxes and solstices ; 
hence the rainy season, for example, began about a month earlier when 
Agvini (Aries) was at the equinox than when Kpttika (Pleiades) was 
there, and about two months earlier than when Mj-gagiras (Orion) was 
there ; and if it can be shown that the year always commenced with a 
fixed season, and has twice changed its initial month, Mfga^iras (Orion) 

* His language is as follows: " Anything more completely the opposite ( Wider- 
spil) of criticism than the judgment which our, in all points well-considered, dia- 
cuaeion of the subject has met with at the hands of Whitney and Bergaigne is 
not to be conceived. It [the discussion] is refuted in no single point; the judges 
do not stand ui)on the ground of criticism, but upon that of personal and wholly 
anjustifled opposition." Perhaps nothing different ttom tliis was to be expected 
from one who could propose such a theory: finding nothing to say in its defense 
he was obliged to abuse his critics and impute to them personal motives. 



Ixxxiv American Oriental Society^ s Proceedings^ March lS9Jj^ 

will thus also be proved to have been at the equinox at a recorded or 
remembered period in Hindu history. And this, in one of the two 
alternative methods, or in both combined, is what our two authors 
attempt to demonstrate. 

Professor Jacobi sets out by finding in the Rig- Veda the beginning 
of the year to be determined by that of the rainy season. And first 
he quotes a verse from the humorous hymn to the frogs, RV. vii. 
103. 9, usually rendered thus : ** they keep the divine ordering of 
the twelve-fold one (i. e. of the year) ; those fellows do not in- 
fringe the season, when in the year the early rain has come ** : 
that is to say, the wise frogs, after reposing through the long dry 
season, begin their activity again as regularly as the rains come. 
Jacobi objects that dvddagd, rendered ** twelve-fold," means strictly 
''twelfth," and ought to be taken here in this its more natural sense ; 
and he translates : '* they keep the divine ordinance : those fellows do 
not infringe the season of the twelfth [month] ; " inferring that then 
the downright rains mark the first month of the new year. But 
dvddagd does not in fact mean ''twelfth" any more naturally than 
" twelve-fold ; " its ordinal value, though commoner, especially in later 
time, is not one whit more original and proper than the other, or than 
yet others ; and the proposed change, partly as agreeing less with the 
metrical division of the verse, is, in my opinion, no improvement, but 
rather the contrary ; and no conclusion as to the beginning of the year 
can be drawn from it with any fair degree of confidence. This first 
datum, then, is too indefinite and doubtful to be worth anything. 

Next our attention is directed to a verse (13) in the doubtless very 
late aiiryd'hjmji in the tenth book (x. 86), where, for the sole and only 
time in the Rig- Veda, mention appears to be made of two out of the 
series of asterisms, the Atharva-Veda being brought in to help estab- 
lish the fact. The subject is the wedding of the sun-bride, and the 
verse reads thus: "The bridal-car {vahatu) of Surya hath gone forth, 
which Savitar sent ott ; in the Magha^s (RV. Agha's) are slain the kine 
(i. e., apparently, for the wedding-feast); in the Phalgunfs (RV. Arjunfs) 
is the carrying-off (RV. carrying-about : vivdha * carrying-off * is the 
regular name for wedding)." The Magha's and the Phalgunl's are suc- 
cessive asterisms, in Leo, Magha being the Sickle, with a Leonis, Reg- 
ulus, as principal star ; and the Phalgunfs (reckoned as two aste